Scientific Program

Keynote Talks

Abstract

The Hanbury-Brown Twiss (HBT) experiment has been conceived by Robert Hanbury Brown and Robert Quentin Twiss in various versions, beginning in 1954 with the radio-astro-nomical version via the optical one applied to Sirius in 1956 leading finally to the terrestrial one. The Hanbury-Brown & Twiss experiment has been originally motivated by the request for deter-mining the angular diameter of stars with unprecedented stability by measuring intensity correla-tions instead of field correlations. We review this experiment with its tremendous outreach into nowadays quantum optics research, an experiment having been fundamental in the spirit of quan-tum optics at a time even before the 1st laser existed. Within the framework of the terrestrial version in 1956 from nowadays 61 years ago, the discovery of photon bunching, the quantum nature of light emitted by a thermal source has founded modern quantum optics (see e.g. R. Glauber’s nobel lecture, even when originally accompanied by a vivid and at the beginning con-verse discussion. In the spirit of the HBT experiment, we show comprehensive investigations of the second or-der coherence properties of broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light generated by semiconductor-based opto-electronic quantum dot SLDs and demonstrate that they exhibit per-fect photon bunching with a normalized 2nd order correlation coefficient of two, thus with a Bose-Einstein photon statistics of a thermal source. Then, we demonstrate the first GI experiment with intrinsically fully incoherent light by means of a BA-SLD, the world’s most compact, ultra-miniaturized light source for GI, based on Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) and discuss finally its ideas, functionalities and appli-cations. GI exploits intensity correlations of light to retrieve an image of an object. Ghost Imag-ing (GI) or photon-correlation imaging is one of the recent topics of quantum optics. GI exploits photon correlation for imaging. After the first demonstration in 1995 with entangled photon also classical GI has been demonstrated with light emitted by rather complex, bulky thermal light sources.

Biography

Professor Wolfgang E. Elsäßer is the Semiconductor Optics Group Leader in the Institute of Applied Physics at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt. He has a national and international reputation with the General Research Motto of Photonics and Quantum Optics of Semiconduc-tor Emitters. He is author of more than 170 peer-reviewed publications, numerous invited talks at conferences, and 3 book chapters; Awards as, e.g. Otto-Hahn-Medal of the Max-Planck-Society, Werner-von-Siemens-Medal of the Werner-von-Siemens-Ring Foundation and the Rudolf-Kai¬ser Award; Numerous Program Committee Memberships of Scientific Conferences; Numerous Sabbaticals and National Representative of several European COST Actions.

Speaker
Wolfgang E. Elsäßer / Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Germany

Abstract

The recently suggested probabilistic design for reliability (PDfR) concept in electronics and photonics (EP) is based on 1) highly focused and highly cost-effective failure oriented accelerated testing (FOAT), aimed at understanding the physics of the anticipated failures and at quantifying, on the probabilistic basis, the outcome of FOAT conducted for the most vulnerable element(s) of the product of interest for its most likely applications and the most meaningful combination of possible stressors (stimuli); 2) simple and physically meaningful predictive modeling (PM), both analytical and computer-aided, aimed at bridging the gap between the FOAT data and the most likely operation conditions; and 3) subsequent FOAT-and-PM-based sensitivity analyses (SA) using the methodologies and algorithms developed as by-products at the two previous steps. In this presentation the PDfR concept is applied to the field of Aerospace Optics and with an emphasis on fiber optics. The concept proceeds from the recognition that nothing is perfect and that the difference between a highly reliable and an insufficiently reliable product is “merely” in the level of the never zero probability of its failure. If this probability, evaluated for the anticipated loading conditions and the given time in operation, is not acceptable, SA can be effectively employed to determine what could possibly be changed to improve the situation. The PDfR analysis enables one also to check if the product of interest is not over-engineered, i.e., is not superfluously robust. If it is, it is likely that it is too costly. As to the operational (field) reliability, it cannot be low, but does not have to be higher than necessary either: it has to be adequate for the given product and application. When reliability and cost-effectiveness are imperative, ability to optimize reliability is a must. No optimization is possible, of course, if reliability is not quantified. It is shown that the optimization of the total cost associated with creating a product with an adequate (high enough) reliability and acceptable (low enough) cost can be interpreted in terms of the adequate level of its availability. It is shown also how the recently suggested powerful and flexible Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) PDfR model and particularly its multi-parametric version could be employed to predict, quantify and assure an adequate operational reliability of the photonic product of interest. The model can be effectively used to analyze and design a photonic product with the predicted, quantified, assured, and, if appropriate and cost-effective, even maintained and specified probability of its acceptable and sufficiently low operational failure. The major PDfR concepts are illustrated by practical examples. The evaluation, using BAZ model, of the lifetime (delayed fracture) of a coated optical silica fiber intended for high-temperature operations is addressed in detail. It is concluded that the suggested concepts and practical methodologies can be accepted as trustworthy and cost-effective means for the evaluation of the operational reliability of optical materials and products for various applications, and that the next generation of qualification test specifications and best practices for such products could be conducted as a “quasi-FOAT” that adequately replicates the initial, non-destructive, segment of the previously conducted comprehensive full-scale FOAT.

Biography

The recently suggested probabilistic design for reliability (PDfR) concept in electronics and photonics (EP) is based on 1) highly focused and highly cost-effective failure oriented accelerated testing (FOAT), aimed at understanding the physics of the anticipated failures and at quantifying, on the probabilistic basis, the outcome of FOAT conducted for the most vulnerable element(s) of the product of interest for its most likely applications and the most meaningful combination of possible stressors (stimuli); 2) simple and physically meaningful predictive modeling (PM), both analytical and computer-aided, aimed at bridging the gap between the FOAT data and the most likely operation conditions; and 3) subsequent FOAT-and-PM-based sensitivity analyses (SA) using the methodologies and algorithms developed as by-products at the two previous steps. In this presentation the PDfR concept is applied to the field of Aerospace Optics and with an emphasis on fiber optics. The concept proceeds from the recognition that nothing is perfect and that the difference between a highly reliable and an insufficiently reliable product is “merely” in the level of the never zero probability of its failure. If this probability, evaluated for the anticipated loading conditions and the given time in operation, is not acceptable, SA can be effectively employed to determine what could possibly be changed to improve the situation. The PDfR analysis enables one also to check if the product of interest is not over-engineered, i.e., is not superfluously robust. If it is, it is likely that it is too costly. As to the operational (field) reliability, it cannot be low, but does not have to be higher than necessary either: it has to be adequate for the given product and application. When reliability and cost-effectiveness are imperative, ability to optimize reliability is a must. No optimization is possible, of course, if reliability is not quantified. It is shown that the optimization of the total cost associated with creating a product with an adequate (high enough) reliability and acceptable (low enough) cost can be interpreted in terms of the adequate level of its availability. It is shown also how the recently suggested powerful and flexible Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) PDfR model and particularly its multi-parametric version could be employed to predict, quantify and assure an adequate operational reliability of the photonic product of interest. The model can be effectively used to analyze and design a photonic product with the predicted, quantified, assured, and, if appropriate and cost-effective, even maintained and specified probability of its acceptable and sufficiently low operational failure. The major PDfR concepts are illustrated by practical examples. The evaluation, using BAZ model, of the lifetime (delayed fracture) of a coated optical silica fiber intended for high-temperature operations is addressed in detail. It is concluded that the suggested concepts and practical methodologies can be accepted as trustworthy and cost-effective means for the evaluation of the operational reliability of optical materials and products for various applications, and that the next generation of qualification test specifications and best practices for such products could be conducted as a “quasi-FOAT” that adequately replicates the initial, non-destructive, segment of the previously conducted comprehensive full-scale FOAT.

Speaker
E. Suhir / Portland State University, Portland

Abstract

Universal self-organization and self-ordering effects at surfaces of semiconductors lead to the formation of coherent zero-dimensional clusters, quantum dots (QDs). The electronic and optical properties of QDs, being smaller than the de-Broglie-wavelength in all three directions of space are close to those of atoms in a dielectric cage than of solids. Their delta-function-like energy eigenstates are only twofold (spin) degenerate [1]. All few particle excitonic states are strongly Coulomb correlated due to the strong carrier localisation. Their energies depend on shape and size of the dots, such that positive, zero or negative biexciton binding energies and fine-structure splitting (caused by exchange interaction) appear [2]. Consequently, single QDs present the most practical possible basis of emitters of single polarized photons (Q-bit emitters) on demand or entangled photons via the biexciton-exciton cascade for future quantum cryptography, repeaters and communication systems [3]. Embedding them in electrically pumped resonant cavity structures, they can emit single photons at rates beyond 1 Gbit/s. Using GaN-based structures room temperature operation is possible [4]. Multiple QD layers, as active materials for nano-optoelectronic devices like edge and surface emitting lasers, or semiconductor optical amplifiers, are extremely promising. Their properties, in particular their energy efficiency, are outperforming those of photonic devices based on higher dimensional systems. Semiconductor nanotechnologies transform presently to enabling technologies for new economies. The commercialization of nano-devices and systems has started. High bit rate and secure quantum cryptographic systems[4], nano-flash memories [5], ultra-high speed nano-photonic devices for metropolitan area networks, the 400 Gbit/s Ethernet,… present some of the first fields of applications of nano-devices [6]. [1] O. Stier, M.Grundmann and D. Bimberg: “Electronic and optical properties of strained quantum dots modelled by 8-band k.p theory”, Phys. Rev. B 59, 5688, 1999 [2] A. Schliwa, M. Winkelnkemper and D.Bimberg: “Few particle energies versus geometry and composition of InGaAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dots”, Phys. Rev. B 79, 75443, 2009 [3] A. Schliwa …D.Bimberg.: (InGa)As/GaAs quantum dots grown on a (111) surface as ideal sources of entangled photon pairs”, Phys. Rev. B 80, 601307(R), 2009 [4] W.Unrau and D.Bimberg: “Flying q-bits and entangled photons“in “Laser Photonics Review” 8, 276, Wiley 2014 [5] L.Bonato,…D.Bimberg, “Hole Localization Energy of 1.18 eV in GaSb quantum dots embedded in GaP”, phys. stat. sol (b) 10, 1877, 2016 [6] D.Bimberg and U.W.Pohl: “Quantum Dots: Promises and Accomplishments”, Materials Today 14, 388, 2011

Biography

Dieter H. Bimberg received the Diploma in physics and the Ph.D. degree from Goethe University, Frankfurt, in 1968 and 1971, respectively. From 1972 to 1979 he held a Principal Scientist position at the Max Planck-Institute for Solid State Research in Grenoble/France and Stuttgart. In 1979 he was appointed as Professor of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Aachen. Since 1981 he hold the Chair of Applied Solid State Physics at Technical University of Berlin. He was elected in 1990 as Executive Director of the Solid State Physics Institute at TU Berlin, a position he hold until 2011. In 2004 he founded the Center of Nanophotonics at TU Berlin, which he directed until 2015. From 2006 -2011 he was the chairman of the board of the German Federal Government Centers of Excellence in Nanotechnologies. His honors include the Russian State Prize in Science and Technology 2001, his election to the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina in 2004, to the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2011, to the American Academy of Engineering in 2014, to the American Academy of Inventors 2016, as Fellow of the American Physical Society and IEEE in 2004 and 2010, respectively, the Max-Born-Award and Medal 2006, awarded jointly by IoP and DPG, the William Streifer Award of the Photonics Society of IEEE in 2010, the UNESCO Nanoscience Award and Medal 2012 and the Heinrich-Welker-Award 2015. In 2015 he was bestowed the D.Sc.h.c. of the University of Lancaster, UK. Since 2017 he is Einstein Fellow at CIOMP of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has authored more than 1500 papers, 26 patents, and 7 books resulting in more than 51,000 citations worldwide and a Hirsch factor of 102 (@ google scholar). His research interests include the growth and physics of nanostructures and nanophotonic devices, ultrahigh speed and energy efficient photonic devices for information systems, single/entangled photon emitters for quantum cryptography and ultimate nanoflash memories based on quantum dots.

Speaker
Dieter Bimberg / Technical University Berlin, Germany and King-Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA

Abstract

The demand of sophisticated components is continuously increasing, driven by big data, IoT, and Industry 4.0. Reducing cost and time to market impacts all levels in a vast majority of products. 3D printing is typically restricted to additive fabrication within one material class, structures are limited in size, shape, surface finish, often requiring supporting structures. However, 3D printing is increasingly used in an industrial environment: it provides fast and low-cost prototyping. Many 3D printers are based on laser processing such as selective laser sintering or melting (SLS/SLM), or stereo lithography (SLA). These techniques have in common that they are restricted to a layer-by-layer fabrication of workpieces in additive working steps, thus resembling a more 2D bottom-up method. For high precision structures and high surface quality with an industrial scale throughput as required for photonics packaging and for optics for imaging, illumination, sensor, or medical purposes, respectively, their precision is by far not good enough. This prevents to use 3D printing for high quality photonic components. High precision 3D printing (HP3DP) is a powerful tool for rapid prototyping of miniaturized designs in automated, scalable processes, providing a real 3D technique suitable for the fabrication of optically high-quality surfaces with industrial scale throughput, highest resolution, and a unique degree of freedom of structure generation. Most of the legacy processes nowadays needed for complex structure fabrication can be simply avoided, enabling a significant reduction of resources, of production cost and time to market. The usefulness of HP3DP to be implemented in industrial work flows will be demonstrated by discussing different application scenarios, among which are the fabrication of optical interconnects to connect active and passive components, microoptical elements and arrays for rapid prototyping of novel designs up to the manufacturing level. Finally, the step from prototyping to volume production will be demonstrated, providing a sophisticated level of manufacturing.

Biography

Dr. Ruth Houbertz. Physicist, Multiphoton Optics GmbH founder, CEO & Managing Director since 2014, in 2013 CTO. From 2000-2012, she worked at Fraunhofer ISC in different technical and management positions. Worked at Sandia Nat.’l Labs in Livermore (USA). Solid background in materials development, processing, technologies, analyses, hardware, and software, products. Invented more than 100 patents, evaluator and referee for national and international ministries, journals, etc. Among the 10 best enterprises for the finals of the Industry Award of the Hannover Exhibition 2017, Finalist in the Prism Award 2015 and 2017, Cowin Award of Entrepreneurship 2014, Green Photonics Award 2013, Fraunhofer Award in 2007 among others. Active member in EPIC, OSA, IEEE, VDI, Bayern Photonics, SPIE Senior Member, Session Chair since more than one decade in Optical Interconnects and Emerging Technologies at Photonics West, participation in Industrial and Women in Optics Panels, Women in Optics Calendar, invited and contributed talks at international conferences, workshops, and exhibitions.

Speaker
Ruth Houbertz / Multiphoton Optics GmbH, Germany

Abstract

Squids exhibit a remarkable ability to rapidly change skin color for camouflage and communication. We recently discovered the mechanism by which the unique reflectin proteins act as a molecular machine, driving an osmotic motor that changes the refractive index, thickness and spacing of intracellular Bragg reflectors to dynamically tune the color and intensity of reflected light in squid skin: Reflectin proteins - major constituents of the membrane-bound Bragg lamellae – are block copolymers with repeated canonical domains interspersed with cationic linkers. Adaptive changes in reflectance from the Bragg lamellae are initiated by a neurotransmitter-activated signal transduction cascade that culminates in catalytic phosphorylation of the reflectins’ cationic linkers. The resulting charge-neutralization overcomes the linkers’ Coulombic repulsion, progressively driving condensation and secondary folding of the interspersed canonical repeat segments to form amphiphilic, bifacially phase-segregated structures, with the emergence of hydrophobic faces that act like molecular Velcro™ to mediate hierarchical molecular assembly. This assembly of the reflectins triggers a Gibbs-Donnan-mediated dehydration, shrinking the thickness and spacing of the Bragg lamellae while increasing their refractive index. This progressively changes the color of reflectance across the visible spectrum while increasing its intensity. The process is reversible, cyclable and finely tunable, allowing selective reflection of any color. This system is the first found to regulate a tunable biophotonic function without any chromophores - determining the formation of reconfigurable nanostructures that change their interaction with light. Translation of the underlying mechanism is opening new approaches to dynamically reconfigurable, synthetic nanostructured materials and tunable photonic systems.

Biography

Formerly Silas Arnold Houghton Associate Professor of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School before joining UCSB, where he served as Founding Director of the highly interdisciplinary Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies. Research focused at the interface between biomolecular science, chemical physics & materials science. Developer of “Silicon Biotechnology;” honored by Scientific American as one of top 50 technology innovators of 2006 for development of bio-inspired, low-temperature synthetic route to semiconductor thin films and nanoparticles; elected Fellow of Materials Research Society, AAAS & Smithsonian Institution. Research Career awards from NIH & American Cancer Society.

Speaker
Daniel E. Morse / Daniel E. Morse Emeritus Founding Director, Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies University of California, USA

Abstract

Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is widely used for the synthesis of valuable carbon-based thin films because of their capacity to present a combination of unique properties which can be tailored over a wide range. The efficiency of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) process is related to the ability to control the ablation plume characteristics such as composition, excitation and kinetic properties of species The potential of laser pulses temporally tailored on ultrafast time scales is used to control the expansion and the excitation degree of ablation products, with in situ optical diagnostic of the ablation plume. The temporal laser pulse shaping is shown to strongly modify the laser-induced plasma contents and kinetics for graphite ablation which are discussed in terms of modification of the structural properties of deposited Diamond-Like Carbon films (DLC). This gives rise to a better understanding of the growth processes involved in fs-PLD and ps-PLD of Diamond-Like Carbon. The Pulsed Laser Deposition also proved efficient to produce multilayer graphene for applications in the domain of biosensors. We report a new way to synthesize large scale 3D textured graphene by pulsed laser deposition with very good SERS or electrochemical properties. Nitrogen doping appears as an interesting option to modify the properties of graphene. N-doped graphene synthesis is also reported with mainly pyridinic- type of nitrogen bonding.

Biography

Professor Florence Garrelie is the Head of the Laboratory Hubert Curien gathering more than 200 people at University Jean Monnet which is a joined research unit of CNRS in Saint Etienne - France. She has a national and international reputation in investigating fundamental and applied laser processes. Her research is focused on ultrashort laser interaction with materials, for both the structuration of materials and functionalization of surfaces. Research interests in optics and photonics, laser processes, carbon-based thin films, surface structuration and functionalization.

Speaker
Florence Garrelie / Univ Lyon, France

Sessions:

Abstract

The goal of the talk is to present the high-energy high-frequency pulse periodic (P-P) laser systems, which in the nearest time will find a lot of applications in the field of ecology, machinery, space engineering, nuclear technologies and many others. A laser-plasma generator of multiply charged ions produces a large number of heavy ions in the regime of short periodic pulses, which is of interest for ion accelerators operating in the P-P regime as well is the topic of high interests. The source of this type is also promising for effective use in the field of heavy-ion fusion, brittle materials figure cutting, oil films elimination from the water surface and so on. Paper has considered in details a new approach to the problem of a laser jet engine creation, which is based on the resonance merging of shock waves generated by an optical pulsating discharge, produced by such a P-P laser. To obtain an optical pulsating discharge, we suggested the usage of high-energy P-P laser radiation, which can be generated by wide aperture carbon dioxide, chemical and mono-module disk type solid-state laser systems. Future developments of the disk laser technology as the most effective and scalable to the level of many hundreds of kW as well are under consideration in the paper.

Biography

Victor V Apollonov is the leading specialist in the area of basic principles of creation and development of high energy laser systems and high energy laser radiationinteraction with matter. He has made an outstanding input into creation and development of new branches of science - physical and technical fundamentals ofhigh average power laser optics and adaptive optics, investigation of physical processes in a high volume self-controlled volume discharges, creation of highpower continuous wave, pulsed and high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser systems, high energy laser radiation interaction with matter, and high energy laserapplication. He is the author of more than 1300 publications: 16 books, 368 presentations and 147 patents, 750 articles, (Research Gate). He is a full member ofRussian Academy of Natural Science and Academy of Engineering Sciences, member of the Presidium RANS. He is the laureate of State Prize of USSR (1982)and of Russia (2002).

Speaker
Victor Apollonov / Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russia

Abstract

In-vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) on cells and tissues with sub-micron resolution could help unveil functions of living organisms and facilitate clinical disease/cancer diagnosis in the early stage. With cellular resolution, the lamellar structure of the epidermis and the vascular network in dermis could be resolved in both the cross-sectional and en face planes. Using Ti:sapphire crystalline fiber to generate broad and bright spontaneous emission, the OCT penetration depth can reach reticular dermis with appropriate image contrast. The melanin, fibrous connective tissue, capillary as well as small blood vessels were observed, and the vector flowing of the red blood cells were quantitatively analyzed. Image analysis algorithms have also been developed to automatically extract deterministic information from live tissue and single cells for discriminant analyses. The preliminary results show that OCT can be used to identify regions that suggest abnormalities and should be biopsied for histopathological examination. Both morphological recognition as well as parametric analysis using the back scattering from the subcellular structures will be addressed in the talk. With improved sensitivity/specificity, real-time data transmission and storage, and linking pathology to the treating physician, it is expected that the imaging advancement will eventually offer a see-and-treat paradigm, leading to improved patient care.

Biography

Professor Huang is with the Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics (GIPO), National Taiwan University. Starting 2007, he served as the Chairman of GIPO for 3 years. He was also a guest professor at the Abbe School of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Germany, 2014. Dr. Huang served as Chairman of IEEE Photonics Society Taipei Chapter from 2005 to 2006. He was a steering board member, European Master of Science in Photonics (EMSP). Presently, Dr. Huang is an Associate Editor, IEEE Photonics Journal. He served as a Topical Editor, Optics Letters, for 6 years (2005–2011). Dr. Huang’s research interest is on crystalline fiber based devices and biomedical applications.

Speaker
Sheng-Lung Huang / National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Abstract

In our talk we will describe promising results from the combination of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and diffusion reflection (DR) medical imaging techniques. Our probes of choice are based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are known for their significant optical properties. Although particles of spherical symmetry are used more extensively in literature, gold nanorods (GNRs) present additional interesting properties, namely 2 different resonance modes and an easily controllable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak that can be tuned to the more biologically transparent infra-red (IR) range. Both gold nanospheres and GNRs were considered for this work. Three different geometries of GNPs were prepared: spheres of 20nm diameter, GNRs of aspect ratio (AR) 2.5, and GNRs of AR 3.3. Each GNP geometry was then conjugated using PEG linkers estimated to be 10nm in length to each of 3 different fluorescent dyes: Fluorescein, Rhodamine B, and Sulforhodamine B. DR provided deep-volume measurements (up to 1cm) from within solid, tissue-imitating phantoms, indicating GNR presence corresponding to the light used by recording light scattered from the GNPs with increasing distance to a photodetector. FLIM imaged solutions as well as phantom surfaces, recording both the fluorescence lifetimes as well as the fluorescence intensities. Fluorescence quenching was observed for Fluorescein, while metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) was observed in Rhodamine B and Sulforhodamine B – the dyes with an absorption peak at a slightly longer wavelength than the GNP plasmon resonance peak. Our system is highly sensitive due to the increased intensity provided by MEF, and also because of the inherent sensitivity of both FLIM and DR. Together, these two modalities and MEF can provide a lot of meaningful information for molecular and functional imaging of biological samples.

Biography

Dror Fixler is the Group Leader in the “advance light microscopy” at Bar-Ilan University, Israel. He received his Ph.D. degree in 2003 from the Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Israel. He is a member of the Faculty of Engineering and the Nano center of Bar-Ilan University. He has published over 70 original research papers and holds over 13 issued patents. His research interests include fluorescence measurements (FLIM and anisotropy decay), optical super resolution, high-end electro-optical system engineering and light-tissue interaction. Prof. Fixler received several international awards and organized and presented at over 40 international conferences.

Speaker
Dror Fixler / Bar Ilan University, Israel

Abstract

Alkali atomic vapor as a laser medium have attracted the attention of researchers since the very beginning of the laser era and the alkali vapor laser historically was the first laser proposed by A.L. Schawlow and C.H. Townes in 1958. Unfortunately, this proposed alkali laser was not demonstrated at that time and extensive research activity in the field of alkali lasers started almost 50 years after it was first proposed, when the concept of Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) was introduced by W. Krupke in 2001. Since that time, DPALs attract growing interest of researchers because of their potential to produce high laser power in an excellent quality beam and, thus, they can compete with the best currently available high power laser systems. The experiments performed during the last decade confirmed the high performance capabilities of diode pumped alkali lasers. In particular, an efficient operation of Cs and K DPALs with kW level output power was demonstrated. But, also, some power limiting effects like gain medium degradation, burning and optical elements damage were revealed and need to be studied. This talk presents a review of the history of alkali laser research and development and analysis of the most important achievements and perspectives in this field as well as discussion of existing problems in DPAL R&D.

Biography

Boris Zhdanov is a Senior Scientist at the Laser and Optics Research Center, US Air Force Academy. He has over 35 years’ experience in research and development on solid-state lasers, molecular lasers, alkali lasers, nonlinear optics, laser spectroscopy, and teaching at the university level. Since 2004 he works in the field of Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers research and development and his achievements are very well known for the laser community. Dr. Zhdanov has over 200 publications and conference presentations. Education: MS in Physics from Physics Department of Moscow State University, Russia and PhD in Physics from the same university

Speaker
B.V. Zhdanov / US Air Force Academy, USA

Abstract

Color centers in diamond attract a lot of attention due to unique properties of diamond, such its optical and chemical purity, low concentration of nuclear spins in diamond matrix and also its physical and chemical inertness. Nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond is the most studied color center in diamond because its fluorescence rate does depend on spin state this way enabling readout of the spin state. This property opens a lot of opportunities to for it implementation in quantum information processing and sensing applications. Nevertheless, NV color center has some important disadvantages, for example as broad emission spectrum dominated by phonons sideband with only 5 percent emission in zero-phonon sideband. Another problem is its high sensitivity to surface and structural defects in diamond often introduced by surrounding nanostructures. These disadvantages stimulated search for other color centers, such which would have narrow spectrum dominated by zero-phonon line and better behavior in nanostructures. First, SiV center was suggested as such a center. Due to high symmetry of this center, it does not have dipole moment in the ground state and therefore is not as sensitive to various surface defects and damages as NV center. Moreover, it happens to have narrow zero-phonon line dominating the spectrum. However, unfortunately, exited state decay of this center is dominated by non-radiative relaxation. The next natural candidate is GeV center since Ge is right under Si in the Mendeleev table. This center is yet not well studied, but may be very promising candidate for development of quantum information processing with it. In this talk, I will present our resent results on development utilizing advantages of GeV centers as well as developing quantum memory with it.

Biography

Alexey received his BS, MS, and PhD degrees from Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology in 1998, 2000, and 2003, respectively. In 1997 he started working in the laboratory for active media at the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. His research was focused on the narrow optical resonances in hot and laser-cooled atoms and their applications to metrology. In 2006-2007 he was a visiting scholar in Misha Lukin s group in Physics Department of Harvard University, where he worked on a number of research projects related to surface plasmons, quantum dots, and NV centers in diamond. The main focus of this activity was light-spin interfaces and solid state nanophotonics. In 2010-2012 he was the acting director of the Russian Quantum Center (RQC) at Skolkovo Institute of Technology. He then assumed a Principal Investigator position at the RQC and conducted research in the fields of cold atoms and solid state spin systems. In October 2015 he joined the Physics Department of Texas A and M University as an Assistant Professor

Speaker
Alexey Akimov / Texas A&M University, TX, USA

Abstract

A fast phase shift interference 3D microscopy system and vibrometer are presented using a polarization based Linnik interferometer operating with three synchronized, phase masked, parallel detectors at three different wavelengths. Using this method, several important applications which require high speed and accuracy are demonstrated in 50 volumes per seconds and 2nm height repeatability, dynamic focusing control, fast sub-nm vibrometry, tilt measurement, submicron roughness measurement, 3D profiling of fine structures and micro-bumps height uniformity in an integrated semiconductor chip. Using the multiple wavelengths approach we demonstrated phase unwrapped images with topography exceeding few microns and vibrations monitoring exceeding 30 microns at 500kHz.

Biography

Ibrahim Abdulhalim is with the Electro-optical Engineering Unit at Ben Gurion University. He worked in academic institutions and companies such as the OCSC in UC at Boulder, the ORC at Southampton University, the Thin Films Center of the University of Western Scotland, in KLA-Tencor in where he was the lead inventor of optical scatterometry for CD and overlay measurements, Nova and GWS Photonics, Published over 200 articles, 2 books, 10 chapters and 15 patents. He is a fellow of IoP and SPIE and an associate editor for the Journal of NanoPhotonics and for the Journal of Imaging. Research interests in LC devices, nanophotonics for biosensing, optical imaging techniques and applications in diagnostics and industrial processes inspection using optics.

Speaker
Ibrahim Abdulhalim / Ben Gurion University, Israel

Abstract

We developed a novel, promising potential cancer vaccine strategy for solid tumors to prompt the immune system to identify and systemically eliminate the primary and metastatic cancers. This strategy, commonly referred to as laser immunotherapy (LIT), consists of local photothermal application on a selected tumor intended to liberate whole cell tumor antigens, followed by a local injection of an immunoadjuvant, which is intended to activate antigen presenting cells and facilitate an increased uptake of tumor antigens. LIT can activate antigen presenting cells and expose them to tumor antigens in situ, with the intention of inducing a systemic tumor specific T-cell response. This strategy has been used in the treatment of late-stage, metastatic melanoma and breast cancer patients. The outcomes of our clinical trials, while preliminary, are highly promising. Our animal studies also revealed the potential mechanism of LIT.

Biography

Wei R. Chen is the leader of the Biophotonics Research Laboratory of the Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Education and Research, University of Central Oklahoma, Oklahoma, USA. His research focuses on cancer treatment. He is the co-inventor of the novel treatment method for metastatic cancers – laser immunotherapy (LIT) – which has been used in initial clinical trials for late-stage, metastatic melanoma and breast cancer patients with promising outcomes. He is also interested in nanotechnology-based phototherapy. He has been working in the areas of cancer detection and monitoring/guiding laser treatment of cancer using different imaging modalities, including MRI, ultrasound, fluorescence, and other methods. He has published more than 130 peer-reviewed articles and more than 160 conference proceeding papers. He has been awarded eight US patents and several international patents. He has received more than $6.5M for research and education from federal and state agencies, as well as from industrial sponsors.

Speaker
Wei R. Chen / University of Central Oklahoma, USA

Abstract

An exact analytical expression is obtained for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a Gaussian optical vortex with a different degree of ellipticity. The OAM turned out to be proportional to the ratio of two Legendre polynomials of adjoining orders. It is shown that if an elliptical optical vortex is embedded into the center of the waist of a circularly symmetrical Gaussian beam, then the normalized OAM of such laser beam is fractional and it does not exceed the topological charge n. If, on the contrary, a circularly symmetrical optical vortex is embedded into the center of the waist of an elliptical Gaussian beam, then the OAM is equal to n. If the optical vortex and the Gaussian beam have the same (or matched) ellipticity degree, then the OAM of the laser beam is greater than n. Continuous varying of the OAM of a laser beam by varying its ellipticity degree can be used for accelerated motion of microscopic particles along an elliptical trajectory as well as in quantum informatics for generating the OAM-entangled photons.

Biography

Victor V. Kotlyar is a head of Laboratory at the Image Processing Systems Institute (Samara) of the Russian Academy of Sciences and professor of Computer Science Department at Samara State Aerospace University. He received his MS, PhD and DrSc degrees in physics and mathematics from Samara State University (1979), Saratov State University (1988) and Moscow Central Design Institute of Unique Instrumentation, the Russian Academy of Sciences (1992). He is co-author of 350 scientific papers, 10 books and 13 inventions. His current interests are diffractive optics, optical vortices and nanophotonics components.

Speaker
Victor V Kotlyar / Samara University, Russia

Abstract

Photonic microstructures have become one of attractive research areas holding strong promises for applications in controlling and manipulating the propagation of light. Photonic microstructures can have significant prospects only when they are with scalable areas. The optical induction technique, a handy method combining multi-beam interference and photorefractive material, has attracted much interest recently in fabricating photonic lattices. Periodic or quasi-periodic microstructures can be induced optically in the photorefractive media at very low power level based on photo induced refractive index change effect. The induced photonic microstructures can be fixed or erased and re-recorded in the media by the appropriate process. However, these conventional fabrication techniques have some shortcomings and are stuck in the fabrication of scalable-area photonic microstructures. Conventional multiple-beam interference is often implemented by a complicated optical setup. Improved multi-beam interference using a single element helps to reduce the complexity of the setups. However, these single element methods usually rely on a special and expensive device, or the induced areas are small and the induced processes are inefficient. Therefore, low-cost and efficient fabrication of photonic microstructures is still a focus of research. In this paper, we present an experimental investigation of the formation of scalable-area photonic microstructures. Our method is using a multi-face wedge to generate scalable-area multibeam interference. This is a simple, compact, and efficient way in fabricating various large-area photonic microstructures. The method is not limited to photorefractive materials alone. It can be easily adapted to various photosensitive materials on the basis of the variable applications.

Biography

Yan Ling Xue has completed her PhD from The University of New South Wales, Australia and postdoctoral studies from University of Technology, Sydney and The University of New South Wales, Australia. She is now professor of East China Normal University, Shanghai, China. She has published almost 50 papers in reputed journals.

Speaker
Yan Ling Xue / East China Normal University, China

Abstract

As high power silica fiber laser technology moves into the eye safer wavelength region beyond 1.4 m, there is a need to mitigate several parasitic optical processes in order to realize higher power and efficiency. While traditional solution doping with Er3+ and Ho3+ ions enables lasing at 1.5m and 2 m, respectively, the efficient extraction of energy is limited by the silica matrix. In the case of Er3+, the traditional solution doping method has no control on the local environment and leads to clustering of the ions which in turn leads to parasitic upconversion processes. In the case of Ho3+, the excited state ions are multiphonon quenched due to the high phonon energy of the surrounding silica matrix. The solution to these problems requires (i) no clustering of Er3+ ions and (ii) a lower phonon energy surrounding the Ho3+ ions. We have successfully demonstrated this by synthesizing nanoparticles (NPs) from specific host materials containing the rare earth ions in tailored environments. A process has been developed to incorporate the rare earth doped NPs into a porous silica preform, densify and then draw high optical quality fibers. The fibers have been subsequently used in lasing experiments to demonstrate record high efficiency lasing beyond 1.4 um for both Er3+ and Ho3+ doping. Crystal fiber lasers represent a paradigm shift in high power fiber lasers, combining the thermo-physical advantages of crystals with fiber geometry to enable heat mitigation, and potentially increase output power per fiber by >10X. We will report on the fabrication of small core diameter single crystal fiber with claddings and demonstrate lasing.

Biography

Jas Sanghera, head of the Optical Materials and Devices Branch at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), was presented the E.O. Hulburt Annual Science Award, December 16, in recognition of his exceptional contributions to basic and applied scientific and technological phenomena, and pioneering the development of novel glasses, ceramics, crystals, thin films, fibers, bulk optics and devices incorporating these materials His research has led to the development of new and unique optical materials, solid-state optics, surface physics, laser power transmission and generation, and studies of optical phenomena in a wide variety of materials over an extensive range of wavelengths. Sangheras efforts have provided new, state-of-the-art optical materials and devices that have solved numerous problems of commercial and military importance while opening up new application areas and lines of scientific inquiry, said Dr. Craig Hoffman, superintendent, Optical Sciences Division. “His outstanding contributions to the scientific research community, coupled with his development of a broad range of specialty optical materials and devices, significant to the Navy and the Department of Defense, make him a very worthy recipient of the E.O. Hulburt Award.

Speaker
Jasbinder S. Sanghera / U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, USA

Abstract

A surface plasmon is a charge density oscillation (transverse magnetic electromagnetic wave) that can exist at the interface between a free electron metal and a dielectric layer [1,2]. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is a label-free optical detection method capable of high sensitivity, real time monitoring of bio interactions at molecular levels. The SPR condition is extremely sensitive to the refractive index change at the interface. This principle can be used to measure refractive index changes due to adsorption of material to the surface of the sensor (high-refractive-index material coated with a metal layer) from a fluid or a gas phase [3]. The change of refractive index near the interface is approximately proportional to the mass of the molecules that enter the interfacial layer. This allows label-free measurement of the interaction of biomolecules with immobilized ligands [4]. The changes at the interface are monitored in real time. The sensitivity can be enhanced by observing localized SPR phenomenon in nanostructures of metals. Recently, we have developed a SPR instrument based on a novel opto-mechanical design [5]. The lowest detectable concentration of sucrose in aqueous medium and the sensitivity of the instrument was found to be 100 fM and 52.6o/RIU, respectively. In this talk, I will review the basic concept of SPR technique, instrumentation and discuss various biological and biomedical applications of the SPR phenomenon.

Biography

Raj Kumar Gupta is associate Professor in the Department of Physics, BITS Pilani, India. He has a national and international reputation in investigating fundamental and applied aspects of thin films, surface science and liquid crystals. His research is also focused on the development of surface plasmon resonance instrument for sensing application. Research interests in thin film and surface science of nanomaterials and nanocomposites, sensing, optical phenomena and imaging, and scanning probe microscopy.

Speaker
Raj Kumar Gupta / Birla Institute of Technology and Science, India

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and morbidity in the world. It is a systemic, dynamic, progressive and essentially inflammatory disease. Since the beginning of the 90’ of the last century, many studies have confirmed the hypothesis that the modification of LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) is one of the keys for the formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions in humans. It was shown that atherosclerosis is associated with higher concentrations of modified LDL (moLDL) in the bloodstream. One of the difficulties in determining directly the amount of moLDL in the bloodstream is associated with the existence of few techniques for this purpose. Our research group proposed the use of the Z-Scan (ZS) technique to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of LDL particles in solution. Our studies show that the nonlinear fingerprints of native (non-modified - naLDL) and moLDL are different in the milliseconds time scale regime. In this time scale of the incident laser pulses it is possible to study the formation of the thermal lens in the LDL solution, induced by a Gaussian beam. These studies allowed us to develop a new physical approach for the identification and quantification of moLDL in a solution of LDL, isolated from the human blood. In vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to measure the ZS optical response of naLDL and moLDL in solution. The typical result from a ZS experiment (closed aperture geometry) is a peak to valley curve for the normalized transmittance as a function of the sample position along the z-axis. The higher is the modification degree of the LDL particle, the smaller is the amplitude of the peak to valley distance. The main physical process involved in this phenomenon is the increase in the thermal diffusivity of the aqueous LDL solution, as a function of the modification (mainly oxidation) degree. The responsible for the heat diffusion across the sample are the hydroperoxides generated by the oxidation. In this framework, the nonlinear optical response of LDL solutions may be used in the development of new tools to quantify the atherogenic particles in the human blood. In particular, the thermal diffusivity of the LDL solution, measured by means of the ZS experiment, is the physical parameter directly related to its nonlinear optical response, which informs about the modification degree of the LDL. [CNPq, FAPESP, CAPES, INCT-FCx, NAP-FCx].

Biography

Antonio M. Figueiredo Neto is the Group Leader of the “Complex Fluids Research” at the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. He has a national and international reputation in investigating fundamental aspects of lyotropic liquid crystals, magnetic colloids and fluids of biological interest. Published more than 190 papers in international journals, with more than 2500 citations (WOS). Is member of the Brazilian Academy of Science and The Academy of Science of the State of São Paulo. Research interests: phase transitions in complex fluids; magnetic properties and thermodiffusion of magnetic colloids; nonlinear optical properties of complex fluids in time scales of femtoseconds (electronic properties), milliseconds (thermal effects) and seconds (thermodiffusion).

Speaker
Antonio M. Figueiredo Neto / University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Brazil

Abstract

Wavelength-swept laser is the key component to implement swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging system. Fourier domain mode-locked laser (FDML), as a realization of swept laser, features ultrahigh sweeping rate potential by eliminating the laser built-up process inside the cavity. However, the sweeping speed of existing FDMLs is still limited by the inertia of the sweep mechanism. We demonstrate a silicon microring optical tunable filter, upon which a FDML is constructed. Compared with existing FDMLs which requires mechanical scanning scheme or MEMS scanner, our scheme has a greater potential in sweeping speed due to its inertia-free scanning. A 45-kHz microring-based FDML is demonstrated at 1550 nm with a bandwidth of 18 nm.

Biography

Li Huo has completed his PhD, specialized in optical communications, from Tsinghua University, China and postdoctoral studies in biophotonics imaging from University of Washington and Johns Hopkins University, USA. He has been an associate professor in the department of electronic engineering, Tsinghua University since 2010. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals and conferences. His research interests include ultrahigh speed optical signal processing and optical coherence tomography.

Speaker
Li Huo / Tsinghua University, China

Abstract

We show that the energy-transport efficiency in a chain of two-level emitters can be drastically enhanced by the presence of a photonic topological insulator (PTI). This is obtained by exploiting the peculiar properties of its nonreciprocal surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP), which is unidirectional, immuned to backscattering and propagates in the bulk bandgap. This amplification of transport efficiency can be as much as two orders of magnitude with respect to reciprocal SPPs. Moreover, we demonstrate that despite the presence of considerable imperfections at the interface of the PTI, the efficiency of the SPP-assisted energy transport is almost unaffected by discontinuities. We also show that the SPP properties allow energy transport over considerably much larger distances then in the reciprocal case, and we point out a particularly simple way to tune the transport. Finally, we analyze the specific case of a two-emitter-chain and unveil the origin of the efficiency amplification. The efficiency amplification and the practical advantages highlighted in this work might be particularly useful in the development of new devices intended to manage energy at the atomic scale, e.g. in quantum technologies.

Biography

Mauro Antezza received his PhD degree in Physics from the University of Trento (Italy), and after a post-doctoral training at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris (France) he became Associate Professor at the University of Montpellier (France), where he founded a theory group at Laboratoire Charles Coulomb. He has been awarded member of the Institut Universitaire de France (Paris) and he is in charge of the fundamental physics undergraduate program at the University of Montpellier. He proposed and contributed to understand several phenomena in different quantum light-matter domains: quantum transport of energy and matter, quantum thermodynamics, non-equilibrium quantum physics, light-harvesting complexes, radiative heat transfer, Casimir-Lifshitz interaction, quantum optics, photonic topological insulators, open quantum systems, 2D materials.

Speaker
Mauro Antezza / University de Montpellier, France

Abstract

We calculate the radiative heat transfer between two identical metallic one-dimensional lamellar gratings. To this aim we present and exploit a modification to the widely-used Fourier modal method, known as adaptive spatial resolution, based on a stretch of the coordinate associated to the periodicity of the grating. We first show that this technique dramatically improves the rate of convergence when calculating the heat flux. We then present a study of heat flux as a function of the grating height, highlighting a remarkable amplification of the exchanged energy, ascribed to the appearance of spoof-plasmon modes, whose behavior is also spectrally investigated. Differ- ently from previous works, our method allows us to explore a range of grating heights extending over several orders of magnitude. By comparing our results to recent studies we find a consis- tent quantitative disagreement with some previously obtained results going up to 50%. In some cases, this disagreement is explained in terms of an incorrect connection between the reflection operators of the two gratings.

Biography

Speaker
Brahim GUIZAL / University de Montpellier, France

Abstract

Today, innovation of novel reconfigurable materials, which can be integrated on chip with CMOS compatible process and used for engineering devices, is the key driver for realization of future chip-scale multi-functional systems. Among recently emerged optoelectronic materials the fluid-dispersed atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) nanocomposite materials have sparked a great level of interest for their high promise as in-situ tailored photonic device platform for the next generation of multi-functional (opto)-electronic systems with a wide range of important applications, such as renewable energy, optical communications, bio-chemical sensing, and security and defense technologies. Dynamically controlled three-dimensional self-assembly of suspended 2D liquid exfoliated nano-platelets not only provides a breakthrough route for technological realization of 2D material based 3D device architectures, but also its fluidic nature allows CMOS-compatible back-end integration on chip using microfluidic technology. We will demonstrate the possibility to low-power controllable manipulation of 2D nano-platelets directly on chip utilizing fundamental tuning approaches in Si photonics: electro-optic and thermo-optic effects, as well as discuss the first practicable 2D fluid composite based device designs for application in integrated photonics. We will further focus on the dynamics of 2D nanoplatelets spatial alignment, understanding of which is essential for the first practicable realization of 3D photonic metastructure formation on-chip. We discovered an ultra-high signal sensitivity to the xyz alignment of 2D flakes within the opto-fluidic waveguides, which in turn enables precise in-situ alignment detection for the first practicable realization of 3D photonic microstructure shaping based on 2D-fluid composites and CMOS photonics platform.

Biography

Anna Baldycheva completed her BSc(Hons) at Saint-Petersburg University in 2008 and PhD at Trinity College Dublin in 2012. After Postdoctoral Position at Massachusetts Institute of Technology she took a position of an Assistant Professor in 2D Optoelectronic materials at the University of Exeter in 2014, where she is currently leading a highly interdisciplinary research group. She has extensive expertise and an international reputation in the design, fabrication and testing of integrated Si micro-photonic systems. Since 2011 she has over 50 peer-reviewed publications, invited talks and conference proceedings. Prof Baldycheva is an associate editor of the Nature Scientific Reports and is serving on board of the Royal Microscopy Society Engineering Section.

Speaker
Anna Baldycheva / University of Exeter, UK

Abstract

Silicon photonics offers the potential for low-cost integration of optical and electronic functionalities on the same chip. In this context, the near-infrared (NIR) range is probably the most investigated, in particular the wavelength of 1.55 μm: a standard for the long-distance optical communications. Recently, many research groups have demonstrated several silicon-based components operating in the mid-wave infrared (MIR) wavelength range of 2–20 μm, including low-loss waveguides, couplers, splitters and multiplexers, as well as some with hybrid active functionality. There are compelling reasons to migrate silicon photonics from the telecom wavelength region into the MIR. First, the undesired nonlinear loss, two-photon absorption (TPA), which is a limiting factor for nonlinear optical processes in the near-infrared vanishes at longer wavelengths as the energy of two photons is not enough for a band-to-band transition. Second, silicon photonics have many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing for realizing the lab-on-a-chip concept. Although Si optical detectors are widely used for visible light (400-700nm), they can not work at wavelengths longer than ~1.1 µm due to the Si bandgap of 1.12 eV. An interesting alternative approach is to take advantage of the wide absorption spectrum of graphene that, integrated on Si, can realize an hybrid structure able to detect NIR and MIR wavelengths. In this work we report on the design, the fabrication and the characterization of a vertically-illuminated hybrid graphene-silicon photodetectors operating at both 1.55 and 2 μm.

Biography

Maurizio Casalino has graduated summa cum laude in Electronic Engineering at University of Naples 'Federico II' and in 2008 he has completed his PhD at University 'Mediterranea' of Reggio Calabria. In 2008 he joined as researcher the Institute of Microelectronic and Microsystems (IMM) of the National Council of Research (CNR). He is responsible in charge of the electronic laboratory and of fundamental technologies in the Clean Room of IMM-CNR. Currently he is responsible of the course of Physics of the Semiconductors and Devices at University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli'. He is now pursuing his interests in the design, fabrication and characterization of silicon active and passive photonic devices based on conventional and new emerging materials. During his research activity, he has collaborated for carrying out several research projects financed by the CNR, public and external organizations. He is author of more than 60 scientific articles published on peer reviewed journals, proceedings of congress, book chapters and review articles and he has served as reviewer for the most important scientific journals. Dr. Maurizio Casalino is currently a member of IEEE and a member of the Optical and Photonic Italian Society (SIOF).

Speaker
Maurizio Casalino / University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy

Abstract

In the context of the present talk, simpler methods have been presented for ordered and well defined nanostructures of semiconductor and biodegradable polymeric nanomaterials. However, suitably spending various surface active agents as capping molecules, ordered morphologies of semiconductor nanomaterials have been designed. A versatile and facile methodology is presented for size-controlled, lead telluride nanoparticles in the presence of highly hydrophobic cationic gemini surfactants (12–2–12, 14–2–14 and 16–2–16) as capping/stabilizing agents. The optical and electrical properties were examined with attention focused on the cumulative diameter of lead telluride NPs for various stabilizing agents. To explore the influence of surfactants' hydrophobicity on the shape and size of lead telluride NPs, the microstructure of lead telluride NPs was investigated via transmission electron microscopy

Biography

Ph. D. (Chemistry) and a research professional with over 7 years of experience in R&D as well as PGteaching, associated with IIT@CRIB Naples, ITALY as Postdoctoral Collaborator Scientist and Assistant Professor (sabbatical) with Shoolini University, Solan, India. Adept in Drug Delivery research& Magnetic Resonance Imaging via Nanomaterials; Research, design and evaluate various processes.An effective leader having handled a research group of 7 andan academicscholar havingbeen awarded national scholarship; desire to learn new technology and grow with the organization. A Proven ground breaking advancement within the Nanomaterials and Drug Delivery arena through scientific research and scalable design. Track record of publishing in high impact factor journals since 2006 and well versed in Teaching PG & PhD students since last 6 years.Proficient in handling tools like Scanning Electron Microscope, SEM (UltraplusZiess), TEM, Fluorescence Spectrophotometer (Hitachi, F-2500), IR (Shimadzu), etc

Speaker
Pankaj Thakur / Italian Institute of Technology , Italy

Abstract

UV/Blue n-ZnO/p-GaN nanostructure-based LEDs emit light at (370 nm) and thus have a significant advantage over the conventional GaN/AlGaN UV LEDs, as ZnO/GaN-based LEDs are characterized by much lower density of threading dislocations, higher crystal quality and higher light extraction index, leading to higher LED efficiency at a lower cost. Here, we present high optical and structural quality UV-Blue GdZnO/GaN nanotubes (NTs)-based LED. Gadolinium (Gd) (2 wt) doped n-ZnO NTs and films were grown on high quality commercial MOCVD p-GaN films (sapphire substrate) using pulsed laser deposition. The deposition parameters were optimized for the growth of high quality hexagonal doped ZnO NTs and films. Gd doping was used to increase the n-conductivity of ZnO and to introduce ferromagnetism. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the high structural quality of the NTs and films. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that thin-walled (>20 nm) hexagonal-shaped ZnO NTs of 800−1000 nm height were formed along the c-axis. We show an intense UV–blue electroluminescence emission arising from our Gd-ZnO/GaN LEDs. Micro-photoluminescence reveals an intense bandedge emission with a very weak defect band, indicating high optical quality and internal high efficiency. Electrical measurements showed diode characteristics. Magnetic measurements using superconducting quantum interference device and magneto-optic techniques confirm that materials exhibit ferromagnetic properties. We investigated carrier dynamics by time resolved PL spectroscopy using femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser attached to a streak camera with a frequency tripled wavelength (266 nm). These results confirm that our device can be used for spintronic applications as UV/blue spin LEDs.

Biography

Iman Roqan is an assistant professor in the Physical Sciences and Engineering Division at KAUST. She obtained her M.Sc. in optoelectronic and photonic devices from St. Andrews and Heriot-Watt Universities, United Kingdom. Her Ph.D. was obtained from the University of Strathclyde in semiconductor and spectroscopy. She also has established several collaborative projects with international universities, Saudi institutes and industrial companies.

Speaker
Iman S Roqan / King Abdullah University of Science and technology, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

As we know, terahertz electro-optic (EO) detection is a very powerful tool in terahertz optics and its applications, which, however, is only suitable for the weak terahertz field. Here we reports our efforts to improve the dynamical range of terahertz electro-optic detection. Firstly, we present a modified THz electro-optic sampling method to combine the advantages of its two traditional counterparts at near 0° and 45° optical biases: excellent ability to cancel the background noises, high optical modulation, and large dynamical range. The advantages result from the method’s symmetrical layout to get dynamical noise cancellation and the special setting of the static birefringent phases of the two balanced beams. Consequently, our setup can record THz waveforms without distortion with its maximal modulation depth, thus optimal signal-to noise ratio (SNR). For a given THz field, the recorded SNR with our setup, without a lock-in, is more than 10 times higher than that with the “crossed and balanced” design. Secondly, we also show another design for single-shot EO detection basing on the common-path spectral interference, which, of course, enhance the dynamical range of the EO detection. What is more, our novel design ensures that the reference and the object always propagation co-axially, so the measured single-shot SNR is available as high as 50:1, about 6.5 times that measured with traditional THz MZ spectral interferometer.

Biography

Shixiang Xu, born in 1965, has completed his PhD in 1998 from Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. His current position is a professor of Shenzhen University. His research interests include ultrashort pulse laser, ultrafast imaging and pulsed terahertz optics. Up to now, he has published more than 70 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 17 patents. He also serves as a member of Laser Professional Committee of Chinese Optical Society. In 2015, he has been elected to the Council of Guangdong Optical Society of China.

Speaker
Shixiang Xu / Shenzhen University, China

Sessions:

Abstract

Separation of substances and enrichment of the components of mixtures is an integral part in the production of chemical reagents and isotopes. As it is well known, the atoms and molecules, while being excited, radically change their electro-physical parameters as compared with particles in the ground state. In addition, the dipole moments and polarizability are changed as well as the particle kinetic dimensions, their relaxation parameters, and ionization potentials. As a result of the mentioned changes, the particles significantly change the energy and kinetic parameters in intermolecular interactions. As it is well known, in the approach of intermolecular interaction due to Van der Waals forces, a binding energy is determined by the constants containing the products of molecular dipole moments, polarizability as well as the values of the first ionization potentials of the molecules. This approach gives an overall picture and scale of those changes in the energy of intermolecular interaction, which can be influenced by controlling excitation. In our works, the effect of optical excitation on the electronic and on the vibrational subsystems was studied during the penetration of molecules through nanoporous membranes made from monodisperse silicate porous glass with a pore volume of about 25% and a pore radius of 3.5 -3.7 nm. The porous glass of this type is transparent to visible radiation, which allows excitation of moving molecules along the entire movement path through the membrane. The report presents experimental data on the permeability of molecules through nanoporous membranes. It is shown that the optical excitation of molecules sharply reduces the permeability of molecules upon excitation of the electronic and vibrational subsystems. Besides, the data on the separation of dye molecules in ethanol solutions with the use of electromigration of molecules through the nanoporous membranes and nuclear track membranes are presented.

Biography

Igor K. Meshkovskiy Honored science worker. Founder of the University’s School of Thought “Physics and Technology of the Light Guide Photonics”. Leader of a Joint International Laboratory of Silicon and Fiber Photonics & Microsystems Photonics. Research interests in: Inscription of periodic phase structures into optical fibers through the protective coating. Development of fiber optic monitoring systems (development of precision fiber-optic gyroscopes and fiber acousto-optic spectral sensors, including cables, for sea and land monitoring systems). Methods of molecular separation with use of the nanoporous membranes including the photonic methods.

Speaker
Igor K. Meshkovskiy / ITMO University, Russia

Abstract

The paper overviews experimental and theoretical studies of photocurrents induced in various Dirac fermions systems by polarized terahertz radiation. We consider second order opto-electric phenomena excited by terahertz radiation in graphene and topological insulators (TI). The following phenomena yielding a dc electric current proportional to the square of the radiation electric field are discussed: high frequency Hall effect, edge photogalvanic effects, reststrahl band-assisted photocurrents, magnetic quantum ratchet, ratchet effects in graphene with lateral superlattices, cyclotron resonance assisted spin polarized currents of Dirac fermions systems in HgTe-based systems as well as high frequency transport of Dirac fermions in epitaxially grown Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 based topological insulators and 2D HgTe TIs. A particular attention is paid to the currents solely driven by the light's helicity, whose sign reverses upon switching the radiation handedness from left- to right-handed circularly polarized light. In this paper we discuss the phenomenological and microscopic theory of these phenomena and present the state-of-the-art of the experiments aimed to the study of terahertz radiation induced non-linear electron transport. We also show that nonlinear transport opens up new opportunities for probing of Dirac electrons even in 3D TI the materials with substantial conductance in the bulk as well as address prospective of future theoretical and experimental studies. At last but not least demonstrate that photocurrents excited by terahertz radiation in graphene or TIs can be applied for realization of room temperature detection of the state of polarization providing full characterization of laser beams at THz frequencies.

Biography

Professor Sergey Ganichev is the director of Terahertz Center TerZ at Regensburg University, Germany. He has a national and international reputation in investigating fundamental and applied aspects of terahertz radiation – condensed matter interaction. Research interests in nonequilibrium and nonlinear phenomena in semiconductors at excitation by intense terahertz electric fields of high power far-infrared lasers, tunneling and photoelectrical phenomena in semiconductors and semiconductor structures, electron gas heating by radiation, detectors for infrared radiation, molecular gas lasers and far-infrared spectroscopy.

Speaker
Sergey D Ganichev / University of Regensburg, Germany

Abstract

This paper reviews recent advancement on the research towards graphene-based two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure materials for terahertz (THz) photonics and plasmonics light-sources applications. Carrier-injection pumping of graphene can enable negative-dynamic conductivity in the THz spectral range, which may lead to new types of current-injection THz lasers. The dual-gate graphene channel transistor structure serves carrier population inversion in the lateral p-i-n junctions under complementary dual-gate biased and forward drain-source biased conditions, promoting carrier population inversion. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser cavity structure implemented into the dual-gate can transcend the LED-like broadband amplified spontaneous emission to the single-mode lasing action. We fabricated the test devices and confirmed the LED and laser operations at 100K. Asymmetric dual-grating-gate meta-surface structures may promote plasmonic superradiance and/or plasmonic instabilities, giving rise to giant THz gain enhancement at plasmonic resonant frequencies. Dyakonov-Shur type instability owing to the Doppler-shift effect at the plasmonic cavity boundaries, Ryzhii-Satou-Shur type instability owing to the carrier transit-time effect in the periodically modulation-doped channel, and plasmonic-boom instability are the possible mechanisms. Double-graphene-layered van der Waals 2D heterostructures can further enhance the quantum efficiency and resultant THz gain owing to its unique physical mechanisms of photon-/plasmon-assisted quantum mechanical resonant tunneling. These novel plasmonic 2D heterostructures may enable room-temperature, intense THz lasing. The authors thank V. Ryzhii, T. Watanabe, D. Yadav, A. Satou, S. Boubanga-Tombet, T. Suemitsu, G. Tamamushi, J. Mitsushio, T. Hosotani, A.A. Dubinov, V. Ya. Aleshkin, and M. Ryzhii for their contributions. This work is financially supported by JSPS KAKENHI (16H06361, 16K14243), Japan.

Biography

He received the Dr. Eng. degree from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, in 1994. He has been a professor at RIEC, Tohoku University, Japan, since 2005. He has published more than 250 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He has been served as a Fellow of IEEE since 2014, and a distinguished lecturer at the IEEE Electron Device Society since 2013.

Speaker
Taiichi OTSUJI / Tohoku University, Japan

Abstract

New cases of cancer are expected to exceed 20 millions in 2020 globally. Presently about half of them are treated with radiotherapy, possibly in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Among them, more than 90% use RF-driven linear accelerators of electrons (RF-Linac). Other techniques include internal radiation (brachytherapy) and proton-ion beams (hadrontherapy). In most cases electrons are not delivered directly on tumors but converted into hard X-rays. Radiation therapy techniques evolve and progress continuously and so do devices, sharing a global market of about $ 4 billions, growing at an annual rate exceeding 5%. Considering electrons, both energy and delivered dose requested by radiotherapy are available with plasma accelerators driven by lasers shooting in the power range of tens of TW but several issues have still to be faced before getting a prototype device for clinical use. On the other side hadrontherapy, presently applied to a small fraction of cases but within an exponential growth, is the primary option for the future of radiotherapy. With such a strong motivation, research on laser-based proton/ion acceleration has been considerably supported in the last decade. A usable device for cancer therapy needs to produce 200-250 MeV protons and /or 400-450 MeV/u carbon ions. In order to really profit of the Bragg peak, no more than 1% energy bandwidth is requested. Further, to release a dose of therapeutic interest in a reasonable time, more than 1010 proton/s have to reach the tissue under treatment. None of these performances has been achieved so far with laser techniques. Nevertheless, a rich crop of data have been obtained so far in radiobiological experiments performed with beams of particles produced with laser techniques, both electrons and protons. Though this research is still in progress, it may be the time of having a general overview on it.

Biography

Speaker
Antonio Giulietti / Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory Istituto Nazionale di, Italy

Abstract

Fiber-optic interferometers are widely used to create sensors that provide precise measurements of angular velocity, electric field strength, acoustic signals, temperature, mechanical stress, etc. In order to minimize its intrinsic noise and to ensure the multiplexing of several interferometric sensors within the same fiber route, it is necessary to create sequences of nanosecond optical pulses with high rate of pulse rise and low level of basic optical radiation. In most cases, for these purposes, the amplitude modulators are used which are coupled with a high-coherence optical radiation source. These modulators are based on electro-optic crystals with adjusted operating point, providing extinction ratio up to 40 dB. However, with the advent of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) generating the wavelengths of 1.3 to 2.0 μm, it became possible to create optical pulse sequences with a sufficient coherence length using direct current modulation. Such modulation allows creating optical pulses with extinction ratio up to 70 dB, duration from 1 to 10 ns, rise and fall time not more than 0.5 ns and coherence length in quartz single-mode optical fiber of at least 25 mm. All this requires more accurate aligning the lengths of optical paths in fiber optic interferometers, but it is a problem being solvable with the use of modern methods of coherent reflectometry, high-speed photodetectors, as well as devices for cutting, and splicing the optical fibers. The paper demonstrates the operation of an extended acoustooptic antenna based on arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors using VCSEL generating at wavelength of 1.55 μm with direct current modulation. In addition, a method of forming an amplitude- and phase-modulated optical signal has been theoretically and experimentally tested that provides the formation of a carrier frequency for the subsequent demodulation of a measured low-frequency interferometer signal without stabilizing the operating point.

Biography

Andrei V. Kulikov has completed his PhD from ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia. He is the head of laboratory of the Lightguide photonics, a division of ITMO University that develops optical fiber sensors. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Speaker
Kulikov A.V / ITMO University, Russia

Abstract

In this talk, the research and advances in interferometric optical fibre sensors will be discussed. Some examples of interferometric sensors based on photonic-crystal fibres, multi-core optical fibres, and polymer micro-cavities will be presented. An important advantage of our sensors is the fact that they operate at well-established telecommunications wavelengths and their interrogation can be carried out with battery-operated LEDs and inexpensive handheld spectrometers. Our efforts to develop devices that outperform state-of-the-art optical sensors in both sensitivity and functionality will be discussed. Some examples of sensors that the capability of sensing multiple parameters and that operate in real-world conditions will be given.

Biography

Professor Joel Villatoro received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in optics from the National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics, and Electronics, Puebla, Mexico, in 1995 and 1999, respectively. He is currently Ikerbasque Research Professor at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of the Basque Country. Prior to that, he was Research Fellow in Industrial Photonics at Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Birmingham, UK, “Ramon y Cajal” Researcher at the world-famous ICFO –Institute of Photonic Sciences, Barcelona, Spain, and Research Scientist at the Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C., Leon, Mexico. He is the author of 112 scientific publications and of 6 patents, and has supervised or co-supervised 3 Master, 5 PhD students, and 1 Post-doctoral Fellow. His contributions to his field are acknowledged as he has a growing number of citations (3371 citations until now), an h-factor of 31 and has given around 25 invited talks at international events. He has been PI of several research projects related to optical sensing and fibre devices.

Speaker
Joel Villatoro / University of the Basque Country, Spain

Abstract

Ghost imaging allows to obtain an image of object via signal from a single-pixel detector, based on second-order correlation of the illumination fields, being more powerful against scattering media than traditional active optical imaging. Based on autocorrelation of speckle patterns behind scattering media, the image of objects can also be retrieved, based on optical memory effect. We try to compare between both imaging techniques and explain autocorrelation imaging method using second-order correlation of light fields, similarly to that of ghost imaging. Although information of the objects is obtained in different ways, the feature of speckle patterns plays key role in both techniques. That is, second-order correlation of such field appears as a single-peaked function, which helps to reconstruct the point-to-point mapping between the object plane and the image plane. Based on this, we propose an approach to take advantages of both techniques, such that imaging within a large field of view under strong scattering can be successfully achieved.

Biography

Associate Professor WeiTao Liu is the Group Leader of quantum imaging in “Interdisciplinary Center of Quantum Information”, at National University of Defense Technology, China. His PHD thesis was nominated as a degree thesis of excellence of China. He is supported by Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University. His research is focused on quantum imaging, including photonic entanglement, ghost imaging, and compressive sampling. Research interests in fundamental problems related to quantum imaging, comparison between quantum imaging and classical imaging, enhancement of performance of ghost imaging systems and possible applications, imaging over scattering media.

Speaker
WeiTao Liu / University of Defense Technology, China

Abstract

Concentration quenching of photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of RE doped nitrides is often explained by the precipitation of erbium rich phases. Aluminium nitride does not match the same criteria. We will present experimental and theoretical results showing that AlNOEr is indeed a solid solution until at least 12.5 atomic % of erbium. Experimental results were obtained by laboratory X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) performed on synchrotron on samples prepared by magnetron sputtering, whereas theoretical ones were obtained thanks to Density Function Theory calculations based on the 1st principle of thermodynamics. A discussion will be made on the cristallochemical location of rare earths ions in the würtzite. Correlations between erbium location, the oxynitride electronic structure and the luminescence quenching will be discussed. One will see that the concentration dependence can be analysed in terms of energy transfer processes based on a model dating from the 40-50s (Förster-Dexter model) that considers multipolar ion-ion interactions.

Biography

Doctor Valérie Brien is a researcher in the group “Elaboration and functionality of thin films” in the “Chemistry and Physics of Solids and Surfaces” Department of Institut Jean Lamour, Nancy, France. She has been working for the CNRS for 20 years and obtained her habilitation in 2014. After exerting her speciality in Transmission Electron Microscopy on nickel based superalloys at Université Paris-Sud (France) or at Imperial College (London, UK) and on quasicrystals after joining J.M.Dubois’s group at CNRS, she specialized in studying doped or non-doped aluminium nitride films pushing studies to adapt the material for interesting industrial applications. She has a national and international reputation in investigating experimental aspects of elaboration and characterization of thin films, correlating morphological and chemical features to mechanical and optical properties of the films. She has strong relationships with the University of Strathclyde (UK-Scotland), the University of Thessaloniki (Greece) and EPFL (Switzerland).

Speaker
Valérie Brien / CNRS – University de Lorraine, France

Abstract

The restless growth of data traffic, from the internet to phone communications, from metro to datacentre to intra-chip communications, has driven the research to increase the switching and multiplexing capacity over the last decades. The pervasive use of WDM technologies has supported this growth and candidates such as spatial multiplexing (SDM) have been put forward in order to help in maintaining this growth. We show the development of innovative solutions for the switching and multiplexing in a Silicon on Insulator integrated optics platform. Specifically we show our recent results on mode multiplexing, a special branch of SDM, using an innovative approach based on supermodes supported by an engineered array of closely packed waveguides instead of the conventional individual multimode waveguide. Differently from the space division multiplexing (SDM), the reduced waveguide spacing induces coupling between the waveguides, leading to super-modes whose transverse distribution extends spatially on the entire array. We demonstrate the ability to control the coupling of these super modes, the flexibility of those buses and demonstrate error free data transmission of simultaneous channels on a unique bus. The achieved performances are beyond the state of the art and allows to remove MIMO protocol which, is resource intensive. We also present a reconfigurable switch offering lower power consumption and a novel way of scaling up switching ports. Instead of the standard matrix of standard Mach-Zehnder (MZ), a unique generalized MZ is used. One major advantage of this architecture is the linear scaling of control elements instead of the quadratic dependence. In addition, the total footprint occupied by such structure is reduced compared to a standard commutation MZ matrix. Those two components constitute an efficient and innovative way of implementing mode multiplexing and switching on an integrated platform such as silicon photonics.

Biography

Doctor Philippe Velha is an established physicist whose expertise lies mainly in Silicon Photonics and nanofabrication. In 2001 he entered the École centrale de Lyon, considered one of the most prestigious schools of engineering and continuously ranking one of the top five in France. In 2004 he graduated from the École with a degree in engineering and a MsC in Integrated Digital Electronics. The following year he started a PhD in Silicon Photonics working for 3 different laboratories: Institut d'Optique, Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique and SiNaPS from the CEA – Grenoble. In this multi-disciplinary environment, he designed, fabricated and measured the first high quality factor integrated micro-cavities known today as nanobeams. He became a research associate at the University of Glasgow in 2008 after obtaining a doctorate degree in Physics, with honours, from the Université Paris-Sud XI. In June 2013, Dr Velha has joined the newly created Silicon Photonics group at Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna (Pisa-Italy) where he is now an Assistant Professor.

Speaker
Philippe Velha / TeCIP institute Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Via Moruzzi, 1, Italy

Abstract

The investigation of crystalline lens’s changes with accommodation and their consequent influence on ocular optical properties and retinal image quality could add an insight about several visual dysfunctions. Further understanding of the accommodation behavior would also help to improve the lens implants and surgical procedures to correct accommodative loss in the aging process. It will also help in developing and refining surgical procedures designed to restore accommodation in presbyopes and planning accommodating IOL designs. The purpose of this work is to study crystalline lens’ optical and geometrical properties during accommodation in order to understand the mechanism of accommodation. We intend to establish the relationship between the geometrical changes of the crystalline lens induced by accommodation and its optical effects on the overall eye aberrations, through the analysis of its wavefront aberrations. To this end, we use an Hartman-Shack aberrometer to dynamically investigate the optical quality of the human eye and its effect on visual performance during accommodation. With this purpose, it is used a previously developed ocular aberrometer that already allows a real time measurement of ocular wavefront aberrations. In order to relate the optical changes in the crystalline lens’ during accommodation with modifications in its shape, a Scheimpflug camera is used to record the crystalline lens during accommodative changes. This system allows three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea and crystalline lens’. It is possible to evaluate the changes of the optical and geometrical properties of the crystalline lens during accommodation and to establish the relationship between the geometrical changes of the crystalline lens and its optical properties.

Biography

Graduated in Applied Physics - Optics obtained the PhD in Sciences at the University of Minho in 2005 where she is currently Assistant Professor of the Physics Department. Her research focuses mainly on Ophthalmic Instrumentation and Visual Optics, namely in the imaging and evaluation of the anterior segment of the eye and also in adaptive optics. She has published several articles in scientific journals and chapters of books and presented papers in several national and international conferences. He is the referee of some scientific journals in the area with an impact factor of around 2 and is part of the editorial board of Optometry Reports. It has also targeted research fellows and thesis and has done is part of the research team of national and European research projects.

Speaker
Sandra Franco / Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Portugal

Abstract

The ability to image plasmonic and photonic modes of nanomaterials at the nanoscale level is fundamental for their applications in numerous areas including solar energy harvesting and single molecule sensing. Present day high-resolution imaging techniques ‒ such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) can provide accurate information on the structure (morphology) of nanomaterials. However, the information regarding their chemical compositions are usually obtained over a large-scale area, typically using Infrared (IR) spectroscopic techniques [usually, tens of micrometer for Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)]. These conventional spectroscopic techniques suffer from diffraction limits in probing materials of dimensions smaller than their operating wavelengths − thereby producing inaccurate information that fails to correlate between the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials ‒ thus, inhibiting their proper development. The Photo Thermal Induced Resonance (PTIR) is a new technique that overcomes the limitations of conventional spectroscopy by combining the lateral resolution of Atomic Force Microscopy with the chemical specificity of IR spectroscopy to produce chemical images at nanoscale levels. PTIR is a versatile nano-imaging and characterization technique that is fast, accurate and can be used over a variety of materials. In this talk, I will discuss the mechanisms of the PTIR method and describe how to image the bright and dark plasmonic modes of nanoscale Split Ring Resonators (SRRs). I will also demonstrate the application of PTIR for chemical imaging of Polymer Nanocomposites and mapping their local absorption enhancements.

Biography

Dr Basudev Lahiri is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Prior to this he was a Lord Kelvin Adam Smith Fellow in Sensor systems at the University of Glasgow, United Kingdom. Dr Lahiri’s specialty lies in Nanofabrication and optical characterization of various nanomaterials. He utilizes the unique properties of nanomaterials for the application in ultra-sensitive detection and energy harvesting fields.

Speaker
Basudev Lahiri / University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

Abstract

We study the change in the optical properties of GaAs as a function of the particle size and we investigate its use with bulk Si for the design of multi-layer reflection optical coating with quarter wavelength thickness for a Si substrate .We developed a MATLAB version 10 software to describe the reflectivity of the coating as a function of particle size, refractive index and energy gap. It computes the reflectivity as a function of the wavelength for vertical and oblique incidence. The calculation is based on the Brus model and uses the Characteristic Matrix Theory as a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the maximum value of the reflectivity at the interface Air/Si/NanoGaAs/Si, is (Rs= 100%,Rp= 99.8108%) for oblique incidence at ( ) and (R=99.9812%) for a perpendicular incidence when the particle size of the coating material is Ps = 3.6 nm, and by using four layer of coating Air/Si/NanoGaAs. We suggest this could be used the design of reflective coatings for Nd-YAG laser resonators.

Biography

Speaker
Saeed Al Rashid / University of Anbar , Iraq

Abstract

Quantum Optics is studied normally with methods of ordinary Quantum Mechanics. Let us want to consider objective aspects and limits of this theoretical approach in the order of Deterministic Quantum Physics that is a critical viewpoint towards ordinary QM. Usually photon is represented in space and in time by a distributed packet of waves and this physico-mathematical model generates the Indeterminacy Principle that postulates an intrinsic theoretical uncertainty regarding the measurement and the knowledge of characteristic physical quantities of photon. On the other hand photon is a quantum of electromagnetic energy that is described exactly, without uncertainties, by the Planck relation E=hf and it is at the same time an electromagnetic nanowave described by Maxwell's equations. In the frequency spectrum of e.m. waves, from long waves to delta-Y rays passing for the optical band, there is a threshold frequency, called Planck frequency, that represents the passage from the continuous nature of e.m. waves to the discontinuous and quantum nature of e.m. nanowaves. The theoretical research proves, for greater frequencies than gamma radiation of nuclear origin, the existence of other types of electromagnetic quantum radiations and these radiations are due to the physical behaviour of unstable elementary particles. In the order of delta and delta-Y radiations it is possible to have electromagnetic neutrinos with greater frequencies than 3x1021Hz and the experimental research could gain the realization of neutrino lasers with smallest wavelength, lower than optical nanowaves, and able to reach a precision as far as picometres and femtometres.

Biography

Daniele Sasso is doctor in Electronics Engineering. He has got the degree in 1975 at the Faculty of Engineering of the University Federico II of Naples (Italy). He has taught for more than 30 years Electronics and System Theory at State Technical Institutes. He has performed non-stop, as independent researcher, research activity from 1972 in different sectors of theoretical physics with particular reference to questions of electromagnetism, of propagation of light, of relativity, of quantum physics and of particle physics. Recently he has proposed at the scientific site ResearchGate and is realizing the Project "Manifesto of Contemporary Physics".

Speaker
Daniele Sasso / Independent Researcher, Italy

Abstract

A magnetooptical spectrometer based on the light polarization modulation has been designed. The polarization modulation is created by a photoelastic modulator, which consists of a bar of isotropic fused quartz as an active optical element and a rectangular piezo-ceramic transducer. The photoelastic modulator is inserted in an active oscillator scheme. For the positive feedback an optoelectronic couple connected with the modulator is used. Such type of the positive feedback provide very stable operation and easy start of the active oscillator. For the light source we employ a 500 W Xe-lamp with a quartz condenser and water- and UV-filters with a bandpass in the range of 250-400 nm. E-shape electromagnet provides magnetic field up to 1 T at room temperature and 0.5 T when a cryostat is used. The magnet is designed for both longitudinal and transverse geometries of the magnetic field relative to the light propagation, as well as for both transmission and reflection mode. The cryostat designed to be used with the magnet has a cold finger with a sample holder and provides temperature in the range of 20-300 K. As a monochromator HISW50 monochromator is used. The photomultiplier operates in the constant current mode; such mode provides higher sensitivity at low light intensity. The magnetooptical system is able to provide a sensitivity of 0.004 arc-deg at the wavelength of 380 nm.

Biography

Speaker
Dejun Fu / Wuhan University, China

Abstract

There is a need for an Open Science technology framework to bridge chronic business process and technology disparities between High, Middle, and Low Income Country research collaborators for sustainable partnerships in global health innovation for Precision Medicine efforts associated with infectious and chronic diseases. We will illustrate the use of an Open Science Collaboration framework and technology platform called Project Orchid; a conceptual 3D health intelligence exchange and virtual innovation model designed to support multi-national collaboration efforts in the healthcare and Life Science sectors. The Project Orchid framework aligns to evidenced-based Precision Medicine Knowledge Models that integrate the following data sets for biomarker interrogation, social determinant comparative analysis, screening, prevention and treatment of chronic and infectious disease models: Exposome Genome Transcriptome Epigenome Microbiome Metabolome Clinical Information Epidemiological Data Our hypothesis is that our proposed Open Science framework will enable multidisciplinary research and care delivery partnerships to improve their research approaches for drug discovery efforts and new care model design. The following research scenarios will be highlighted: Our current research proposal with the UCLA School of Medicine, Virginia Tech, the University of Maryland, and the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center which focuses on chronic kidney disease (CKD) biomarker and social determinant research associated with African Americans who suffer the highest rate of CKD and end stage renal disease in the U.S. across all racial groups. TB MDR/XDR multinational virtual research cohort to support 7 different high, middle and low income countries in the U.S. India and Sub-Saharan Africa. The goal is to provide locally sustainable research that aligns to the WHO goals for TB control and healthcare technology enablement for sustainable global health partnerships. The following diagrams illustrate the collaboration framework and the conceptual platform that I will present.

Biography

Kimberly Harding is the founder and president of Monarch Innovation Partners, a technology-based innovation and consulting firm for healthcare and life science organizations worldwide. Ms. Harding has over 26 years of experience in IT product development and thought leadership for U.S. based healthcare agencies, pharma, healthcare payer and providers organizations, and international-based research and development partnerships in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. Ms. Harding led the first U.S. payer to publicly demonstrate clinical data exchange standards between providers and payers. She has recently published her original research for Project Orchid in the Open Access Journal for Nanobiomedicine.

Speaker
Kimberly Harding / FEi Systems, Maryland

Abstract

The crystals of magnesium sulphite hexahydrate (MgSO3.6H2O:Ni) belong to point group C3 (no center of symmetry). They possess gyrotropy and nonlinear optical properties. The refractive index no and ne, the angle of Faraday rotation , the Verdet constant V(), the spin-spin exchange interaction K(), the gyrotropic constant g() and the dipole strength D() of MgSO3.6H2O:Ni crystals single have been studied in the present work. The investigations were carried out in the spectral range 300 – 800 nm with linear polarized light , ( is the optical axis of MgSO3.6H2O) propagated in the direction . The crystals of magnesium sulfite hexahydrate (MgSO3.6H2O) are related to the point group C3 (without symmetry centre) [1]. They are anisotropic, gyrotropic and possess nonlinear optical properties [2]. The impurities provoke changes of electrical, optical and magnetic properties of MgSO3.6H2O [3], [4], [5]. Single crystals of MgSO3.6H2O (pure and doped with Ni, Co, and Zn) for the time being are grown only in the Laboratory for Crystal growth at the Faculty of Physics of Sofia University. The Ni2+ ions replace Mg2+ ions in the crystal lattice of MgSO3.6H2O because they are in the same isomorphous order with Mg2+. The concentration of Ni (0,17 weight %) has been determined by analytical chemistry methods and nickel is added by NiCl.6H2O. The process starts with mixing the Mg- and Ni- bearing solution with the one containing SO32- and S2O52- at 50-60 oC, followed by gradual cooling the joint-solution until it reaches room temperature for a few days. The growth method of MgSO3.6H2O is developed by assoc. prof. Tzanyo Kovachev and it is patented [6]. The unit cell of MgSO3.6H2O contains two structure complexes [7,8]: the octahedron , where the Mg2+ ion is situated in water surroundings and the pyramidal ion . The Zn2+ ions replace magnesium ions in the crystal lattice. The investigated sample of MgSO3.6H2O:Zn has thickness d = 5 mm and possess double polished faces in the direction (0001). The investigations were carried out with linear polarized light , ( is the optical axis of MgSO3.6H2O).

Biography

Petya Petkova M.A. degree - Shumen University "Konstantin Preslavsky", specialty - Physics and Mathematics; Ph.D. degree – Electrical, magnetic and optical properties of condensed matter; Assistant in Shumen University – 1999; Senior Assistant in Shumen University – 2006; Head Assistant in Shumen University – 2008; Associated Professor in Shumen University – 2012. Dr. Petya Petkova have many specializations in different countries as Germany, Poland, Italy, Czech Republic, France and USA in the region of Nano-Photonics, Spintronics, Electronic Structure Calculations, Physics and Chemistry of Strongly Correlated Systems. She authored 60 scientific papers in peer-reviewed Journals. Assoc. Prof. Petya Petkova is the reviewer of Optical Materials, the Journal of Molecular Structure, Mendeleev Communications, Optical EnXXXX has completed his PhD from California Institute of Technology, USA and postdoctoral studies from Yale University, USA. He is the director of XXXX, a premier Bio-Soft service organization. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Speaker
Petya Petkova / Shumen University 'Konstantin Preslavsky', Shumen, Bulgaria

Abstract

Three Nanomaterials are analyzed for their element composition using Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS) Cobalt Titan ate, Silicon Dioxide (Silica) and Silicon Cadmium Titanium dioxide. A Q-switched Nd: YAG pulsed laser with second harmonics (532nm) is used to generate the plasma at the surface of the samples and record the emission spectrums. The elements present in the samples were Co, Ti, O, Si, Cd and Na with varying concentrations. The electron temperature is calculated from Boltzmann plot method. The electron number density is calculated from stark broadening. Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) in comparison is also done and the results showed the same composition except the presence of Sodium is not found in the EDS results

Biography

Sania Saleem is 23 years old. Is currently a student doing Masters of Science in Astronomy and Astrophysics from Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad. Completed her Bachelors of Science in Physics from Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad Pakistan. Interested in the field of laser physics. She has done her thesis work on Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy of Brass and is currently doing research work on Laser induced plasma spectroscopy of Cosmetics and have submitted a research paper on Spectroscopic Analysis of Calcite and Dolomite Marble using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

Speaker
Sania Saleem / Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad Pakistan

Abstract

Nanostructured metal-insulator composites have been investigated as a novel material of field emission applications. We have shown the shape modification of metallic nanoparticles embedded in this silica matrix and their field emission properties. An application in field emission luminescence and imaging has been demonstrated. Nanostructured Si on silicon nitride films has attracted a significant research attention due to its potential application in tunable emission of photons, photoconductivity and photovoltaic applications. Silicon-rich silicon nitride (SRSN) films having two different compositions were irradiated with 100 MeV Ni7+ ions at fluences 5 X 1012 ions/cm2 and 1X1014 ions/cm2. The films, despite having different compositions, show similar microstructural evolution as evidenced in cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Discontinuous tracks, (~2 nm wide) appear at lower fluence which overlap and dissolve at an increased fluence. The corresponding changes in photoluminescence (PL) of the films is investigated with three lasers with the aim of tracking the evolution of different radiative processes in SRSN with ion fluence. The evolution of PL with fluence is well correlated with the microstructural evolution. Results are understood on the basis of thermal spike model of ion-materials interaction. The photovoltaic applications of these SRSN layers are highlighted at the end.

Biography

Santanu Ghosh is working as a Professor in the Department of Physics IITD, India for last 13 years. He is actively involved in the research areas of nanostructure formation, electron emission and photon emission. He has worked as PI in many national and international projects, one of which was sponsored by IAEA, UNO, Viena for outstanding contribution for silicon nitride in optical emission. He has developed various devices based on electron emission from nanocomposite surfaces. He was fellow of DST-BMBF, DST-DAAD, and DST-DFG.

Speaker
Santanu Ghosh / Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India

Abstract

Intensive and blue-enriched electric light has caused increasing problems to human eyes, health, night skies, ecosystems, and even artifacts. These hazards can however be much minimized by selecting lights with lesser blue emission or having a lower color temperature if lighting after dusk or a rather long reading or working time is unavoidable. Luckily, blue hazard free lighting measures such as oil lamps and candles have been available at least for 5,000 years. Nevertheless, energy-wasting as well as other concerns compromise the extensive use of these hydrocarbon burning based lighting tools. In contrast, with the employment of the state-of-the-art organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology, we have been able to generate sensational warmth giving candlelight-style emission with the least blue hazard. Furthermore, it can also be made highly energy-efficient with high light quality. In other words, a good light that is blue hazard free, energy-efficient and high quality is obtai nable from such a candlelight OLED based lighting panel. It is hoped that "Lighting Renaissance" be triggered and hence realized by the light of this invention.

Biography

Jou received his PhD degree in 1986 from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. After then, he worked as a Postdoctoral Visiting Scientist at IBM-Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California, USA, till 1988, before joining National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan. Besides thin film stress, polymeric materials and expert system applications, he has been working on OLED for 26 years. His research interest includes high-efficiency, long lifetime, sunlight-style, candlelight-style, and pseudo natural light OLEDs. Most of his latest attention has been placed on anti-blue hazard and devising blue hazard free, healthy light sources for lighting and displays. He had recently published a universal, easy-to-apply light-quality index, SRI, hoping to replace CRI. Prof. Jou has published more than 140 journal papers and filed or been granted 70 patents. He is the author of 2 textbooks, namely Engineering Ethics and OLED Introduction. His invention-Candlelight OLED has received numerous awards, including IDA Lighting Design Award and Lite-on's Goldern Award of Technology.

Speaker
Jwohuei Jou / National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan

Abstract

Transparent antimony-doped (Sb:SnO2) and undoped tin oxide thin films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique on bare pre-cleaned glass substrates. The figure of merit which was used to optimize the performance of the n-type, transparent conducting Sb:SnO2 films for energy efficient devices applications were determined. The required sheet resistance was determine using Vander-pauw technique which decreases from 20.1 Ω/sq for undoped tin oxide to 17.5 Ω/sq for 20% Sb doped SnO2 which later increased to 18.8 Ω/sq for 30% Sb doped SnO2. The influence of antimony concentration on the physico-structural properties such as volume of the unit cell, crystallite size, volume of the nanoparticles, dislocation density, micro strain, bond length, number of the unit cell, texture coefficient and the lattice parameters were examined using X-ray diffraction technique. The growth mechanism was studied using the standard deviation (σ) mechanism and Fermi energy which was used to examined the film degeneracy. The percentage transmission was found to vary between 80 % to 90 % depending upon the variation of solution concentration. The highest figure of merit 5.10 Ω-1 was obtained for 20% Sb doped SnO2. The lowest figure of merit was obtained for undoped SnO2. This shows that doping SnO2 with Sb makes the device more efficient for energy application. The most favorable device performance was obtained at 20% Sb doped SnO2 showing better transparency and highest figure of merit. The figure of merit of Sb:SnO2 is compared with figure of merit of F:SnO2 reported in our previous work to determine best TCO material. The optical energy band gap for the Sb-SnO2 films (Sb) was determined using effective mass model equation varied between 3.91 and 4.02 eV.

Biography

We will update soon....

Speaker
IBIYEMI ABIDEEN / Federal University, Nigeria

Sessions:

Abstract

The extreme light confinement provided by sub-wavelength metal-dielectric structures pushes towards revisiting the design rules of the photo-detectors. Furthermore, introducing absorbing layers in optical nano-resonators demands a dedicated electromagnetic design. Developing together semiconducting heterostructures and optical nano-antennas opens the way for performance improvements and new functionalities, introducing very promising features such as ultra-thin absorbing layers and device area much smaller than its optical cross-section. High responsivity, high-speed behavior, and carved optical response are among the expected properties of this new generation of photo-detectors. In this talk, I present a GMR InGaAs photo-detector dedicated for imaging applications (FPA) as an illustration of this global design. I discuss the cross-linked properties of the optical and semiconductor structures. Experimental results show at λ = 1.55 μm an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 75% and a specific detectivity of 1013 cm.√Hz.W-1.

Biography

Jean-Luc Pelouard has completed his PhD from Paris-Sud University at Orsay France, and postdoctoral studies from NCSU at Raleigh, NC USA. Since 2000 he is “Directeur de Recherche” at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). He is currently co-managing the Common Research Laboratory MiNaO between CNRS and ONERA that is devoted to both fundamental and applied studies on infrared properties of sub-wavelength nanostructures (more details on minao.fr). He has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals. He holds 15 international patents and has supervised 22 PhD theses.

Speaker
Jean-Luc Pelouard / MiNaO - Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Universite Paris-Saclay, France

Abstract

Previous works considered fishnet metamaterials (MMs) surrounded by air while, in practice, manufacturing of such structures requires support of a bulk substrate, typically a transparent dielectric. The fishnet is a type of plasmonic MMs and the excited plasmons are sensitive to the surrounding media. Moreover, employment of fishnet MMs in multilayer coatings for optical filtering has been proposed recently. Therefore, an adequate approach for retrieval of effective optical parameters of fishnets embedded in a bulk dielectric material or in an optical multilayer coating should be elaborated. An improved analytical method is proposed to retrieve the effective optical constants of fishnet embedded in different bulk materials, from reflection and transmission coefficients. Additionally, a numerical method is proposed to retrieve the effective optical constants of fishnet surrounded by thin film layers. When the input and output adjacent bulk materials or layers are symmetrical, the resonance position shifts to longer wavelength and the absolute value of the negative refractive index of the fishnet decreases with increase of the refractive index of the surrounding dielectric material. When the adjacent surrounding media are asymmetrical, the absolute value of the negative permeability of the fishnet can be increased when the refractive index of the input surrounding material (na) is larger than that of the output material (nb), na>nb, while blue-shift of resonance position occurs when na

Biography

Dr. Guohang Hu (male) graduated in Optical Engineering at Zhejiang University, China(2006). Received his PhD in Optical Engineering at Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (2011). Since 2011, Dr. Hu has been working permanently at SIOM, responsible for laser-material interaction mechanism, fishnet metamaterial in optical coatings, etc. Dr. Hu is co-author of more 40 papers, 30 of which in peer review journals.

Speaker
Guohang Hu / Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China

Abstract

A double rephasing photon echo scheme inherently satisfies no population inversion condition but the resultant absorptive echo has been a dilemma. To overcome the absorptive photon echo problem in the double rephasing scheme, controlled double rephasing echo protocol has been developed, where controlled Rabi flopping between the excited state in a photon echo scheme and an independent auxiliary ground state plays a major role to convert the absorptive echo into an emissive one. Recent demonstration of ac Stark-field modulations in the double rephasing scheme for silencing the first echo generation shows the potential benefits of photon echoes toward all-optical quantum memories. Silencing the first echo in the double rephasing photon echoes plays a major role, unless otherwise the final echo must be affected. Here, a controlled ac Stark photon echo protocol is presented for multi-mode, spatial multiplexing with a near unity retrieval efficiency based on a backward echo scheme. Unlike the rephasing field-based phase matching, whose phase matching is very sensitive to optical paths between the fields, the present one has nothing to do with the rephasing process, and thus gives wide angle flexibility for the spatial multiplexing as demonstrated in a single rephaisng scheme for efficient echo memories.

Biography

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Speaker
B. S. Ham / Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology , S. Korea

Abstract

The accurate determination of resonator state properties for 3-D structures can easily overload computation resources when standard numerical techniques are employed. For structures that conform to a cylindrical coordinate system, a numerical mode solver which exploits the symmetry properties of the resonator design has been developed. The theoretical details leading to the numerical expressions will be presented. The non-standard basis functions utilized make the computation process manageable on a desktop PC. Three different matrix operator forms constructed from Ampere’s and Faraday’s laws will be presented. The inclusion of permittivity and permeability tensors in the expressions permits the inclusion of material anisotropy and open ended boundary conditions through PML border inclusion. Perturbative and iterative techniques are provided and examined based on Bi-isotropic media. The presentation will conclude with a sufficient number of computation examples selected from topics of interest to conference attendees. The concluding aspect of the presentation will discuss how the presented numerical solver can be inverted such that the resonator geometry and material properties can be determined through a “user defined” resonator state. Examples of the inverse technique will be presented.

Biography

Dr. Gauthier has completed his PhD from Dalhousie University, Canada in 1988. He is currently with the Department of Electronics at Carleton University where he teaches and does research in computational electromagnetics for cylindrical and spherical geometry structures. He has published numerous papers in the areas of optical resonators, sensing, quasicrystals and optical waveguides.

Speaker
Robert C. Gauthier / Carleton University, Canada

Abstract

Laser application in medical and surgical fields are well-known and diffuse worldwide. However, laser use in hepato-bilio-pancreatic surgery is at its beginning. We would like to present three main applications: - Laser thermoablation on colorectal liver metastases - Laser lithotripsy for big biliary stones - Laser first application on pancreatic tissue

Biography

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Speaker
Lorenzo Dioscoridi / Niguarda Hospital, Italy

Abstract

One of the most important trends in the development of modern measuring systems is the creation and improvement of fiber-optic sensors of physical quantities, and of devices and systems based on them. With help of the optical interference phenomenon, a change in the phase of optical radiation propagating along the fiber is recorded, that allows registering even faintest physical disturbances, since the sensitivity of the radiation phase within optical fiber to external influences is much higher than the sensitivity of the radiation intensity or polarization. In the high-precision fiber-optic sensors, the single-mode optical fibers operating at the wavelength of 1.55 μm as well as the decoherent depolarized fiber sources of optical radiation are widely used to minimize a false phase modulation. Fiber-optic sources are capable of forming radiation that is stable in time and in a range of temperatures in a single-mode fiber, with a high power (more than 10 mW), with a short decoherence length (less than 1 mm), a wide (more than 20 nm), continuous spectrum being stable in time and temperature range without occurrence of a line structure of longitudinal modes, and being practically depolarized by the output radiation (less than 1%). In this paper, the principles and features of constructing a scheme of a superluminescent fiber optic radiation source are considered for use in the interferometric fiber-optic sensors. The problems of temperature stability, long-term temporal stability, correction of key parameters of the generated radiation and their influence on the accuracy of the fiber-optic measuring system are considered.

Biography

Artem Aleynik has gained his PhD from the ITMO University, Russia. He is an Associate Professor at the Light-Guided Photonics Chair and a Laboratory Head of the "Programmable Electronics" at the ITMO University. He has published more than 15 papers in the worldwide authoritative journals.

Speaker
Artem Aleynik / University of Information Technologies, Russia

Abstract

Wide applications of photonic structures, and large scale realization of photonic devices demand a cost-effective, high spatial resolution, accurate and easy pattern transfer method to fabricate such structures in 1D, 2D and 3D over large area. There are many methods for fabrication of nano-photonic structures which include e-beam lithography, direct laser writing and holographic or interference lithography. Interference lithography (IL) based method is very cost effective where, fast and large area patterning is possible. We investigate a reconfigurable and scalable phase controlled interference lithography approach leading to fabrication of simple as well as complex photonic structures with submicrometer periodic features, in a single step over large area. Fabrications of various photonic structures with feature sizes ranging from ~300nm to many microns have been achieved with potential for many applications such as, photonic circuits, bio-mimetic photonic devices, optical tweezers, biosensors, metamaterials etc.

Biography

Professor Joby Joseph is Professor of Physics and Associate Dean Academics at IIT Delhi. He holds Ph.D degree in Physics and M.Tech. degree in Applied Optics from IIT Delhi and has post-doctoral experience from Japan and USA. He also worked as Senior Optical Engineer at Aprilis Inc., USA, towards the development of an ultra-high density holographic digital data storage device. He is investigator of various research projects from Govt. of India agencies. He is co-inventor in five US patents and has published more than 125 research papers. His research interests are in holographic storage and search methods, Phase controlled interference lithography for photonic structure fabrication, Digital Holography, Optical data security, Optical pattern recognition, Photonic circuits, Biosensors and Photonic Metamaterials.

Speaker
Joby Joseph / Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India

Abstract

Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanoma cells have high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC), which is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. We have developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting photoacoustic signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we have constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals are detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtain the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free optical method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. .

Biography

Professor Xunbin Wei is currently an SPIE Fellow. He obtained his Ph.D. in Biophysics from University of California at Irvine in 1999. He had been a Postdoctoral researcher at Harvard Medical School, and a faculty member at Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, before returning to China in 2006. Prof. Wei was a professor at Department of Chemistry in Fudan University from 2006 to 2010. He joined Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) in 2011 and currently is the head of the Optical Molecular Imaging Laboratory and Distinguished Professor in School of Biomedical Engineering. He has authored and co-authored more than 80 papers in peer reviewed scientific journals, including Nature, PNAS, and Nature Communications. Prof. Wei’s research Interests include optical detection and treatment of cancer disease and neurodegenerative disease. .

Speaker
Xunbin Wei / Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

Abstract

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common human non-melanoma skin cancer. Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is a new anti-cancer therapy combining photothermal therapy and immunotherapy. This study focuses on the effectiveness of LIT on the treatment UV-induced SKH-1 mouse cSCC, using optimal thermal effects on the production of DAMPs and enhancement of tumor immunogenicity using topic imiquimod. Our experiments showed that low temperature increase (37℃, 40℃) had no obvious effect on A431 cell growth, and the intracellular expression and extracellular release of HSP70, HSP90 and HMGB1. Moderate temperature increase (45℃, 50℃) had inhibitory effect on A431 cell growth and could stimulate the release of a large amount of HSP70 and HSP90, especial at 50℃. High temperature increase (55℃, 60℃) led to cell death without affecting intracellular expression and extracellular release of HSP70, HSP90 and HMGB1. Low concentration imiquimod could further increase the release of HSP70, HSP90 and HMGB1 during heat treatment. By choosing optimal temperature (50℃) for laser treatment on cSCC tumors in mice, tumor growth was slowed down and survival time was prolonged. Our experiment clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of LIT in treating cSCC in mice and human being. We also determined an optimal thermal dose (10 min at 50℃) to induce tumor cells death and release of DAMPs from tumor cells and the synergistic effect of imiquimod.

Biography

Dr. Lei Shi is currently a dermatologist of Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Secretary for Photodynamic Therapy Research Center of Chinese Medical Association. Research interests in novel photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy and light/laser therapy for various skin diseases.

Speaker
Lei Shi / University School of Medicine, China

Abstract

In vivo optical imaging the spatio-temporal information in tumor microenvironment is useful to explain how tumor immunotherapies work. However, the lack of fluorescent model antigen with strong immunogenicity makes it difficult to study the dynamics of how tumors are selectively eliminated by any given immune response. Here, we develop an effective fluorescent model antigen based on tetrameric far-red fluorescent protein KatushkaS158A (tfRFP) that elicits both humoral and cellular immunity, with which we dynamically visualize the generation of tumor antigens-containing microparticles and the selective elimination of tumors in vivo. We find that the strong immunogenicity of tfRFP leads to specific suppression of the tumorigenesis of tfRFP-expressing melanoma B16 cells rather than those expressing mCerulean in tfRFP-immunized mice. Long-term intravital imaging reveals the dynamic behavior of immunocytes as they attack and eliminate tumor cells, where swarms of immunocytes rush toward tumors with high motility, clusters of immunocytes form quickly, and large amounts of tfRFP+ microparticles are released from tumor cells and taken up by macrophages in tumor microenvironment. Therefore, tfRFP, as both a model antigen and fluorescent reporter, is a useful tool to visualize specific immune responses in vivo and reveal a new pattern for tumor immunotherapy

Biography

Professor Zhihong Zhang is the director of Division of Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Lab for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) in China. She is the awardee of National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China. Aiming at significant demand for the visualization research of tumor immunotherapy, she devoted in developing novel optical imaging methods for multi-level, multi-molecular parallel detection and targeted labeling in vivo. Her research is also focused on intravital optical molecular imaging for tumor immune, multi-functional lipid nanoparticle for tumor imaging and therapeutics, and fluorescent protein probes and multi-event synchronization imaging in living cells.

Speaker
Zhihong Zhang / National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China

Abstract

Femtosecond Laser Direct Writing (FLDW) allows 3D highly localized permanent modifications with minimal collateral damages. Up to date no other manufacturing process has the potential to integrate 3D multifunctional devices made in a single monolithic chip and within a variety of transparent materials. In 2003, Shimotsuma et al. reveal that self-organized nanolayers made up by the light can be generated in the volume of fused silica [1]. Nanostructures formed during this process, frequently referred to as nanogratings, exhibit a number of interesting properties including anisotropic light scattering, wavelength-dependent reflectivity, a strong form birefringence (typ 10-2) with a high thermal stability but also circular optical properties 2. The laser-structured area behaves as a micron-size waveplate, whose retardance and slow axis orientation, can be controlled by the pulse energy and polarization of the writing beam. By spatially varying birefringence one can introduce 3D geometrical phase allowing demonstration of thin optical elements such as beam shapers, diffraction gratings or microlenses. Recently, these properties were successfully harnessed for multiple practical applications including polarization optics, microfluidics, polarization selective holography and ultrastable optical data storage. For a long time, nanogratings were only observed in a handful of materials. This contradicts the context of surface periodic nanostructures, known as surface ripples, which were observed virtually on any type of material ranging from amorphous and crystalline dielectrics to semiconductors and metals. However, nanogratings were later observed in the bulk of crystalline materials such as TeO2 and Sapphire. Furthermore, doping of pure silica glass with Ge, F, and P was demonstrated to affect nanogratings formation. Recently, evidence for femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings has been observed in glasses other than SiO2, including several studies reported nanogratings in binary SiO2-GeO2 glasses and GeO2 glass, binary TiO2-SiO2 glass (ULE, Corning), multicomponent glasses like alumino-borosilicate glasses and more recently in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glasses in the form of a self-assembly lamellar structure of oriented nanocrystals in-between thin amorphous silica walls. Silicon and germanium dioxide are formed by a three-dimensional network of [GeO4] or [SiO4] tetrahedra with all bridging oxygen atoms. ULE glass also possesses structure similar to pure SiO2 in which Ti atoms substitute for Si in the same structural sites. In contrast BK7, AF32 and Borofloat33 are multicomponent alumina-borosilicate glasses with a more complex chemical structure and a lower viscosity. Unexpectedly, laser-induced nanostructures observed in Borofloat33 glass demonstrated an extremely fine period of 60 nm. This could be explained by the recent simulations of Rudenko et al. [3] who confirm the role played by interfering scattering waves and show that the quasi-periodicity (λ/pn with p=2, 3, 4) is determined by the chemical inhomogeneity density. Nanostructures in BK7 glass were not revealed using scanning electron microscopy despite the induced retardance was of the same level as in Borofloat33. The growth of the induced retardance associated with the nanogratings formation is three orders of magnitude slower than in silica glass and is observed only within a narrow range of pulse energies and pulse durations (typ. 150–200 fs). However, in alkali-free alumino-borosilicate (AF32, Schott) the strength of retardance asymptotically approaches the value typically measured in pure silica glass, which could be attractive for practical applications. Surprisingly, we recently revealed that the appearance of form birefringence is related to the formation of porous nanolayers resulting from silica glass decomposition [4] and more generally a phase separation as we observed in Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2. This is likely produced through a mechanism that requires defects to be produced by the plasma and record its structure. The decomposition efficiency is determined by the glass ability to produce point defects and the energy necessary for glass decomposition that explain for example the larger decomposition observed in Ge-doped silica and GeO2. In combination of previous observations, this review provides a more complete physico-chemical landscape on the formation of nanogratings and their properties in bulk oxide glasses.

Biography

Matthieu Lancry is associated professor at the Institute of Molecular Chemistry and Materials of Orsay (ICMMO) of the University Paris Saclay. He obtains his PhD in 2004 within the photonic team of the Laboratory of Physics of the Lasers, Atoms and Molecules (PhLAM) under the direction of Marc Douay and Pierre Niay. In 2005, he joined the consortium Alcatel/Draka Comteq in order to work in the silica expertise group. Since 2007, M. Lancry is permanent associate Professor at the University of Paris Sud. He leads the Advanced Materials Group for photonics and the FLAG network, which promotes applications from volume writing with femtosecond laser. His actual interest is the frontier knowledge of silica-based materials manufacturing and their nano/micro-structuration by means of femtosecond laser irradiation and this in order to contribute in the development of applications in the polarimetry, optical telecommunication and high power laser fields.

Speaker
Matthieu Lancry / University Paris Saclay, Orsay, France

Abstract

These studies were carried out within the framework of the project RSF 15-19-20013 and are conducted in the interests of developing the largest Russian solar telescopes. The task is to provide high quality images of large solar telescopes in the presence of strong atmospheric turbulence. In recent years, the following achievements have been achieved: - on the basis of long-term monitoring turbulence features and a turbulence model for two astrophysical observatories, which includes vertical profiles of intensity of turbulence and wind speed, have been studied, - with the use of reanalysis data and direct observations by optical and meteorological instruments, the data of the quality of vision are collected and systematized, - an optical scheme for the introduction of a multi-mirror adaptive optics (AO) system into the path of the telescopes, - developed a highly effective Russian system of correction of wave-front tilt (tip-tilt), - based on the GE-1500 camera, a high-speed correlation wave-front sensor equipped with a quick-change and alignment block for diffractive microrasters with dimensions from 8X8 to 32X32 subapertures is created, - the original Image Quality Analyzer is introduced into the optical scheme, it allows to calculate image quality parameters, select individual images frames, and also allows for additional computer image processing (post-processing) in order to minimize residual distortion, - multi-mirror AO system has various control algorithms, including, based on the "forecasting" of the evolution process.

Biography

Speaker
Vladimir Lukin / VE Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS , Russian Federation

Abstract

In analogy to electron waves, electromagnetic waves also carry spin and orbital angular momentum (AM) and this property has been fascinating the world of optical science and engineering for many years. With the rise of nanotechnology, photonic systems can now be fabricated at the length scale of nanometers, manifesting many intriguing phenomena including the spin-orbit interaction in an observable extent. The polarization, the spatial field distribution, and the propagation direction are no longer treated separately and control one with another has become feasible. Plasmonic arrays are one of the most popular nanophotonic systems owing to their simplicity and well-defined structures for yielding controllable optical properties. They have been used in extraordinary transmission, fluorescence, photovoltaics, nonlinear optics, sensing, etc. In addition, since surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) carry transverse spin AM, they should modify the AM of the outgoing radiation under the conservation of angular momentum. Unfortunately, this transverse spin is not properly taken into consideration even though plasmonic research has been carried out for years. Here, I will talk about the AM of light from plasmonic crystals. We have observed substantial polarization conversion and spin-orbital coupling from square lattice circular nanohole arrays, which do not possess intrinsic chirality. We find the transverse spin AM possessed by SPPs play a deterministic role in governing the far-field radiation. The experimental results are supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations and temporal coupled mode theory. Based on the AM study, we propose the AM can be used as a new parameter in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. As the transverse spin AM of SPPs is strongly dependent on the complex propagation wavevector, which is sensitive to the change of the local refractive index, the change in the AM of light thus reflects the sensing environment. The performance of the spin-SPR will be discussed.

Biography

Professor Hock Chun Ong is an Associate Professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He has been working on plasmonics for years. His research interest focuses on the plasmon mediated fluorescence and sensing by using plasmonic crystals. In particular, he has developed the temporal coupled mode theory in understanding the underlying mechanisms of decay dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons, emission enhancement, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and polarization conversion. He obtained his BA in Chemistry and PhD in Materials Science and Engineering both from Northwestern University, USA. He has been delivering more than 50 invited talks in international conferences and is in Editorial broad in several journals.

Speaker
H.C. Ong / The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong

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