Among the naturally occurring oxygen heterocycles, Flavones (2-pheny-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones) are important and abundant group of Falvonoids. These are substances endowed with a wide number of pharmacological activities.Preliminary studies of natural flavones have shown that 4 – hydroxyl groups are important for potent antiviral activity. These compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like antiviral antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory and retardness of lipoxygenase depending upon their pattern of oxygenation. Several flavones are known to be agents of oxygenation. Several flavones are known to be agents that reduce the induction of cancer in animals by functioning as MFO (mixed function oxygenase) systems. Keeping this in view a series of heterocyclic Flavones have been synthesized with biologically active Chalcones. These chalcones were prepared by the condensation of substituted 2'-Hydroxyacetophenones and Pyridine / Pyrrole 2-carboxaldehyde, further the solution of chalcones in DMSO and few crystals of iodine was irradiated in a microwave oven for few minutes produces Flavones.It is an easy way to get high yield of product without intermediacy of O-aroylated intermediates. The structure of the synthesized compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and a microbial study. The compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacteria like E coli, S. typhi, S. aureus, B. subtilis at various concentrations such as 20, 50 and 100 μg /ml, Similarly the same compounds were screened for the antifungal activity against different organisms like P. chrysogenum, A. niger, F. moniliformae, and C. albicans. All compounds show potent biological activity.
Dr. Seema Habib undertook her Ph.D. at the Swami RamanandTeerth Marathwada University India, and is currently a Fellow of the International Association of the Science Impact. She has Published more than 43 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member on both National and International Journals. Her Primary area of research interest lies in organic synthesis and its application to inorganic synthesis
We have recently focused on the computational modeling of heterogeneous catalysts including modified poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) palladium and copper nanocatalyst, copper(I) and (II)-aminated KIT-5 and N-sulfamic-aminated KIT-5 catalysts and copper(I) functionalized Halloysite nanotube (HNT). Armed with these experiences, we assessed quantitativly the description of immobilization behavior of Ag NPs on HNT support functionalized by 1H-1,2,3-triazole-5-methanol via quantum computational approaches. In this route, we first modeled an effective structure for functionalized HNT ligand as 1:1 layered aluminosilicates and its complex with silver atom with two coordination modes. The solvent effects have been examined from the electronic viewpoint on the basis of a continuum representation of solvent surrounding the substances via polarized continuum model (PCM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods at . The computations have been performed at M06-2X/6-311G** level of theory using GAMESS suite of programs. In the case of silver atom, LANL2TZ effective core potentials (ECPs) were used together with the accompanying basis sets to describe the valence electron density. The calculated values of bond order of C-OH and C-N1 decrease from 1.08 and 1.33 in HNT ligand to 0.83 and 0.98 in Ag@HNTs-T complex indicating the coordination of 1H-1,2,3-triazole-5-methanol species to the metal. This behavior is further supported with our FT-IR spectroscopic observations. The frontier molecular orbital (FMO) theory calculations on Ag@HNTs-T complex reveal that silver atom primarily coordinates to nitrogen and oxygen of ligand through interactions between filled non-bonding orbitals(HOMO) on N and O atoms and an empty dσ orbital (LUMO) on metal atom. Moreover, PCM calculated Ag-N and Ag-O bond order values in Ag@HNTs complex have larger calculated values in water solution compared with those obtained in toluene. It should be mentioned that the effective immobilization and smaller size of silver NPs on functionalized HNTs have been experimentally elucidated in water solution in comparison with toluene.
Tayebeh Hosseinnejad was born in 1979 in Tehran, Iran. She received his B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from University of Tehran in 2001, 2003 and 2007, respectively. She completed his doctoral thesis under supervision of Prof. Hassan Behnejad. She joined as an assistant professor to Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran. Her research interests focus on computational organic and organometallic chemistry and computational thermodynamics. She has published more than 28 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as the guest editor of Current Organic Chemistry
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem and it continues to be the most important infectious disease threatening the human population. In the diagnosis of TB, culture still remains the gold standard for isolation of mycobacteria after effective decontamination. The aim of the work is to determine the culture yield, recovery rate and contamination rate in term of mycobacterial growth between 0.7% chlorhexidine and NaOH-NALC decontamination method. Materials and Method The study was carried out on a total of 68 sputa samples, (42 smear positives and 26 smear negatives) in which 46 samples were collected from male and 26 from female with an approximate average age of 27 years. All the sputum samples were decontaminated using the standard NaOH-NALC and 0.7% chlorhexidine method. The concentrates were cultured in parallel onto LJ media in which reading of the slope for mycobacterial growth was done daily for the first two week and weekly till the eight week. The mycobacterial recovery rate, time to detection and contamination rate were compared. Results The overall recovery rate of mycobacterial growth on samples treated with both decontamination methods inoculated onto LJ media is 51.5% (35/68). Mycobacterial growth on 0.7% chlorhexidine and standard NaOH-NALC decontamination method on LJ media is 61.8% (42/68) and 54.4% (37/68) respectively. However, the growth of M. tuberculosis complex was faster on samples treated with 0.7% chlorhexidine than NaOH-NALC method (average 32±5 days, 33± 5.2 days respectively). The contamination rate on 0.7% chlorhexidine decontamination method was 1.5% (1/68) and NaOH-NALC method was 4.4% (3/68) Conclusion 0.7% chlorhexidine decontamination method is rapid, and has less contamination rate in term of mycobacterial recovery compared to the standard NaOH-NALC method. Therefore the 0.7% chlorhexidine decontamination method would be an ideal replaceable decontamination method in the recovery of mycobactrium tuberculosis in resource poor countries. Keywords: Mycobacterial growth, Decontamination, Chlorhexidine, Sodium Hydroxide N-acetyl-Cystein, Standard, Lowenstein-Jensen
Au(III) ions were selectively extracted from aqueous media using Au(III) ion-imprinted bio-adsorbent based on modified chitosan (Au-CMB). First, 2-mercaptobenzaldehyde-chitosan Schiff base was prepared and interacted with Au(III) ions. The obtained polymeric Au(III) complex was then cross-linked by epichlorohydrin (ECH) before leaching the template Au(III) ions out of the cross-linked matrix. During the synthetic procedures, the obtained chitosan derivatives were characterized by Elemental analysis, FTIR and NMR spectra. Moreover, the crystalline structures along with surface morphology of the fabricated polymeric materials were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The Au(III) ions uptake studies indicated that the adsorption process was greatly influenced by pH and followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic mechanism. Furthermore, the adsorption was endothermic and the isotherms showed the best fit with Langmuir model with qm 370±0.5 and 195±0.5 mg g-1 in case of Au-CMB and NI-CMB, respectively.
Background and objective: Determine the ESR1 gene polymorphism in postmenopausal women. Methods: The study included 137 women from Kharkiv region of Ukraine including 30 patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) (1st group), 34- arterial hypertension (AH) of 2-3 degrees (2nd group), 42-T2DM and AH of 2-3 degrees (3rd group ) and 31 healthy donors (4th group). Serum levels of estradiol were evaluated by ELISA. Investigations of estrogen receptor gene alpha (ESR1) were performed using restriction analysis of the amplification products of specific regions of the genome, i.e., promoter region T397C. Results: In the 1st group the levels of estradiol were (52.34±1.15)pg/L, 2nd-(41.36±1.16)pg/L, 3rd-(31.82±1.69) pg/L and healthy donors - (55.30±1.51)pg/L. Differences between the 1st and 2rd, 2nd and 3rd, 1st and 3rd, patients (only the 2nd and 3rd groups) and healthy donors were significant (p<0.05). Homozygote TT genotype of the ESR1 gene predominated in healthy donors was 70.97±8.15%(n=22) compared to patients: 1st group-10.00±5.48%(n=3), 2nd-8.82±4.86%(n=3) and 3rd-11.90±5.00(n=5). Heterozygous TC genotype of the ESR1 gene was observed in 56.67±9.05%(n=17) in 1st, 67.65±8.02%(n=23) in 2nd, 61.90±7.49%(n=26) in the 3rd and 12.90±6.02%(n=4) in healthy donors. Homozygous CC genotype of the ESR1 gene was 33.33±8.61%(n=10) in the 1st group, in 2nd-23.53±7.27%(n=8), 3rd-26.19±6.78%(n=11) and healthy donors -16.13±6.61%(n=5). Differences heterozygous TC genotype of the ESR1 gene in 2nd and 3rd groups were significant (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Compared to healthy controls patients with 2nd and 3rd had significantly lower levels of serum estradiol. This coincided with greater frequency of heterozygous TC polymorphism T397C of the ESR1 gene.
Tetiana Butova MD, specialist in Internal Medicine. Assistant professor of the Department of of Internal Medicine, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine. She has published more than 27 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.