Scientific Program

Keynote Talks

Abstract

Miniature chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins play critical roles in DNA replication licensing, initiation and elongation. MCM8, one of the MCM proteins playing a critical role in DNA repairing and recombination, was found to have over-expression and increased DNA copy number in a variety of human malignancies. The gain of MCM8 is associated with aggressive clinical features of several human cancers. Increased expression of MCM8 in prostate cancer is associated with cancer recurrence. Forced expression of MCM8 in RWPE1 cells, the immortalized but non-transformed prostate epithelial cell line, exhibited fast cell growth and transformation, while knocked down of MCM8 in PC3, DU145 and LNCaP cells induced cell growth arrest, and decreased tumor volumes and mortality of severe combined immunodeficiency mice xenografted with PC3 and DU145 cells. MCM8 bound cyclin D1 and activated Rb protein phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in vitro and in vivo. The cyclin D1/MCM8 interaction is required for Rb phosphorylation and S phase entry in cancer cells. As a result, our study showed that copy number increase and overexpression of MCM8 may play critical roles in human cancer development.

Biography

Dr. Luo been studying molecular pathology related to human malignancies in the last 25 years. Currently, he is a Professor of Pathology and Director of High Throughput Genome Center at University of Pittsburgh. In the last 17 years, Dr. Luo has been largely focusing on genetic and molecular mechanism of human prostate and hepatocellular carcinomas. In this period, his group has identified and characterized several genes that are related to prostate cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, including SAPC, myopodin, CSR1, GPx3, ITGA7, MCM7, MT1h and GPC3. He has characterized several signaling pathways that play critical role in prostate cancer development, including Myopodin-ILK-MCM7 inhibitory signaling, myopodin-zyxin motility inhibition pathway, CSR1-CPSF3, CSR1-SF3A3 and CSR1-XIAP apoptotic pathways, MT1h-EHMT1 egigenomic signaling, ITGA7-HtrA2 tumor suppression pathway, GPx3-PIG3 cell death pathway, AR-MCM7 and MCM7-SF3B3 oncogenic pathways. He proposed prostate cancer field effect in 2002. He is one of the pioneers in utilizing high throughput gene expression and genome analyses to analyze field effects in prostate cancer and liver cancer. He is also the first in using methylation array and whole genome methylation sequencing to analyze prostate cancer. Dr. Luos group found that patterns of copy number variants of certain specific genome loci are predictive of prostate cancer clinical outcomes, regardless tissue origin. Recently, his group discovered several novel fusion transcripts and their association with aggressive prostate cancer. One of the fusion genes called MAN2A1-FER, was found present in 6 different types of human cancers. He later defined a critical MAN2A1-FER/EGFR signaling pathway that is essential for MAN2A1-FER mediated transformation activity. In addition, his group developed a genome intervention approach to treat human cancers that are positive for fusion gene. Overall, these findings advance our understanding on how cancer develops and behaves, and lay down the foundation for better future diagnosis and treatment of human malignancies.

Speaker
Jianhua Luo / University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine ,USA

Abstract

The purpose of this keynote speech is to highlight new discoveries that demonstrate that electric near-field phenomena enable certain highly sophisticated spatial-temporal neurological networks of the brain and to demonstrate the near-field transceiver and electrically short antenna technologies that can be employed to passively sense and actively train the activity of these neurological networks. These game changing advances have exceptional impact for noninvasive diagnosis and treatment of neurological dysfunction and allow us to imagine the brains neurological networks as part of a larger, external network that may be used to control and command sophisticated prosthetic devices. This keynote speech will cover the following points: 1) Brief description of the wired brain network (Human Connectome) and the wireless brain network responsible for rapid interconnection between different regions of the brain and the subsequent execution of certain cognitive tasks. 2) Brief description (intensity levels, spatialtemporal characteristics, etc.) of the electric near-field (the brains endogenous field) that enables communication, competition and cooperation between different elements of the brain. 3) Presentation of the design of an extremely low-noise, near field transceiver for sensing the brains endogenous fields and for creating exogenous fields (fields created external to the brain) to interact with the brains fields. 4) An example of how the innovative transceiver can be used for the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of neurological dysfunctions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Alzheimers Disease. 5) An example of how coupling into the brains spatial-temporal wireless network can be realized and how the resultant information flow into an external network can be employed to realize natural 3-D movement in human prostheses and control of other devices.

Biography

Salvatore Domenic Morgera, Ph.D., P.Eng., NAI, FIEEE, FAAAS, has focused on networks all his professional life. He, and the teams he has worked with, are responsible for the Canadian oceanographic data gathering networks, the acoustic networks for American submarine tactical and strategic communications, the worldwide CAT3 auto-landing networks for commercial aircraft, and the military wireless networks used in sensitive and difficult parts of the world. In the last decade, he has turned his attention to living networks, the neurological networks of the brain and has made two discoveries: certain nerve fibers of the brain communicate, compete, and cooperate with one another, thereby forming a highly sophisticated spatial-temporal network, and, further, this interaction is enabled by reactive electric near-field waves whose levels can be measured outside the brain and whose structure is an indicator of brain health.

Speaker
Salvatore Domenic Morgera / University of South Florida, USA

Abstract

Since ancient times people interested in the question of the existence of the language of animals. In the study of marriage, territorial , group , etc., animal behavior has become clear that a variety of animals (mammals, birds, fish, insects , crustaceans, molluscs, etc.) using different kinds of signs (semiotic means) to interact with each other. These semiotic means are analog of language of animals. This circumstance became the basis for emergence of biosemiotics (zoosemiotics) as the discipline studying semiotics means of living beings (F.S.Rothschild, Yu.S.Stepanov, Th.Sebeok). Clarification in the 1950-60th of structure and functioning a genetic code (J.Watson, F.Crick, F.Jacob, J.Monod) led to understanding of that genetic processes have the semiotics nature. After that it became clear that any biological life has the semiotics nature and it is necessary to speak about semiotics realized biology (H.Pattee). Thus many fundamental biological processes have the semiotics nature. These are the genetic code, signal peptides, neurotransmitters, antigen-antibody immune interactions, hormones , conditioned reflex reaction, telergona, pheromones , attractants, etc. It is very interesting that basic biosemiotic objects have nano-dimensions (diameter of DNA molecule is 2 nm, step of spiral is 3 nm; the size of t-RNA, signal oligopeptides, antibodies are 5-20 nm; synaptic bubbles 50 nm, diameter of sticks of retina of eye 6 nm, etc.). In that case it appears that biosemiotics processes are natural nanobiotechnologies (A.M.Ugolev), biosemiotic researches are laboratory biosemiotic nanobiotechnologies, and methods of genetic engineering, editing of a genome, screening of a genome, molecular therapy, etc. are industrial biosemiotics nanobiotechnologies.

Biography

Sergey Chebanov, Dr. Sci. (in mathematical&structural linguistics and ontology and theory of knowledge) is Professor at Department of Mathematical Linguistics, University of St.-Petersburg. He graduated physico-math.sec. school № 239 (St.-Petersburg) in 1970 and Dept. of Biology and Soil Science, University of St.-Petersburg in 1976 (Masters in microbiology). He worked in Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All-Union Research Institute of Oil, Institute of Geology and Geochronology of Precambrian, Inst. of the Earth's Crust of St.Petersburg University, S.M.Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, St.-Petersburg School of Religion and Philosophy, St. Petersburg State Technical University, Baltic State Technical University "VOENMEH", Institute of National Model of Economy, etc. His research interest include specialized activities hermeneutics (cognitological hermeneutics, non-fiction hermeneutics), theoretical biology, biohermeneutics, classification theory, pedagogy, Precambrian paleontology, crystallogenesis. He is member of International Association for Semiotic Studies (since 1999) and its Executive Committee (2004-2014), International Society J. von Uexkull (Tartu, since 1993), the Linguistic Society of St. Petersburg. He is author about 390 publications (include 4 books, 1 invention certificate, 3 TV program), editor of several books, co-author of LINDA multifunctional automatic text processing system and new method of producing defectless crystal.

Speaker
Sergey V. Chebanov / St.-Petersburg University, Russia

Abstract

The female uterus as the cradle of human development prior to birth serves many good purposes, but some times requires also complex surgical procedures and has to be resected out of its unique localization within the female pelvis. Extended hysterectomy procedures cannot be separated from pre- and postsurgical aspects or from procedures on the internal genital organs or those involving the anatomical and functionally relevant surrounding area. The most advanced diagnostic and treatment concepts of our time involve a cooperation of medical technical industry, imaging, genetics, anatomic knowledge and surgical skills . Global demands of unlimited exchange give access to the worldwide community interested in this topic and contribute to the global improvement of healthcare for women.

Biography

Professor Dr Med Liselotte Mettler was born in Vienna, Austria. From 1959-1981 she did her medical studies, doctorate, gynaecological specialist training,habilitation and professorship in Tubingen, Vienna and Kiel, Germany and Austria. From 1981-2007 she was Deputy Director of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and director of the Division of Reproductive Medicine and Endoscopic Surgery. She is married and has 3 sons and 3 granchildren Her main fields of activity are Reproductive Medicine, Gynaecological Endoscopy and Gynaecological Endocrinology. Prof. Mettler is actively participating in many societies and organizations. She has written over 700 publications, 20 books and 9 textbooks 3 in 2017. Since 1973 she attended nearly all major endoscopic and IVF - conferences in the world, particularly all ESGE,AAGL and SLS as well as ESHRE and IAHR meetings. She is an Excel Award Winner of SLS. She was president of many of these Societies Since 2008 she is Emeritus professor at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Honorary Patron of the Kiel School of Gyne Endoscopy and Reproductive Medicine, lecturer at the German Medical Center, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai, U.A.E and Executive Director of the International Academy of Human reproduction (IAHR) In April 2015 she was awarded the Honorary Doctoral degree at TABRIZ UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCSIENCES . Iran, in 2016 of the Medical University of Moskau and in 2016 she received the honorary membership of the German Society of GynecologicalEndoscopy and of the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics . She also became an Honorary fellow of ACOG in 2017. She was awarded the Adjunct Professorship of the University of Vienna, Austria in 2016.

Speaker
LISELOTTE METTLER / University Hospitals Schleswig Holstein,GERMANY

Sessions:

Biomedical Engineering

Abstract

Carbon dots (C-dots) have recently attracted enormous attention in various fields due to their unique properties. In this talk, the synthesis, characterization and bioapplications of a new type of nontoxic, water-soluble C-dots will be presented. A major medical challenge one faces to treat central nervous system (CNS) related diseases is to cross the tight junctions between endothelial cells, which are known as blood–brain barrier (BBB). Recently, our in vivo experimental observations suggested that the transferrin conjugated C-dots could enter the CNS of Zebrafish while C-dots alone could not. In another application, C-dots are easily conjugated with transferrin and anticancer drug doxorubicin; the system was then applied as a drug delivery system for the delivery of doxorubicin into cancerous cells. Our in vitro study showed greater uptake of the conjugates compared to free doxorubicin, the conjugates at 10 nM was significantly more cytotoxic than doxorubicin alone, reducing viability by 14~45 %, across multiple pediatric brain tumor cell lines. Accidents, disease and aging compromise the structural and physiological functions of bones, and in vivo bone imaging test is critical to identify, detect and diagnose bone related development and dysfunctions. Here we show that C-dots bind to calcified bone structures of live zebrafish larvae with high affinity and selectivity. Retention of C-dots by bones was very stable, long lasting, and with no detectable toxicity. These observations support a novel and revolutionary use of C-dots as highly specific bioagents for bone imaging and diagnosis, and as a potential bone-specific drug delivery carrier.

Biography

Roger M. Leblanc received his B. S. in chemistry in 1964 from Université Laval, Canada, and Ph. D. in physical chemistry in1968 from the same university. From 1968 to 1970, he was a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Prof. George Porter, FRS, in Davy Faraday Research Lab, the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Currently Dr. Leblanc is Professor and Chair of Department of Chemistry at University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, United States. He has published more than 500 scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals. As a professor, he has supervised more than 100 M.S. and Ph.D. students

Speaker
Roger M. Leblanc / University of Miami, USA

Abstract

New paradigms in the research and development of nanocarbon thin films are providing the bases for new physics, new materials science and chemistry, and their impact in a new generation of multifunctional biomedical devices. This talk will focus on discussing the science and technology of thenew paradigm material named ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCDTM) in thin film form and integration into a new generation of medical devices and implants as described below: UNCDfilms co-developed and patented by O. Auciello and colleagues are synthesized by novel microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and hot filament chemical vapor deposition techniques using an Ar-rich/CH4 chemistry that produces films with 2-5 nm grains.The fundamental science underlying the synthesis and properties of the UNCD films and applications to devices will be discussed. The UNCD films exhibit the lowest friction coefficient (0.02-0.04) compared with metals (≥ 0.5) currently used in many prostheses (e.g., hips, knees), electrically conductive UNCD coatings with nitrogen in grain boundaries can enable a new generation of neural electrodes, UNCD coatings are extremely biocompatible. Original Biomedical Implants (OBI-USA) and OBI-México, founded by Auciello and colleagues, are developing new generations of implantable medical devices based on the biocompatible UNCD coatings, namely: a) UNCD-coated silicon based microchip implantable inside the eye as a key component of the artificial retina to return partial vision to blind people by genetically-induced degeneration of photoreceptors; b) new generation of Li-ion batteries with ≥ 10x longer life and safer, using UNCD-based electrodes, membranes and inner wall battery case, enable next generation of defibrillator/pacemakers; c) new generation of implantable prostheses (e.g., dental implants, hips, knees) coated with UNCD eliminates failure of current metal-based implants due to synergistic mechanical wear / chemical corrosion by body fluids; d) UNCD-coated polymer with brain neurons tailored stiffness enables next generation less invasive electrodes for neural stimulation.

Biography

Auciello graduated with honors with M.S. (1973) and Ph.D (1976) degrees in Physics from the Physics Institute “Dr. Balseiro” (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo-Argentina). EE-University of Córdoba-Argentina (1970). Researcher-University of Toronto-Canada (1979-1984), Associate Professor-NCSU-USA (1985-1988), Distinguished Scientist-MCNC-USA (1988-1996), Distinguished Argonne Fellow (1996-2012)-Argonne National Laboratory-USA. Currently, Auciello is Distinguished Endowed Chair-University of Texas-Dallas. Auciello is directing basic and applied research programs on multifunctional oxide and novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films and application to industrial, high-tech, and medical devices. The UNCD film technology is commercialized for industrial products by Advanced Diamond Technologies, founded by Auciello and colleagues, (2003, profitable in 2014), and by Original Biomedical Implants (OBI-USA, 2013) and OBI-México (2016) for medical devices. Auciello has edited 20 books and published about 500 articles in several fields, holds 20 patents, He is associate editor of APL and Integrated Ferroelectrics, He was President of the Materials Research Society (2013) Auciello is Fellow of AAAS andMRS

Speaker
Orlando Auciello / University of Texas , USA

Abstract

Miniature chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins play critical roles in DNA replication licensing, initiation and elongation. MCM8, one of the MCM proteins playing a critical role in DNA repairing and recombination, was found to have over-expression and increased DNA copy number in a variety of human malignancies. The gain of MCM8 is associated with aggressive clinical features of several human cancers. Increased expression of MCM8 in prostate cancer is associated with cancer recurrence. Forced expression of MCM8 in RWPE1 cells, the immortalized but non-transformed prostate epithelial cell line, exhibited fast cell growth and transformation, while knocked down of MCM8 in PC3, DU145 and LNCaP cells induced cell growth arrest, and decreased tumor volumes and mortality of severe combined immunodeficiency mice xenografted with PC3 and DU145 cells. MCM8 bound cyclin D1 and activated Rb protein phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in vitro and in vivo. The cyclin D1/MCM8 interaction is required for Rb phosphorylation and S phase entry in cancer cells. As a result, our study showed that copy number increase and overexpression of MCM8 may play critical roles in human cancer development.

Biography

Dr. Luo been studying molecular pathology related to human malignancies in the last 25 years. Currently, he is a Professor of Pathology and Director of High Throughput Genome Center at University of Pittsburgh. In the last 17 years, Dr. Luo has been largely focusing on genetic and molecular mechanism of human prostate and hepatocellular carcinomas. In this period, his group has identified and characterized several genes that are related to prostate cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, including SAPC, myopodin, CSR1, GPx3, ITGA7, MCM7, MT1h and GPC3. He has characterized several signaling pathways that play critical role in prostate cancer development, including Myopodin-ILK-MCM7 inhibitory signaling, myopodin-zyxin motility inhibition pathway, CSR1-CPSF3, CSR1-SF3A3 and CSR1-XIAP apoptotic pathways, MT1h-EHMT1 egigenomic signaling, ITGA7-HtrA2 tumor suppression pathway, GPx3-PIG3 cell death pathway, AR-MCM7 and MCM7-SF3B3 oncogenic pathways. He proposed prostate cancer field effect in 2002. He is one of the pioneers in utilizing high throughput gene expression and genome analyses to analyze field effects in prostate cancer and liver cancer. He is also the first in using methylation array and whole genome methylation sequencing to analyze prostate cancer. Dr. Luo’s group found that patterns of copy number variants of certain specific genome loci are predictive of prostate cancer clinical outcomes, regardless tissue origin. Recently, his group discovered several novel fusion transcripts and their association with aggressive prostate cancer. One of the fusion genes called MAN2A1-FER, was found present in 6 different types of human cancers. He later defined a critical MAN2A1-FER/EGFR signaling pathway that is essential for MAN2A1-FER mediated transformation activity. In addition, his group developed a genome intervention approach to treat human cancers that are positive for fusion gene. Overall, these findings advance our understanding on how cancer develops and behaves, and lay down the foundation for better future diagnosis and treatment of human malignancies.

Speaker
Jianhua Luo / University of Pittsburgh, USA

Abstract

Hospitals and health care providers are striving to reduce health care cost without compromising the quality of health care and appropriate medical diagnosis. They are becoming more aware of the importance of medical devices calibration in their health care facilities, and the impact it has on both the quality of health services provided to the patients, and patient’s safety. Healthcare providers are beginning to realize that the maintenance of medical devices alone, without assuring proper calibration, may not be sufficient enough to ensure proper function, adequate and reliable measurements. Accurate and reliable measurements are crucial for appropriate medical decisions. On the contrary, un-calibrated medical devices may lead to imprecise measurements. These measurements will have a significant negative impact on the quality of the healthcare provided to patients and might increase the healthcare cost by subjecting patients to excessive medical treatment. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 20.5 % from total asset (1034) of high risk medical devices representing 6 devices categories. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of calibration of medical devices on performance and patient’s safety by investigating devices performance against international standard reference or manufacturer recommendations. 34% of the sample failed the visual test, 5% failed the safety test, and 58% failed the performance test. However, it is important to note that there was no death or serious incidents associated with these devices. In conclusion, these devices do not meet the international standard and continued use of such devices can compromise patient’s safety.

Biography

Speaker
Saleh Altayyar / King Saud University , Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Importance of biomedical engineering field is ever growing with the focus of health quality demands and its safe practices in Nepal. One side, the remoteness gives challenges to this industry whereas the other side; have to consider the health care seekers choice of right of treatment near to their home. However, the trends of recent day practices have been growing and improved, dramatically both in private and government hospitals; the best practice and performance of biomedical equipment is needed to ensure safety, accuracy and expected results on time. Recently, Ministry of Health successfully outsourced the “Nationwide Maintenance Services of Biomedical Equipment” (IFB No: DoHS/MC-2016/Lot-1/Lot-2/Lot-3) program which is supported under the technical collaboration and assistance from the management4health (m4h) GmbH, Germany and KFW Development Bank, Germany. Implementation of this program is one of the big challenges due to use of the sophisticated equipment in remote part of country and its regular management. Program comprises the PLAMAHS (Planning and Management of Assets in Health Service) unique database system that has been designed for the specific purpose for Nepal first time in the South Asia. A major contractor like Medilux Systems has involved in Lot-3 program ensuring the set up plan of actions like Planned Preventive Maintenance (PPM) and Curative Maintenance (CM) of the regular safety inspections that will cut down the chances of failure. The contractor also established three respective workshops covering 30 districts of far-western remote place of Nepal and a head office incorporating a strong team of management that is responsible for HR mobilization and strategic planning. Finally, the efficacy of this expected program is to improve overall public health status in remote place of Nepal within 4 years of stipulated time period.

Biography

Bikash B. Shrestha is Associated Professor and Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering at Advanced Engineering College & Management, Tribhuvan University, where he has been since 2016. He also currently serves as President of Biomedical Engineering Foundation Nepal (BEFON). From 2008-Till now he is a Visiting Associate Professor at the College of Biomedical Engineering and Applied Sciences, Purbanchal University and from 2001-Till now he is a Visiting Associate Professor at the Institute of Technology, Tribhuvan University. He received a B.Sc. Engineering from Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology in 1993.He received his M.Tech. in Biomedical Engineeringfrom the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)of Banaras Hindu University at Varanasi, India in 2001. From 1994 to 2016 he worked at Shree Birendra Hospital, Nepal Army in Kathmandu Nepal, eventually as a Senior Biomedical Engineer.

Speaker
Bikash Bahadur Shrestha / Advanced College of Engineering & Management , India

Abstract

The purpose of this keynote speech is to highlight new discoveries that demonstrate that electric near-field phenomena enable certain highly sophisticated spatial-temporal neurological networks of the brain and to demonstrate the near-field transceiver and electrically short antenna technologies that can be employed to passively sense and actively train the activity of these neurological networks. These game changing advances have exceptional impact for noninvasive diagnosis and treatment of neurological dysfunction and allow us to imagine the brain’s neurological networks as part of a larger, external network that may be used to control and command sophisticated prosthetic devices. This keynote speech will cover the following points: 1) Brief description of the wired brain network (Human Connectome) and the wireless brain network responsible for rapid interconnection between different regions of the brain and the subsequent execution of certain cognitive tasks. 2) Brief description (intensity levels, spatial-temporal characteristics, etc.) of the electric near-field (the brain’s endogenous field) that enables communication, competition and cooperation between different elements of the brain. 3) Presentation of the design of an extremely low-noise, near-field transceiver for sensing the brain’s endogenous fields and for creating exogenous fields (fields created external to the brain) to interact with the brain’s fields. 4) An example of how the innovative transceiver can be used for the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of neurological dysfunctions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Alzheimer’s Disease. 5) An example of how coupling into the brain’s spatial-temporal wireless network can be realized and how the resultant information flow into an external network can be employed to realize natural 3-D movement in human prostheses and control of other devices.

Biography

Salvatore Domenic Morgera, Ph.D., P.Eng., NAI, FIEEE, FAAAS, has focused on networks all his professional life. He, and the teams he has worked with, are responsible for the Canadian oceanographic data gathering networks, the acoustic networks for American submarine tactical and strategic communications, the worldwide CAT3 auto-landing networks for commercial aircraft, and the military wireless networks used in sensitive and difficult parts of the world. In the last decade, he has turned his attention to living networks, the neurological networks of the brain and has made two discoveries: certain nerve fibers of the brain communicate, compete, and cooperate with one another, thereby forming a highly sophisticated spatial-temporal network, and, further, this interaction is enabled by reactive electric near-field waves whose levels can be measured outside the brain and whose structure is an indicator of brain health.

Speaker
Salvatore Domenic Morgera / University of South Florida, USA

Abstract

Microfluidic systems have advanced to provide high-throughput and precise methods to enrich and isolate extremely rare cells from blood samples. Some of the rare circulating non-hematopoietic cell types that have been defined to date includes endothelial progenitor, circulating tumor and mesenchymal stem cells. However, a large majority of the rare stem and progenitor cells have not been studied systematically in-depth and their roles in organism level response to a variety of stresses are mostly unknown. In this talk, I will review the recent advances in this field by other groups and then present our work at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Main subject areas will be on microfluidic approaches to enriching circulating stem and progenitor cells, defining these rare cells in phenotypic marker space via isolation and characterization from tissues that are rich in these cells and high dimensional analyses, and finally characterizing their response to stresses that are relevant in important clinical applications.

Biography

Murat Karabacak is Instructor in Surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School and Investigator at Shriners Hospital for Children-Boston, where he has been since 2011. He received a B.S. in Chemistry from Bilkent University in 2005, and his Ph.D. in Chemistry and Quantitative Biology from Brandeis University in 2010.

Speaker
Nezihi Murat Karabacak / Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, USA

Abstract

Nanomedicine has become one of the most attractive avenues to promote targeted delivery and increase bioavailability of drugs that fail to spontaneously pass the cell membrane due to their high hydrophobicity and low solubility. As a result, over the past two decades an enormous body of knowledge has been developed where nanostructured materials served as the main platforms for conjugation and subsequent intracellular delivery of various pharmacological agents for the treatment of different conditions including several types of cancer, Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s. Despite the important success both in vitro and vivo of the proposed vehicles, a major challenge is to assure that the delivered therapeutics remain active upon delivery. This is mostly due to the formation of endosomes that act as traps for the delivered molecules. To overcome this major issue, we proposed the conjugation of a transmembrane protein from E.Coli to nanostructured materials and particularly to magnetite nanoparticles. The vehicle was successfully tested in liposomes, Vero cells and Monocytes. Our findings suggest that the obtained nanobioconjugate is capable of translocating the cell membrane and bypass intracellular endosomal routes. Due to the potency of this novel vehicle, we are exploring applications in the delivery of therapeutics for the treatment of Parkinson´s disease in primary Astrocyte cultures.

Biography

Juan C. Cruz received his undergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering from the National University of Colombia (2002), and his doctorate in Chemical Engineering from Kansas State University (2010) for work on a novel platform for enzyme immobilization to address challenges in non-aqueous biocatalysis. He was then a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at The Johns Hopkins University in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering (2010-2011). At Johns Hopkins, Cruz developed a number of projects focused on state-of-the-art biophysical techniques to answer compelling questions in protein-lipid interactions. Cruz is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the Biophysical Society. Dr. Cruz serves as a reviewer for Bioresource Technology, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Biotechnology Progress, and Journal of Biotechnology.

Speaker
Juan Cruz / Universidad de los Andes , Colombia

Abstract

Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited selfrepair properties. Currently, the therapeutic use of autologous or allogenic chondrocytes makes up an alternative therapy to the pharmacological treatment. The design of a bioprinted 3D cartilage with chondrocytes and biodegradable biomaterials offers a new therapeutic alternative able of bridging the limitations of current therapies in the field. We have developed an enhanced printing processes-Injection Volume Filling (IVF) to increase the viability and survival of the cells when working with high temperature thermoplastics without the limitation of the scaffold geometry in contact with cells. We have demonstrated the viability of the printing process using chondrocytes for cartilage regeneration. An alginate-based hydrogel combined with human chondrocytes (isolated from osteoarthritis patients) was formulated as bioink-A and the polylactic acid as bioink-B. The bioprinting process was carried out with the REGEMAT V1 bioprinter (Regemat 3D, Granada-Spain) through a IVF. The printing capacity of the bioprinting plus the viability and cell proliferation of bioprinted chondrociytes was evaluated after five weeks by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue Assay (Biorad). Results showed that the IVF process does not decrease the cell viability of the chondrocytes during the printing process as the cells do not have contact with the thermoplastic at elevated temperatures. The viability and cellular proliferation of the bioprinted artificial 3D cartilage increased after 5 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential use of Regemat V1 for 3D bioprinting of cartilage and the viability of bioprinted chondrocytes in the scaffolds for application in regenerative medicine.

Biography

Gloria Pinilla García, phD in "Advanced therapies: differentiation, regeneration and cancer" IBIMER,CIBM, Universidad de Granada and Business Developer at REGEMAT 3D, the first Spanish bioprinting company. Molecular biologist and great enterprenour, focusing her energy in boosting biopri. Expert in innovation, business development and passionate about biomedicine and technology. In his free time he is also researcher at the Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine Institute (IBIMER).

Speaker
Gloria Pinilla / Regemat 3D, Spain

Abstract

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used in vivo for contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and are also expected to be used for hyperthermia and magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Hyperthermia is cancer treatment by heating the temperature of tumor above 42.5 deg. C thereby killing the tumor cells with minimum damage to normal issue. The MNPs are promising heating agents for hyperthermia. In order to heat tumor sufficiently by using a body-size coil system, and to minimize affecting normal tissues, effective self-heating of biocompatible MNPs with lower magnetic field intensity and frequency is essential. We developed measurement system for a dynamic hysteresis curve, and could quantify specific absorption rate (SAR) of the MNPs without measuring their self-heating temperature [1]. This method allows wide ranges of intensity and frequency of an applied alternating magnetic field, and use of various conditions of MNPs: viscus fluid, solid and intracellular samples [2]. Recent achievements on measurement of SAR of intracellular MNPs, enhanced SAR of Resovist®, and analysis of maximum temperature rise from MNPs are discussed in this presentation.

Biography

Yasushi Takemura is Professor of the Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Japan, where he has been since 1993. He received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan in 1988, 1990, and 1993, respectively. His research interests are magnetics, magnetic sensor, magnetic materials, and bio-medical application of magnetic nanoparticles. He has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals.

Speaker
Takemura Yasushi / Yokohama National University , Japan

Abstract

Neurogenic bladder, is a term used to characterize many urinary tract dysfunctions arising from the loss of control by the brain due to spinal cord injury (SCI), or other nerve-related problems. Some of the pathologies that may be complicated by neurogenic bladder dysfunction include multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, spina bifida, and diabetes mellitus. The loss of neurological connection with the bladder cause a decrease or loss of sensation of fullness. In turn leads to increase in urine volume stored during filling (increased stretch/stress within the wall). This triggers remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) due to this mechanical cue. In response, the neurogenic bladder shows hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells, increasing elastin synthesis while decreasing collagen production. A neurogenic bladder has problems voiding all the urine in the bladder which commonly results in urinary tract infection and other disorders. Two diseases of interest in this proposal are spina bifida and diabetes mellitus. They have the similarity that elevated mast cells and the host defense peptide, LL-37, occur leading to bladder inflammation. Previously, mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on a stretch device and found to induce cell differentiation and anisotropy. The project will investigate how the urinary bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are affected by mechanical stimuli (stretch and substrate stiffness), what induces the SMCs to switch phenotypes from contractile to synthetic, and what products are produced by the SMCs that alters the ECM. We hypothesize that if bladder smooth muscle cells are subjected to a static chronic prestretch they will have elevated mast cells and levels of LL-37. Studies suggest collagen provides tensile strength, whereas elastin enhances tissue compliance. It is hypothesized that diabetes mellitus mediates the hypotrophy of the bladder through changes in gene expression of collagen and elastin. We will design experiments with the stretch device previously used in this lab, to determine whether (1) stretch / stiffness or (2) cytokines (produced by SMCs) promotes changes in (i) gene and protein expressions of elastin, and collagen, and (ii) their phenotype (i.e., contractile vs synthetic) by analyzing the expression of h-caldesmon and alpha smooth muscle actin (α−SMA). These experiments may help elucidate mechanisms associated with bladder dysfunctions and diseases such as diabetes mellitus and spina bifida.

Biography

Speaker
Chelsie Boodoo / Michigan State University , United States

Abstract

Biography

Speaker
Abubakr Ismail Abdelrahman Abdelmagid / AlMughtaribeen University , Sudan

Sessions:

Biomedical Engineering

Abstract

Magnetic nanoparticles such as those made of iron oxide have been extensively explored recently for various biomedical applications. Their ultra-fine size and superparamagnetic properties make these particles suitable candidates for their applications both in therapeutics and diagnostics such as in hyperthermia drug delivery and as contrast agents [1]. One of the main problems associated with these nanoparticles is their tendency to agglomerate which limits their employability in in vivo drug delivery applications. Coating the iron oxide core with polymers, lipids, peptides tend to overcome the issue of aggregation as well as improve biocompatibility and can enhance drug loading efficiency [2]. Herein we report suitability of uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles as well as those coated with lipids for drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia applications (see Figure 1). The synthesis of nanoparticles was carried out using the coprecipitation of iron (II) chloride and iron (III) chloride in presence of ammonia. Thin film hydration method was employed for lipid coating. The anticancer drug doxorubicin was used to test the drug loading and release profile of nanoparticles. The results suggest that the drug loading efficiency increased upon coating and drug release was much more controlled under the alternating magnetic field which indicate that coated iron oxide nanoparticles are superior than the uncoated particles. Thus, the lipid coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising drug delivery systems for magnetic hyperthermia based cancer therapy.

Biography

Speaker
Yogita Patil-Sen / University of Central Lancashire. United Kingdom

Abstract

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used in vivo for contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and are also expected to be used for hyperthermia and magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Hyperthermia is cancer treatment by heating the temperature of tumor above 42.5 deg. C thereby killing the tumor cells with minimum damage to normal issue. The MNPs are promising heating agents for hyperthermia. In order to heat tumor sufficiently by using a body-size coil system, and to minimize affecting normal tissues, effective self-heating of biocompatible MNPs with lower magnetic field intensity and frequency is essential. We developed measurement system for a dynamic hysteresis curve, and could quantify specific absorption rate (SAR) of the MNPs without measuring their self-heating temperature [1]. This method allows wide ranges of intensity and frequency of an applied alternating magnetic field, and use of various conditions of MNPs: viscus fluid, solid and intracellular samples [2]. Recent achievements on measurement of SAR of intracellular MNPs, enhanced SAR of Resovist®, and analysis of maximum temperature rise from MNPs are discussed in this presentation.

Biography

Yasushi Takemura is Professor of the Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Japan, where he has been since 1993. He received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan in 1988, 1990, and 1993, respectively. His research interests are magnetics, magnetic sensor, magnetic materials, and bio-medical application of magnetic nanoparticles. He has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals.

Speaker
Takemura Yasushi / Yokohama National University , Japan

Abstract

Mating MH positive pigs to MH positive pigs produces an F1 generation that is highly stress susceptible. Recording the MUP shows MH+ pigs have a higher u voltage than control pigs. Older MH+ pigs have an even higher u voltage than control pigs. The duration of the voltage spike is also increased in MH+ versus control pigs, and older MH+ pigs have even a longer duration of the voltage spike. It is assumed that by concentrating the MH genetic defect in the F1 generation that the population of defective sodium channels in the acetylcholine receptor was present at a high concentration. Since the acetylcholine receptors are spatially located under the footpiece of the myoneural junction which makes them a bank of receptors that are readily accessible when acetylcholine is released by the nerve, and the action of acetylcholine is very rapid. Therefore, the electromyographic data reflects the genetically defective sodium channels as the major functional component when we recorded the data. The sodium channels can be likened to a low voltage switch in a telephone circuit that is used to route telephone calls. The Organon 9426 data shows that the drug is protective and prevents MH and that the population of acetylcholine receptors is decreased by 30% in MH-susceptible pigs versus normal pigs. We would suggest that the sodium channel at the acetyl choline receptor has been adapted to produce heat as well as muscle contraction and that the ability to produce copious amounts of heat is the biological mechanism that differentiates warm blooded animals from cold blooded animals. Also, the sodium channel probably plays a role in regulating blood pressure as we have observed an intense peripheral vasoconstriction that shuts down heat loss via the skin (radiation) and produces an arterial blood pressure over 400 mm Hg and a heart rate over 200 bpm. This results in a core temperature up to 118o F.

Biography

Speaker
Charles H Williams / The Williams Research Laboratory ,United States

Abstract

Early diagnosis and therapy increasingly operate at the cellular, molecular or even at the genetic level. As diagnostic techniques transition from the systems to the molecular level, the role of multimodality molecular imaging becomes increasingly important. Positron emission tomography (PET), x-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are powerful techniques for in vivo imaging. The inability of PET to provide anatomical information is a major limitation of standalone PET systems. Combining PET and CT proved to be clinically relevant and successfully reduced this limitation by providing the anatomical information required for localization of metabolic abnormalities. However, this technology still lacks the excellent soft-tissue contrast provided by MRI. Standalone MRI systems reveal structure and function, but cannot provide insight into the physiology and/or the pathology at the molecular level. The combination of PET and MRI, enabling truly simultaneous acquisition, bridges the gap between molecular and systems diagnosis. MRI and PET offer richly complementary functionality and sensitivity; fusion into a combined system offering simultaneous acquisition will capitalize the strengths of each, providing a hybrid technology that is greatly superior to the sum of its parts. However, the technology suffers from a number of drawbacks that will be discussed in this lecture. This talk also reflects the tremendous increase in interest in quantitative molecular imaging using PET as both clinical and research imaging modality in the past decade. It offers a brief overview of the entire range of quantitative PET imaging from basic principles to various steps required for obtaining quantitatively accurate data from dedicated standalone PET and combined PET/CT and PET/MR systems including algorithms used to correct for physical degrading factors and to quantify tracer uptake and volume for radiation therapy treatment planning. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging technologies and their role in biomedical research will also be addressed.

Biography

Habib Zaidi is Chief physicist and head of the PET Instrumentation & Neuroimaging Laboratory at Geneva University Hospital and faculty member at the medical school of Geneva University. He is also a Professor of Medical Physics at the University of Groningen (Netherlands), Adjunct Professor of Medical Physics and Molecular Imaging at the University of Southern Denmark, and visiting Professor at IAS/University Cergy-Pontoise (France). He is actively involved in developing imaging solutions for cutting-edge interdisciplinary biomedical research and clinical diagnosis in addition to lecturing undergraduate and postgraduate courses on medical physics and medical imaging. His research is supported by the Swiss National Foundation, private foundations and industry (Total 6M US$) and centres on hybrid imaging instrumentation (PET/CT and PET/MRI), modelling medical imaging systems using the Monte Carlo method, development of computational anatomical models and radiation dosimetry, image correction, reconstruction, quantification and kinetic modelling techniques in emission tomography, and more recently on novel design of dedicated PET and PET/MRI scanners. He was guest editor for 10 special issues of peer-reviewed journals and serves on the editorial board of leading journals in medical physics and medical imaging. He has been elevated to the grade of IEEE fellow and was elected liaison representative of the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) to the World Health Organization (WHO) in addition to being affiliated to several International medical physics and nuclear medicine organisations. He is developer of physics web-based instructional modules for the RSNA and Editor of IPEM’s Nuclear Medicine web-based instructional modules. His academic accomplishments in the area of quantitative PET imaging have been well recognized by his peers and by the medical imaging community at large since he is a recipient of many awards and distinctions among which the prestigious 2003 Young Investigator Medical Imaging Science Award given by the Nuclear Medical and Imaging Sciences Technical Committee of the IEEE, the 2004 Mark Tetalman Memorial Award given by the Society of Nuclear Medicine, the 2007 Young Scientist Prize in Biological Physics given by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), the prestigious (100’000$) 2010 kuwait Prize of Applied sciences (known as the Middle Eastern Nobel Prize) given by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) for "outstanding accomplishments in Biomedical technology", the 2013 John S. Laughlin Young Scientist Award given by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the 2013 Vikram Sarabhai Oration Award given by the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India (SNMI), the 2015 Sir Godfrey Hounsfield Award given by the British Institute of Radiology (BIR) and the 2017 IBA-Europhysics Prize given by the European Physical Society (EPS). Prof. Zaidi has been an invited speaker of over 130 keynote lectures and talks at an International level, has authored over 235 peer-reviewed articles in prominent journals and is the editor of four textbooks.

Speaker
Habib Zaidi / Geneva University Hospital,Switzerland

Abstract

Accurate and reliable image quantification is of paramount importance in medical image analysis and a pre-requisite to using imaging in precision medicine. With a widespread use of 3D/4D imaging modalities like MR, MDCT, ultrasound, or OCT in routine clinical practice, physicians are faced with ever-increasing amounts of image data to analyze and quantitative outcomes of such analyses are increasingly important. Yet, daily interpretation of clinical images is still typically performed visually and qualitatively, with quantitative clinical analysis being an exception rather than the norm. Since performing organ/object segmentations in 3D or 4D is infeasible for a human observer in clinical setting due to the time constraints, quantitative and highly automated analysis methods must be developed. For clinical acceptance, the method must be robust and must offer close-to 100% success rate – possibly using minimal expert-user guidance following the Just-Enough Interaction (JEI) paradigm. Our method for simultaneous segmentation of multiple interacting surfaces belonging to multiple interacting objects will be presented. The reported method is part of the family of graph-based image segmentation methods dubbed LOGISMOS for Layered Optimal Graph Image Segmentation of Multiple Objects and Surfaces. This family of methods guarantees solution optimality with directly applicability to n-D problems. To solve the issue of close-to 100% performance on clinical data, the JEI paradigm is inherently tied to the LOGISMOS approach and allows highly efficient minimal (just-enough) user interaction to refine the automated segmentation. Clinically acceptable results are obtained in each and every analyzed scan with no or only small increase in human analyst effort. On average, JEI offers about a 10-fold speed-up in 3D compared to conventional slice-by-slice editing. The performance of the minimally-guided JEI method will be demonstrated on pulmonary CT, aortic CT and MR, knee-joint MR, cancer CT & MR, and coronary IVUS & OCT image data.

Biography

Milan Sonka received his Ph.D. degree in 1983 from the Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Programs and Research of the College of Engineering at the University of Iowa, Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Professor of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, and Radiation Oncology, Co-director of the Iowa Institute for Biomedical Imaging, IEEE Fellow, AIMBE Fellow, and MICCAI Fellow. His research interests include medical imaging and knowledge-based image analysis with emphasis on cardiovascular, pulmonary, orthopedic, cancer, and ophthalmic image analysis. He is the first author of 4 editions of Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision book (1993, 1998, 2008, 2015) and co-authored or co-edited 20 books/proceedings. He has published more than 170 journal papers and over 400 other publications. He is past Editor in Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging and current member of the Editorial Board of the Medical Image Analysis journal. To bring results of his research work to clinical practice, he has co-founded two medical imaging companies -- Medical Imaging Applications LLC, and VIDA Diagnostics Inc.

Speaker
Milan Sonka / University of lowa , USA

Abstract

Over the last half-century, numerous constitutive models for all varieties of tissue have been created for the purpose of tissue analysis, i.e., developing an understanding of the mechanical behavior of biologic tissues. Although many of these models have evolved to high levels of sophistication, our ability to employ such models for the purpose of tissue synthesis, i.e., in the design and development of tissue-engineered constructs, has faltered. In considering the conspicuous absence of these models in the tissue-engineering literature, one may even argue that it has failed. Why is this? What role does the mechanics community need to engage in to right this wrong? These will be the topics of our presentation. The discipline of tissue engineering will be used to illustrate our arguments, both in terms of analysis and synthesis applications.

Biography

Biomechanics, as an academic discipline, was born in the 1960’s out of the pioneering eforts of Prof. Y.-C. Fung, his students, and his many followers.

Speaker
Alan D Freed / Texas A&M University,United States

Abstract

Phytotherapyis an old practice of using natural products in which all active ingredients are of herbal origin to treat the sick. The exact origins of herbalism are unknown. The first medical records date from ancient Mead East, China, Egypt and India. Renewed interest in ‘natural’ medicines has led to a resurgence of demand for herbal medicines in the last 20 years for two main reasons: more than 95 % of the population in the least developing countries use herbs for health. Moreover almost 25 % of modern pharmaceutical drugs have botanical origins . Malaria represents a serious health problem especially for poor countries. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) the estimated number of malaria cases is about 2,000 Millions in 2013, and the disease led to about 600 000 deaths; 90% cases are found in the WHO African Region . The continuous search of new therapy is also requested by a growing resistance to major antimalarials. WHO recommends combinations of newer drugs to combat resistance . The sesquiterpeneendoperoxideartemisinin (ART) is currently one of the most effective treatment against multidrug resistant Plasmodium species, and ART combination treatments (ACTs) can represent an useful approach to fight resistance, as recommended by the WHO. The mechanism of action of ART is due to the presence of an endoperoxide group inside its molecular skeleton .When ART reacts with iron, the endoperoxide group breaks up, and forms free radicals. When formed inside a malaria parasite, they can lead to cellular damage and cell death. In a similar way, ART is able to affect cancer cells due to their elevated iron concentration; derivatives of ART have shown promising anticancer effects against multiple cell lines derived from various types of cancers . Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States . One third of all cancer cases reported in men are prostate cancer, and one out of every six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point in their lifetimes . Recent reports have suggested notable anticancer effects of this class of drugs, however the exact mechanism of action is not well known . It has been suggested that artemisinins act through inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis and the nuclear factor NF-kB . Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a sesquiterpene lactone generated by the reduction of lactone in the parental compound. DHA has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and reduces cell viability in a time and dose-dependent manner in a pancreatic cancer cell model. Besides some evidence of the anticancer potential of artemisinins, the exact mechanism of action of this drug in cancer still remains unclear . Transdermal drug delivery (TDDS) is a widespread self-administration method through skin, which allows to bypass the hepatic first-pass effect allowing a proper amount of drug for a constant time. However, one of the most unsolved points of TDDS containing ART is related to its crystallinity which dramatically reduces its bioavailability due to low solubility. Therefore inhibition of crystallinity of ART is mandatory to guarantee a proper concentration of drug. In a recent paper some of the authors developed an antinucleating approach to prevent the crystallization of ART through its solubilization into core-shell nanofibers, constituted by a core containing a hyperbranched poly(buthyleneadipate), acting as crystal suppressant of ART thanks to its highly branched structure . In thislecture, the electrospunnanofiberscontaining ART will be presentedas TDDS against malaria and prostate cancer. The role of polymerchemistry in the individuation of a properstrategyfinalized to reduce ART cristallinityisshown. The investigationwascarried out consideringboth the technological and biologicalaspects.

Biography

Cosimo Carfagna is full Professor of Chemistryat the University of Naples (Italy) “Federico II”. Since 2001 he isDirector of the Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials of C.N.R. From 2008 to 2010 he hasbeenPresident of Research Area NA3 of C.N.R . He isauthor of more than 200 papers in the field of materials science and polymer science and technology

Speaker
Cosimo Carfagna / C.N.R. , Italy

Abstract

Heterostructured nanoparticles like Au-Fe3O4-nanoparticles are attractive candidates for advanced nanomaterials. These nanoparticles do not only benefit from the unique properties of each pristine material but also can exhibit novel physical and chemical properties. Both nanoparticles species alone are possible candidates as sensitizers for radiation therapy and so the combination of both materials can be very advantegous. The Au-Fe3O4-nanoparticles have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of an iron precursor on the surface of pre-synthesized gold nanoparticles. Afterwards these nanoparticles were surface-modified through a ligand exchange reaction using nitrosyl tetrafluoroborate (NOBF4) to attain water solubility and thereby the desired performance for nano-oncological applications. The combination of gold nanoparticles, which can emit photo-/Auger electrons after irradiation with X-rays and the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which effectively catalyze the Fenton reaction and producing hydrxyl radicals after irradiation, makes them ideal candidates as radio sensitizers. Additionally the iron oxide nanoparticles can stabilize the nitrosonium ions and prevent its hydralyzation. The simultanous gneration of superoxide and nitrogen oxide in near distance at the particle surface leads to an effection increase of the proxynitrite formation after irradiation of cells loaded with these nanoparticles. The peroxynitrite generation is high enough to overpower the cellular antioxidant system and leads to oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation and apoptotic cell death. Compared to iron oxide and gold nanoparticles the Au-Fe3O4-nanoparticles prove to be the best candidate as sensitizers in radiation therapy.

Biography

Stefanie Klein has completed her PhD from the Institute of Physical Chemistry I at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Postdoctoral researchs were conducted at the Instituto de Investigationes Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina and at the Biotechnical Faculty, Univerity of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Her current position is at Institute of Physical Chemistry I at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Dr. Stefanie Kleins’ researches focus on nano-oncology, especially on tailoring nanoparticles for radiation therapy, for RNA/DNA delivery and for bio imaging.

Speaker
Stefanie Klein / Friedrich-Alexander University , Germany

Abstract

There is a need for novel antibiotics given the rise in the incidence of bacterial and fungal infections, the toxicity of conventional drugs, and the development of resistance mechanisms from microorganisms that reside within a biofilm. A biofilm is defined as microbial-derived sessile communities, characterized by cells that can irreversibly adhere to abiotic or non-abiotic surfaces, which are embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), with properties related to biofilm growth rate or gene transcription. These characteristics give biofilms the ability to resist antimicrobial agents, antibiotics and biocides and once a biofilm has been established on a surface, it becomes exceedingly difficult to completely eradicate. Thus, nanotechnology has emerged as a new alternative in the treatment of resistant biofilms. The development of nanoparticles with strong potential, antimicrobial and antifungal formulations, provide countless advantages. These include compatibility with the human body, great variability in the formulation, protection of drugs from degradation, enhance drug absorption by facilitating diffusion through epithelium, modify drug pharmacokinetics, improve intracellular penetration and distribution controlled release of drugs, and the possibility of reducing toxicity. Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of different nanoparticles in antibacterial and antifungal activity including metallic, lipid-based, polymeric nanoparticles, among others. Our previous studies have reported that lipid-based nanoparticles show high antifungal activity, against Paracoccidioides spp. and antibacterial, against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both planktonic and biofilm forms. By improving the activity, the drug was better incorporated in the system, drug cytotoxity decreased, and there was an improvement in the selectivity index, indicating that our nanoparticles can be more selective for the microorganism, consequently causing less toxic effects in the host. The main focus of this review is to highlight the importance of nanotechnology and its emergence as a potential treatment in antifungal and antibaterial infections, which arise from the formation of biofilms.

Biography

Kaila P. Medina Alarcon is currently doing her PhD in the Department of Analysis Clinicas at Sao Paulo State University, Brazil, where she has been since 2014. Her Project has a strong emphasis on Mycology Clinical Microbiology and Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology. Where her main areas of focus include mixed microbial biofilms, parasite-host interaction, search substances with antimicrobial activity and nanoparticles. She is a recipient of the Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES-Brazil) Scholarship Award. In 2017, she had the opportunity to spend some time in Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, as a Visiting PhD student to continue working on her project.

Speaker
Kaila Petronila Medina / Macquarie University, Brazil

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