We applied a seismic tomography method to arrival times generated by local earthquakes in southeast Anatolia to study the 3D velocity and Vp/Vs structures. Most of the previous seismological studies of the region are of regional, or even global, context. A total of 2150 carefully-selected events generating 13690 and 12560 P- and S-wave arrivals are finally used in the tomographic inversion. Results of the checkerboard resolution test imply that the obtained velocity and Vp/Vs anomalies are reliable features. Strong lateral crustal heterogeneities are revealed beneath southeast Anatolia. Low velocity anomalies are imaged at all layers especially near the active fault segments. In addition, high Vp/Vs ratios are mapped at most crustal layers especially at depths of 10 and 22 km; indicating the possible existence of over-pressurized fluids in the crust and perhaps the uppermost mantle. The existence of these fluids along with the intense tectonic activity could trigger large crustal earthquakes along the western segment of the East Anatolian fault zone. Large crustal earthquakes occur generally in average velocity zones and very close to the high Vp/Vs anomalies. The obtained velocity and Vp/Vs models are consistent with many previous geophysical measurements conducted beneath southeast Anatolia.
Mohamed Kamaleldin Salah is an Associate Professor of Geophysics at the Department of Geology, the American University of Beirut (AUB), Lebanon. He obtained his Ph. D. in Seismology from the Geodynamics Research Center (GRC), Ehime University, Japan in March, 2004. His research is focused mainly on the crustal and uppermost mantle seismic velocity structure and the mapping of the seismogenic zones near subduction zones and transforms plate boundaries.
In this work, this paper mainly studied about the flotation process in solid particle based on the effect of parameters on flotation. The results of study have some reference values for the related fields. There are number of influential parameters which play an important role in the chemical processes, metallurgy, especially in the minerals processing such as flotation. One of the most important phenomena is the synergistic processes in which synergistic process increased by their control and their negative effect decreased by their prevention. Most of the time, the performance interpretation hidden in the processes by the existing synergistic processes among parameters or this process makes the interpretation difficult. The chemical-physical characteristics in the mineral surfaces among the three-phase system, water, solid and air are considered as the main parameters and determinants in the mineral flotation. Flotation processing regulated by the parameter change in PH, collectors, frother processing, activator and the preventer. So that these parameters used by changing surface charge and creating the chemical reaction between particles and the chemical materials lead to the particles should be floated (separated). This study aimed to study the effect of these parameter changes on the flotation processing in particles. As a result when the particle size decreased, this effect increased. Although this monotonous change in flotation is negligent for the especial grinding range but this process leads to sedimentation of particles during flotation processing in terms of pulp condition in some values. Key Words: flotation, chemical interactions, surface charge, separation.
Dr.AMIR PAZOKI has been qualifed and graduated in B.Sc in Chemistry from Gulbarga University at Karnataka state, India and M.A.Sc in mineral processing at P.G.Centre Nandihalli, Karnataka. Gulbarga university, India and PhD degree from Bangalore University. Karnataka, India. At present I am working as lecturer at Lorestan University, Faculity of Engineering Department of Mining Engineering, Khorram Abad. He has published technical papers in national and international journals.he has got many national awards. I have been Dean of faculty of engineering since 1981-1990 at Lorestan university.i have been appointed as deputy of students in industerial university at Ghom state. the field of research intrested is mineral processing of different kind of metals such as Lead-Zinc , copper , Gold , Iron ore and etc.
The large and complex geological evolution between the West African Craton to the south and the European plate to the north has given Morocco has a very rich and varied geological heritage to highlight to promote the geotourism activity and geoeducation. In order to highlight this heritage, we have tried to develop a database on the main geosites in Morocco, according to the published works. This database (currently being developed) provides information on the exact location of the geosites, their fossiliferous content, state of conservation and associated bibliographic references. Since the conventional archiving methods are unsuitable for quick and efficient searches, the development of this database is the answer to this noble task.Geological heritage degradation phenomena are the result of erosive and anthropogenic action as well as the lack of a legislative framework and the inertia of institutions. It is time to involve all the efforts of citizens, scientific researchers and authorities to put end to the looting of this heritage.
Mr. Mohamed Abioui was born in Zagora, Morocco. At the end of 2013, he holds MSc Geology with specialty in geotourism and ecotourism from Ibn Zohr University, Morocco. Actually, he is currently a final year PhD Student in Geology and is scheduled to graduate with a PhD in October, 2017. His main field of action wasGeology,Geoeducation,Geoheritage, Sustainable Tourism and Rock Art. He is currently the Production Editor of Arabian Journal of Earth Sciences, President of Association of Rupestral Heritage of Southern Morocco, Zagora, Morocco and active member of the “Monachus” Group of Scientific Research and Ecological Education, Constanta, Romania.
During the last three decades, the aquifer of wadi Guenniche is affected by salinization processes related to intense groundwater exploitation for domestic uses and for agriculture irrigation. To fully delineate the sources of groundwater salinization and mechanisms of recharge in the shallow aquifer of wadi Guenniche hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies have been conducted. The highest concentrations of major ions were mainly related to the local geology. The seawater intrusion into the aquifer and municipal contaminants were secondary contamination sources of groundwater in the study area. The piper diagram classify the wadi Guenniche shallow groundwater into Na-Cl, Ca-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl water types. The ionic relationship and the saturation mineral index of the ions indicated that the evaporation, dissolution, and precipitation processes controlled the groundwater chemistry. The groundwater chemistry is mainly controlled by calcite precipitation and gypsum and halite dissolution. The Cl−/Cl−+HCO3− ratio show that 89 % (wet season) and 91 % (dry season) of groundwater samples are slightly to seriously contaminated. Anthropogenic contamination was identified using the SO42-/Cl- and (NO3-+Cl-/HCO3-) molar ratio. The most stable isotopic values of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater are close to the local meteoric water line indicating that groundwater is of modern local meteoric origin. Due to the evaporation effect and dry climatic conditions, heavy isotopes are more enriched in dry season than in wet season. The low slopes of the regression lines of δ18O and δ2H in groundwater could be ascribed to a combination of mixing and evaporation processes, which were confirmed by the distribution of groundwater samples in the δ18O vs. Cl− and δ18O vs. d-excess plots.
Dr. Jamila Hammami Abidi has completed her PhD from the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Tunisia. She worked on the characterization of recharge sources and processes of groundwater salinization in two aquifers in north-eastern Tunisia. Dr. Jamila Hammami Abidi focused on the efficiencies of artificial recharge approach for better water management in both aquifers. She has published in reputed journals and presented her work at many international conferences.
My research purpose is to understand the concept and steps for performing 2D seismic interpretation, petrophysical evaluation and reserves estimation. To fulfill this purpose, a specific area of Punjab Province was selected where petroleum exploration/drilling had reportedly been attempted earlier by Gulf Oil in 1989.In upper Indus Basin Potwar plateau is a successful exploration area for hydrocarbon. The study area is the concise of Oil and Gas Development Corporation Limited in Potwar Basin. The study area is consisting of Fimkassar oil field and research data is obtained from Land Mark Resources with the special permission of Director General of Petroleum Concession Ministry of petroleum and natural resources Islamabad. The study area consists of well#1 and #2 and seismic lines 97-CP-07, 782-CW-23, 782-CW-25, 884-FMK-101, 884-FMK-102, of the Fimkassar oil field. The 2D seismic study is very essential for interpretation of the subsurface structure clarity in the study area and occurrence of hydrocarbon in deeper horizon of sedimentary basin. The interpretation will be carried out in the upper Indus basin, Fimkassar area to conform the reservoir characteristic of the Chorgali Formation to delineate promising location for test drilling into Chorgali Formation. The methodology adopted to achieve the reserves estimation includes the measurements for the shale volume by using Gamma Ray Log, Porosity by density and Neutron Log, Resistivity of water by using SP method, Saturation of water in the zone of reservoir and Hydrocarbon saturation using Archie equation. Time structure maps of the reflectors will be produced using two-way time of the reflectors. Time structure map is converted into depth contour map and get area for reserve estimation. Applying the volumetric method to calculate reserve in Fimkassar area.The horizons marked on seismic section are Chorgali Formation, Sakesar Limestone and Patala Formation. Time structure maps are generated to display the geometry of the marked reflectors by plotting contours of equal two-way travel time. Seismic sections show that structure of the study area is triangular zone which is act as a trap in the study area and is suitable for drilling oil well. Time structure and depth contour map is used to confirm the structure of the study area. The time structure map show that area is structurally fault bounded from south-east and three-way closure toward NW-SE side. Over all study area is tectonically highly disturbed and reverse faults are present.Petrophysical evaluation of Fimkassar well 01 and 02 was done to test the formations for the presence of hydrocarbons. This integrates the selection of zone of interest followed by Log Interpretation. Volume of shale, porosity and Saturation of water is calculated. Petrophysical analysis shows that in Fimkassar well 01 volume of shale is 21%, porosity is 13% and water saturation is 53% similarly in Fimkassar well 02 volume of shale is 24%, porosity is 16% and water saturation is 44%. Petrophysical analysis show that Chorgali Formation is acting as a good hydrocarbon potential bearing rock. The reserve estimated from Eocene Chorgali Reservoir is 13.8 MMSTB in place oil and total recoverable oil in Eocene Reservoir is 2.45 MMSTB.
I am Muhammad Ishfaque from Pakistan. I have done my MS Applied Geology with specialization in 2D Seismic Interpretation, Petrophysical Evaluation and Resources Estimation in Eocene Chorgali Reservoir by using seismic and well log data of well # 1 and 2 in Fimkassar Oil Field of Potwar sub-basin in District Chakwal, Pakistan from 2012-2014 and BS Applied Geology with specilization in Geological and Active Tectonic Mapping of District Kotli and Mirpur Area of Azad Kashmir Pakistan in 2007-2011 session from University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffrabad, Pakistan.
Temple, as the carrier of urban culture, is the component of urban spatial form as well. Among those most spiritual spaces, Longwang Temple (spatial unit) has been extered influence on saint areas of Buddhism and Taoism in China except Tibet. This paper takes sites of spatial unit recorded in AMAP (Gaode Map) and DEM (Digital Elevation Model) as basic data, 3S (Remote sensing, Geography information systems and Global positioning systems) and principles of mathematics as technical supports, and cities in middle valley of Yangtze River (study area) as elementary unit, to conduct visualized analysis from the aspects of point-line-area and regional competitiveness. The conclusions can be drawn as the followings: 1) spatial units evidently show features of high cluster value and low cluster value, as well as disperse characteristic; 2) To overlay spatial units and general proficiency of three urban circles through weighted voronoi graph analysis and we can find Wuhan city circle makes the biggest attractions whilst Changsha- Zhuzhou- Xiangtan City Group is developing slowly resulted from extrusion caused by the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta city circles. These conclusions can be the scientific basis and reference of the target of building Yangtze River circle into a first-class international city circle during the 13th Five-Year Plan to those decision makers. Key words: Longwang Temple, AMAP, general urban proficiency, weighted voronoi graph, The middle of Yangtze River city circle
Will updated soon
Dhaka the Capital of Bangladesh cover 298 square kilometer area with more than 12 million people, facing a severe water logging problem in recent times with only a short-term rainfall. but then again, the problem worsening more some part of the city, especially in rainy season and hinder the regular activities of city dweller. Though the scenario of the matters is not a historic but deteriorating with time due to loosening up natural wetland/water body of city area by rapid and unplanned development. Once a time the city of Dhaka was called the city of canal with more than 60 canals act as natural drainage system as well as inland water way and rapid transfer system of storm water/flood water to neighboring river of the city. Wetland/marsh land of the city also act as storm/flood water reservoir to reduce the waterlogged of the city. But in present only 43 canals are stated as remaining with threat of seizing. Some of the canals even now partly or fully grabbed and marshland also grabbed and encroached with time due to emerging activities of the city without considering any natural Geo-morphologic importance as well as environmental impact. In this study Multispectral Scanner (MSS-60 meter) image of 1978, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM 30 meter) image of 1989, 1999 and 2009 are used for delineation of wetland including inland water body and urban area over the time. It is found that area of wetland and inland water way in the year of 1978, 1989,1999 and 2009 was respectively 117.796, 113.97, 87.90 and 66.72 km2 out of 298.462 km2 Of total study area and decreasing rate of wetland in 1978-1989 was comparatively lower. But it was higher after 1989 to 2009. As a result, growth of Dhaka in unsustainable way with the continuous diminishing of natural wetland/marshland and internal water way of the city at alarming rate.
Faruk Hossain has completed his Master degree in Petroleum Geology & Exploration Geophysics from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh and 2nd Master degree in Engineering Geology in 2014 from National University of Malaysia (UKM). He is the Assistant director of Geological Survey of Bangladesh, a Government organization.
Climate change and various anthropogenic activities are causing large losses to natural habitats in the Study area. The importance of this habitat type is one of the reasons that the Gobustan desert has been proposed as the State National Park, so that some level of protection is offered to this desert. This study has shown that Climate change and oil and gas infrastructure, in an ecologically important semi-arid region, has a negative effect on rare vegetation. The results of rare vegetation classification in the Sensitive area in Gobustan indicates that major changes in the study area from 2004 to 2017 years involved decrease in vegetation cover types including Alhagi pseudoalhagi, Salsola Nodulosa/Artemisia Lerchiana/Salsola Dendroides communities, Suaeda Dendroides and increase in Tamarix and Bare ground.
Currently, Yelena M. Gambarova is working as Research Member at R.I.S.K. Company, RÉ??Å??id Behbudov Kü ç É??si, BakÄ±, Azerbaijan. Her international experience includes various programs, contributions and participation in different countries for diverse fields of study. Her research interests reflect in his wide range of publications in various national and international journals. He is the Editorial Board Member of Journals and serves as a member of various associations , apart from being an author for many books.