A basic prerequisite for a balanced production ecosystem is that the reversibility - that is recycling of resources will be taken care systematically and with determination.
Balance of production ecosystem is easier to maintain if production is as diverse as possible through out the production area.
Linkages between production ecosystems, food production and healthiness have traditionally been approached through risk management and ecological footprints, but there may also be similarities between new and more favorable outlook.
Totally novel information has been recently given by research that studies interaction between microbial habitat of food chain and health and welfare of consumers.
Man is one of the operators of the ecosystem, and in fact, sooner or later, the same principles work for human beings as for other ecosystem operators when seeking a common balance, instead of concentrating in linear increase of the use of resources. Resilience is a very important phenomenon in the ecosystem, and the shifting between the concentrated resource-based phase (K-strategy), the multifaceted and flexible resource-based (r-strategy) has been demonstrated. The release of resources between these phases makes it possible to redistribute resources. In this way, the system maintains its balance, whether an economic, ecological or social dimension is regarded. People are easily misled by the thinking that these balancing changes are related to unexpected socio-economic interference that just has to be accepted in that area. However, the basic prerequisite for a balanced cultivation ecosystem is that the rejuvenation - that is, resources from the recycling industry - is determinedly catered for. The balance of the farm ecosystem is not standardized, but is directly dependent on the overall environment in which the cultivation ecosystem is located. The equilibrium state of the cultivation ecosystem is quite another in the cultivated areas of e.g. Southwest Finland, where at best 60% of the land is in the field than in Central Finland, where the average field is only 6% of the area. The farmer's fields in Southwest Finland cultivate a lot of feed grain that is transported to Northern Ostrobothnia and North Savo for livestock feed. But when following the ideas of industrial ecology we might better balance between the ecologic resources and production ecology. In quality systems, food health concerns only risk management: chemical risks, microbiological risks, physical hazards. These are currently assessed at both regional and life-cycle levels. Life-cycle assessment of ecosystem products focuses on environmental discharge or contamination Impacts or resource use impacts: carbon footprint, eutrophication, ecotoxic footprint, water footprint, nutrition footprint. Along with the ecotoxic footprint, estimates of human toxicity are often made, but bio-geo-chemical or physiological linkages between the ecosystem balance and the health of the food produced are missing. The linkages between a balanced cultivation ecosystem and a balanced healthiness could be found in the regions. The purity of the environment and food (more than a toxicity), domesticity and local food, and specifically their linkages to epigenetics, the cultural attachments of food (food is not just energy and material but the health of the food culture) development of the value of food work, maintenance of the landscape - specifically linkage to recreation and wellbeing, maintenance of original breeds and plants, i.e. genetic resources as well as the ability to maintain the ability of cheese to cuddle, and self-sufficiency and security of supply have been mentioned in this context . The most recent of these focus on food security. The above-mentioned cultural linkages to food have been highlighted for a number of years in the context of many food culture programmes, and has since led to a strong focus on cooking and food programs. However, the balance between the production-ecosystem and the healthiness of the food has also remained very tenuous in them. Epigenetics has so far been the most progressive theme for holistic nutrition-related investigations across recent generations. It does not base a genetic source, but instead bases on shifting of gene activity from one generation to another, which turns out problematic when context of life of subsequent generations drastically change. Epigenetics reflect how our holistic and profound linkage to our well-being is our food environment. What is the importance of microbiome in this context is totally unknown but would be highly recommendable to work on.
Kurppa Sirpa, Ph.D., Research professor in the Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke). Research topics and work description: Environmental impacts of the food production and services, integrated food and environmental policy, integrated product policy, environmental awareness and design, circular economy, industrial symbiosis, resilience. Special competence: agroecology, ecology of food systems, integrated and sustainable food production, environmental assessment, life cycle assessment (LCA), eco-design. At present, a deputy director of the ScenoProt - Novel protein sources for food security (2015-2021). She has provided expert input into EU Rural Foresight studies and into work of the Committee for the Future of the Finnish Parliament, into the National Food Strategy, into the Strategy for Sustainable Consumption and Production and recently into the working group for the Agenda 2030 for Finland. She attended preparing a proposal on green growth for the Finnish Parliament and preparing the Finnish strategy for bioeconomy, and in 2013-2015 she was a member in the EU Bioeconomy Panel, and from 2014 to 2017 a member of the National Nutrition Council. At present, she is a working on sustainability of green growth in the Arctic Finland.
Improvements in feed utilization, animal production and health, and animal food safety are the goals of rumen microbial studies. These goals may be achieved by facilitating desirable fermentation, minimizing ruminal disorders, and excluding pathogens. One approach that has been widely investigated is the application of direct-fed microbial (DFM) preparations in order to promote digestion and intestinal hygiene, enhance animal performance and reduce usage of antibiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate quantity. One of the most common explanations for improved animal health when ruminants are fed a DFM suggests that beneficial microbes compete with potential pathogens and prevent their establishment. Testing DFM supplementation produced variable and inconsistent results so far. One main point to explain this is the diversity of DFM origin. Several biotic factors such as the strain of yeast, bacteria, fungi, enzymes and its viability, nature of the diet, animal type and its physiological status and level of performance may play considerable role in this regard. Also some DFM are designed for one-time dosing while other products are designed for feeding on a daily basis. Premixes of active substances and compound feeds contain many substances which must be checked with one another for compatibility. The stability of the probiotics used and their availability and efficacy in the animal must be ensured. Since active antibiotic substances in particular inhibit microorganisms, the question arises whether they reduce the activity of probiotics. At first glance it therefore may seem contradictory to put probiotics and antibiotics into a feed together. However, studies indicate that positive combinatory effects had been achieved though extensive works still need to be done to ascertain the results. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the use of probiotics and other substances.
PROFILE OF PROFESSOR CHRISTOPHER FRIDAY IJEOMA, ONWUKA was Born On 3rd July 1953, Chryss Friday Ijeoma Onwuka holds - B.Sc.; M.Sc.; Ph.D. in Agricultural Biochemistry and Nutrition, / Ruminant Nutrition (University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria). A Professor of Animal Nutrition at the Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Nigeria [FUNAAB], he had been at various times, Head of Department of Animal Nutrition; Dean of Student Affairs; Director, Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), National Chairman, Committee of Deans of Student Affairs in Nigerian Universities (CODESANU); Dean of College of Agriculture, Igbinedion, Okada; and former Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic) in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Nigeria. He is the Immediate Past President of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production; former Editor-in-Chief of the Nigerian Journal of Animal Production (NJAP) Editor-in-Chief of the Nigerian Agricultural Journal (NAJ) He is currently : Registered Animal Scientist (RAS) Member, Nigerian Institute of Animal Science (MNIAS) Member of the Board of Trustees, Agricultural Society of Nigeria Council Member of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production Fellow of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production (FNSAP) Fellow of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria (FASN) Editor-in-Chief of three Journals: Journal of Agricultural Science and Environment. Journal of Natural Science, Engineering and Technology. Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Creative Arts. Served as External Examiner for B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. in several Universities over the years. He is widely published in Local and International Journals and Proceedings. Research interest is in Animal nutrition / Production with emphasis on Ruminant (Sheep, Goats and Cattle) Feeding, Feed resources, and Toxicology; Manipulation of the Rumen environment and the Improvement of the degradability of feed resources; Mitigation of Methane production by Ruminants, Use of enzymes and probiotics in livestock feeding.
Probiotics are bacteria in the digestive tract in humans that have positive effects on the immune system and impact on preventing and reducing the development of a large number of diseases. Probiotic foods and supplements promote good digestive health what is the major benefit of their using. They may also prevent the bacteria in the body from becoming resistant to antibiotics and increase antibiotic effectiveness. The benefits of probiotic using are many and they can also be connected with skin health, food allergy protection, lowering blood pressure, diabetes treatment, improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and even with treating serious diseases in infants and adults. This presentation will focus on the probiotics health benefits and their emerging research on preventing and stopping of many modern diseases, the mechanism they work and their killers, probiotic-rich foods, steps for getting more probiotics in the body and taking advantage of the benefits.
Mirjana Menkovska is full Professor at the Department of Food Technology and Biotechnology at the Institute of Animal Science, Sts.Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Macedonia. Her background is Food Technology. She graduated at the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy in Skopje in 1976, took M.S. Degree in Instrumental Analysis at the same University in 1982, and Ph.D. degree in Food Technology at the University of Belgrade, Serbia. She was research visiting scientist at GMRC in Manhattan, Kansas, USA, during the academic 1985/86, at Cereal Research Institute in Detmold, Germany in 1997, and at many other known research centers in Europe. She published more than hundred thirty papers in domestic and foreign scientific journals; and participated at more than sixty scientific meetings in the country and abroad. She was for a long time member of AACC, RACI and ICC National Delegate, and member of many Scientific Committees at International and Domestic scientific conferences.
It was reported that several mechanisms including the intestinal microflora may affect body weight. The intestinal microflora of obese subjects may affect more than a given diet in the way of extracting energy, which may cause increased adiposity and energy storage. Because nutrition and dietary patterns affects intestinal microflora composition. Western diet model shows an increase in the relative abundance of Firmicutes at the expense of the Bacteroidetes in animal studies, whereas calorie-restricted diet models may increase the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in obese people.The production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from indigestible polysaccharides may modulate energy intake and metabolism. SCFAs such as acetate, butyrate and propionate are the regulators of satiety and food intake which are produced by bacterial fermentation function as energy substrates. Whereas, butyrate and propionate have been reported to reduce food intake and have protection against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in animal models, greater bacterial gene richness has been associated with a higher production of SCFAs, and propionate-producer bacteria such as Akkermansia muciniphila may improve the metabolic profile in mice. Additionally, it has even been suggested that in Western societies over use of antibiotic treatment, may be related with weight gain or obesity in humans. Lots of evidences indicate the associations of existence between alterations in intestinal microflora function and/or composition and metabolic inequality strongly linked to health problems like obesity, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and low-grade chronic inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation appears to be a major factor in the development of obesity-related metabolic health problems. A noteworthy, obesity-related metabolic disorder varies widely among obese individuals. It is important that knowing the differences in intestinal microflora have a role in determining the metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese phenotypes. The modulation of gut microbiota by probiotic treatment have beneficial effects which are affecting body weight, influencing on glucose and fat metabolism, improving insulin sensitivity and reducing chronic systemic inflammation. Most important effect of probiotics is reported basically for Lactobacillus and/or Bifidobacterium strains in human studies. All in all, manipulating the gut microbiota to improve host metabolism has considerable interested. More evidence from human studies now needed to confirm the beneficial effects of probiotics for obesity. Another important research area has become the search for next generation probiotics for management of obesity and related health problems.
Graduated from Hacettepe University, Nutrition and Dietetics Department in 1991, got her master degree from Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University in 1994, her master thesis was “Determination of vitamin C levels in the blood and urine of young people who are smoker and nonsmoker” and got her PhD from Department of Food Hygene and Technology, Veterinary Faculty, Selcuk University in 2007, her doctorate thesis was “The use of malt extract in production of yogurt and cheese”. Interested in nutrition ecology, public health and epidemiology, nutritional epidemiology, food technology, clinical nutrition and nutritional medicine. Works since the December of 2008 at the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics of Health Sciences Faculty of the Marmara University, and is Associate Professor and the head of the department since 2016.
In this study the effect of amplitude (70, 80 and 90%) and time of ultrasound assisted extraction (30, 45 and 60 min) on soybean oil extraction yield and quality properties of oil were to evaluate as compared to solvent extraction. N-hexan and isopropanol (50:50 w/w) used as solvent. The results showed that the oil extraction yield increased with increasing amplitude. Peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), totox value (TV), fatty acids profile and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of samples were evaluated. Oxidation parameters were increased with increasing in amplitude and time of sonication but during sonication peroxide value decreased. From the viewpoint of fatty acid profiles, there was no significant difference between the amount of linoleic acid in oil extracted by ultrasound and oil obtained by solvent techniques. Also TPC of them were 2.65 mg GAE/g oil and 3.13 mg GAE/g oil respectively. Ultrasound has the potential to be reduces processing time and oil degradation.
Reza Esmaeilzadeh Kenari has a phD degree in food chemistry from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. He completed his master degree at Tarbiat Modarres University in Tehran and his undergraduate degree in food industry engineering at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. He is currently the Associated Professor of Food Science and Technology Department of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, head of the Institute of Food Science and Technology, head of the Mazandaran Food science and Technology Association, and president of the Food Sciences work Group of Thought Room for Excellence Development of Mazandaran. He is the secretary of the 2nd International and the 25th National Congress of Iranian Food Sciences and Technology, which was held on April 25 and 26 at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University in iran.His specialized fields of interest, food chemistry, natural antioxidants, essential oils and natural extracts, emulsions, and encapsulation of active ingredients.
The preservation of a large collection of bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes cultures is often a major problem in most fermentation based, food and beverage related industries, especially if one wishes to maintain weakly viable and fastidious cultures. Variation in physiological or in morphological characteristics is frequently an undesirable consequence when stock cultures are held for some time, unless special methods are used in the preservation process. Microorganisms are generally maintained by culture collection centres which are set up with the prime objective of conserving microbial diversity and valuable germplasm. The main goal of these culture collections is to act as a depository, supplying authentic microbial strains to researchers and to provide the strains for additional in teaching. Sometimes, these authentic cultures also help in identification of unknown strains. Since, it is difficult to maintain them on their nutrient culture media; it is therefore recommended to use some special techniques to maintain these cultures. Apart from traditional techniques for culture preservation, comparatively simpler, natural and cost-effective techniques using jute, coconut etc. may be adopted to preserve different microbial strains in food & fermentation industries. This review focuses on some new techniques apart from traditional methods used in food and fermentation industries which may cost almost negligible to preservation concerning bodies. Key words: Microorganisms, preservation, culture collection centres, jute, coconut.
Prof. Debajyoti Bose is Head of the Department of Biological Sciences in Yobe State University, Nigeria. Prof. D. Bose has 14 years of teaching and research experience in the areas of Food Technology, Fermentation Technology, Medical and Applied Microbiology and Astrobiology with 42 National/International publications in books, journals and proceedings. Prof. Bose is reviewer of several National and International journals and member of several National and International renowned professional associations. He supervised more than 45 PG and UG Students in research projects with 5 years of Administrative experiences in renowned Private and Government Universities.
Quite often when there is a verge of breakthroughs, the tendency is to set aside due to its radicality and our knowledge bias. Food demands first, are from the food item through its life support system requirements. If it is possible to externally provide the energy requirements of food from an external source, then this demand would be drastically reduced or eliminated. Without the arrest of the Krebs cycle in food, where solids are broken down to water CO2 and heat that could literally disappear, could one really lay claim to food stability and sustainability? And if food could be dissociated into this form, can other matters be so dissociated under a conducive environment? What is the nature of this free energy released from ATP? Is there a release of antimatter (Dark matter?) or dark energy (Anti energy?) associated with it? What are the most suitable forms of energies for maximum food stability? Should there be a synergy between food matter, energy and the matters and energies in the Universe. The understanding of these is the true paths to optimization (Expert system of modelling) in my view. If this is possible, then what we know at this point are the known knowns. What about what we know that we do not know and naturally progressing from this is the possibility of what we do not know that we do not know. To survive, there is the need for a driving force. Applications of forces cause disturbances (Newton’s 2nd Law) and disturbances cause instability yet the goal is to create stability. Total attainment of stability would result to Universal heat death when differential equation ceases to be relevant and there is no longer a potential difference hence total inactivity. It then means that the quest, the way it is being pursued at present requires a long, close look. In Food, Water and to some less degree, sensible heat seem to be the determining factors but closer look may reveal some other factors that are more compelling. The present definitions of key indices of food stability (Sustainability, food security, Poverty) are not helping matters. There is the need to take a very close look to include perspectives outside of the social, economic and physical environment. If food is to provide energy, and all forms of energies of our solar system are from the sun, then there is the need to take a good look at what produces the energy from the sun. A venture is deemed to be insolvent if it either just breaks even or it does not break-even at all. From this point of view then, the present definition of sustainability cannot be sustained. It is time that we begin to look beyond the break-even point and delve into surpassing the 100% mark of food stability if it must be sustained.
Will be update soon...
The regions of northern Pakistan and the adjoining Afghanistan have been sites of interational conflicts since the recorded history. The regions comprise hilly and arid terrain and mountaneous highlands and is rich in livestock, horticulture and rangelands. However, no organized support is provided by the government or corporate sector for utilization of these resoruces, resulting in extreme poverty and illitracy in these regions. The Dairy Science Park (DSP) has emerged at the University of Agriculture Peshawar to provide a platform for academia-industry linkages. DSP has been registered as a Society with the Government of KP Pakistan and accepted by the United Nations as SDGAction9671 for self-employment of the youth and hygienic food production for the people. A collaboration on “Biorisk Management” was initiated with the Sandia National Laboratories USA for awareness among the policy makers and development of curriculum for degree progams in life sciences at the Pakistani universities. Consultations were made Amsterdam, Dubai, Bangkok, Phuket and Colombo and finally, a amendment package was developed for integration into Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree progam. Emerging industries in milk and meat processing and marketing have been provided technical and Quality Control support to relieve threats from District Administration. Several companies were established in the private sector and 1000 unemployed veterinary graduates are being facilitated to establish entrepreneurs. The provincial government has allocated US$ 2.00 million for establishing a model slaughter house and approved Task Force on DSP. Technoparks have been proposed by DSP in collaboration with local and international partners.
Prof M Subhan Qureshi joined Livestock Department, KP, Pakistan during 1983 and worked on semen processing, farm management, feeding and health coverage and Herd Health Program for applied research and extension services; analyzed the prevailing practices of feeding, health and reproductive management, introduced good practices and organized the farmers into an Association, facilitating the farmers for availing services of various research, development, marketing and financial institutions. Joined the University of Agriculture, Peshawar as full professor and served as Dean. Engaged in Teaching, Research and Industrial Linkage in animal health, reproduction, entrepreneurship and biorisk management; supervised PhD students 19, MPhil 84.
Quality and safety of food remains always the prime concern for consumers as wells as food processors. Consumers are becoming more attentive towards the use of ingredients and methods of food preservation and food spoilage control. Bacterial antagonism has been recognized for over a century but in recent years this phenomenon has received more attention, particularly in the use of various strains of lactic acid bacteria. One important attribute of many LAB is their ability to produce antimicrobial compounds called bacteriocins. In recent years interest in these compounds has grown substantially due to their potential usefulness as natural substitute for chemical food preservatives in the production of foods with enhanced shelf life and / or safety. Innovative and alternative approaches are also getting appraisal to combat the foodborne pathogens in order to produce safe food under environment friendly conditions. Moreover, lactic acid bacteria have a potential to be used as probiotics in mediating many positive health effects.
Dr. Aijaz Hussain Soomro has completed his PhD from University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan and post-doctorate from the University of Queensland, Australia. He is the director of the Institute of Food Sciences and Technology Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. Recently, He has organized 3rd International Conference on Agriculture, Food and Animal Sciences ICAFAS 2017 as organizing secretary. He is an elected member Executive Council, SUN Academia and Research Network, Pakistan. He has published more than 60 peer reviewed papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of EC Nutrition.
The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating airPHX equipment for reducing bacterial populations of Clostridium difficile, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (mRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on three (3) common contact surfaces; stainless steel (Austenitic 316), plastic (PVC) and linoleum (floor tile) were studied. Antimicrobial resistant pathogens pose an ongoing and increasing challenge to hospitals because they cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) during clinical treatment of patients. Coupons of stainless steel, plastic and linoleum were inoculated with each organism placed inside an experimental chamber were continuously treated with ROS for eight different hour increments from an airPHX advanced oxidation generator. ROS levels were continuously monitored prior to removing coupons for microbiological testing. Control coupon were similarly placed in the chamber and held at environmental conditions to determine natural decay of microbial populations through time. Stainless steel coupon results after 0.5 h of ROS treatment Clostridium difficile Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (mRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa saw a 4.21-log, 4.42-log and 4.26-log destruction respectively. After 12 h exposure these same organisms yielded a 6.87-log, 7.17-log and 7.71-log reduction, respectively. The other contact surfaces, plastic and linoleum displayed similar log reduction. These findings reveal that ROS treatment using the airPHX unit significantly reduces these three HAIs on common health care contact materials to > 4.2-log destruction after a 0.5 h exposure.
Keywords: Antimicrobial; Patients; Healthcare; Infections; Prevention; Ozone
Rick Falkenberg, Ph.D., CFS, PCQIFood Safety and Management Group, Inc.Rick is the Senior Principal Scientist who has spent his career working with Thermal, Non-thermal and Low Moisture processes and validation efforts.His team has implement strategies worldwide for thermal processing (aseptic, retort and hot fill) effectiveness, assessment of competencies and training. These efforts include low acid, high acid and acidified foods. Microbiological validation of the above mentioned processes as well as conducting thermal death time, Temperature Distribution and Heat Penetration studies in an effort to optimize processes. Implement process modeling systems, e.g. NumeriCAL, AseptiCAL and CALsoft to aid in process evaluations, deviations and recommend/implement new optimized processes that are safe and assure a high degree of Food Safety. Considered the Subject Matter Expert for Thermal Process Sterilization and Thermal Bacteriology globally.His group provides consulting and technical support to the processed food, spice, nut and nutraceutical industries in the areas of pasteurization and sterilization process validation, implementation of shelf stable food products, co-packer identification/evaluation and commercial production transfer.Ricks expertise is diverse with food microbiology, pasteurization/sterilization process validation, the ability to conduct TDT, Temperature Distribution, Heat Penetration testing, electronic controls, record keeping, and process bio-validation for various food products. As well as preparation of refrigerated and shelf-stable products in a variety of packaging, including metal, glass, plastic, and flexible laminates.Rick received his Ph.D. in Microbiology and Immunology from the University of California San Diego further identifying the correlation between hexose-monophosphate shunt, glycolytic system and fermentation-type in specific lactobacilli strains.Rick is recognized as a process authority and is well established with FDA, USDA FSIS and CODEX requirements, specifically high acid, low-acid, acidified foods, non-thermal applications as we low moisture foods.
In the coming third millennium, the constant impact on the human body of environmentally unfavorable environmental factors, radiation effects, industrial poisons, psycho-emotional overloads, in light of the increased antibiotic resistance among pathogens lead to deterioration of human health and the epidemiological situation as a whole.
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the national lactic acid products of functional nourishment, draw a special interest among the probiotic correctors of normal intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human ecology. Compared to other microorganisms used in the manufacture of fermented milk products, lactococci and lactobacilli are much more active in fermenting the main carbohydrate of milk, lactose. Reducing the concentration of milk sugar in the product is combined with the presence of a high number of living microorganisms that contain their own enzymes that digest lactose. This produces a substitution effect in the intestine for people with lactase deficiency.
Screening of effective strains of LAB as the perspective probiotics was performed from raw milk and milk products and also products of functional nourishment and by protoplasts fusion method.
Bacteria are resistant to gastric juice and bile acids. They are better than many other microorganisms that tolerate an unfavorable environment of the upper parts of the digestive tract, which allows them to reach the large intestine, where their beneficial effect is mainly realized. LAB can suppress the multiplication of harmful putrefactive and pathogenic bacteria, as well as displace pathogens of intestinal infections. Some strains of lactic bacteria inhibit the growth of fungi. The effective strains were revealed to produce antibiotic-like complex, consisting of components which may represent as novel biologically active substances (bacteriocins) wich have a size of 2 to 50 amino acid residues and can have antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulating, antithrombotic, antihypertensive affecting the main body systems. They do not have a smell, color and taste, so when introduced into the product, its organoleptic characteristics are not changed. The relatively high antioxidant activity as the fight against serious diseases and early signs of aging allow to recommend LAB for creating probiotic cultures and food preservation. Thus, some of the tested Lactococcus lactis strains produce and release into the medium neuroactive substances, such as norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin. More recently, the subgroup of probiotics referred to as psychobiotics has been defined as live organisms that produce the tested biogenic amines, when ingested in adequate amounts, produce a health benefit in patients suffering from psychiatric illness. Thus, the complex of probiotic properties of the new strains of LAB allows them to be recommended for use in creating targeted functional nutrition and effective probiotics.
Key words: Lactococcus lactis spp., Lactobacillus spp., probiotic, bacteriocin, pathogens, antioxidants, biogenic amines.
Dr. Lidia Stoyanova graduated the Biological Faculty of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU) in 1969. Stoyanova earned Ph.D degree in Microbiology Science after post-graduate education. The topic of the dissertation was “The fermetation of egg white by propionic bacteria”. In 1983 she conferd the rank of Senior Reseacher by speciality Microbiology. She is currently working as a Leading Scientist of the Department of Microbiology. The topic of her doctoral dissertation was “The novel bacteriocins and their applications”. She confered the rank of Doctor degree on Microbiology and Biotechnology speciality in 2008. She had carried out investigations directed to isolation and construction of bacteriocine producing lactic acid bacteria with probiotics properties. L. Stoyanova has 156 publications in journals, 6 books , 105 oral presentations in conferences and International Symposiums, 9 media presentations, 11 patents, memberships in a scientific society, program committees and membership in a dissertation council.
Fructooligosaccharides are non-viable prebiotic oligosaccharides which has great demand due to its various functionalities. It occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables in trace amounts. Its main commercial production comes due to usage of microbial enzymes by reacting with di or polysaccharides such as sucrose or inulin as a substrate. For high production of fructooligosaccharides development of more enzymes with high activity and stability is required and has attracted interest by biotechnologist and microbiologist across the world. In this study twenty microorganisms were evaluated for their ability to produce fructosyltransferase (FTase) and generate fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from sucrose. Change in Ut (transfructosylating activity), Uh (hydrolytic activity), pH and biomass of these microorganisms were investigated over a fermentation period of 120 h on medium containing 20 % (w/v) sucrose as the sole carbon source. Synthesis of FOS from sucrose 50% (w/v) by transfructosylating activity in cell free culture filtrate of these microorganisms was studied over a period of 120 h. The screening procedure resulted in identification of some potentially interesting fungal strains producing high amount of FTase for FOS production. Among the screened microorganisms, highest concentration of FOS formation were observed in Aspergillus flavus NFCCI 2364 (63.40% w/w), Aspergillus niger (54.94% w/w), A. flavus NFCCI 2785 (44.61% w/w), Pencillium islandicum MTCC 4926 (43.56% w/w), Aspergillus terreus NFCCI 2347 (24.17% w/w) and Fusarium solani NFCCI 2315 (15.25% w/w).
Dr. Mohd Anis Ganaie is an Assistant Professor and Head Department of Zoology in Govt degree College Handwara, affiliated with University of Kashmir, J&K, India. He is newly recruited Assistant Professor in Higher education department. He received his Ph.D (2008-2013) in Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University Sagar, India. He also completed his post doctorate in Brazil in 2015 under Science without border programme. He is working on Prebiotics (Fructooligosaccharides) from last 10 years and has published many research and review articles on high impact journals.
Fig (Ficus carica) is nutritionally rich in phytochemicals, vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols, antioxidant and organic acids. A study was designed to increase the shelf life of Fig by osmotic dehydration in combination with other chemicals and drying technique. The effect of various pretreatments prior to drying on the quality of dried fig were compared by treating blanched figs with potassium meta bisulphate, NaCl, various concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) @ 2, 3, 4% and sucrose solution (30, 40, 50%). The chemically pretreated fig samples were dried in a solar dryer, packed in polyethylene bags and stored at ambient temperature for six months. Chemical analysis during storage of dried fig samples showed decrease in moisture, crude fiber, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity, while, total sugars and titratable acidity increased during storage for six months. Comparison of results for functional attributes exhibited T5 (Blanching+4% AA dip for 10 min) followed by T4 (Blanching+3% AA dip for 10 min) and T3 (Blanching+2% AA dip for 10 min) to be prominent in retaining higher ascorbic acid, phenolics and antioxidant activity, however higher fibers and total sugars were witnessed in T8 (Blanching+50% Sucrose dip for 30 min) and T7 (Blanching+40% Sucrose dip for 30 min). Sensory evaluation of the stored samples demonstrated best scores for the osmotically dehydrated fig with 30 and 40% sucrose prior to cabinet drying. The results of this study can be applied at industrial level to enhance the shelf life and stability of fig and other fruits.
Key Words: Dried fig, chemical pretreatments, nutritional attributes, osmotic dehydration
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Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of short-term (one cycle) changes in nutrition during the peri-conceptional period of the ewe, on blastocyst development and quality. In first experiment 48 ewes were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments, based on their initial weight (50-76kg): High feeding (H, 1.5 x daily energy needs for maintenance), Moderate feeding (M, 1.0 x maintenance; also served as control), Low feeding (L, 0.5 x maintenance). The nutritional trial began one cycle before mating and ended six days after A.I. In the first experiment, sheep lost weight over the trial period, regardless of diet. However, the weight loss in the L group (-7.87kg 0.73) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than the H group (-0.14kg 0.62) or M group (-1.27kg 0.4). The number of embryos collected and the number of corpora leutea were not influenced by diet. Embryos from sheep fed the L diet (74.68 1.45) had significantly greater total cell numbers (P< 0.05) than sheep fed the H diet (62.01 0.84). This increase appeared to result primarily from a significant (P<0.05) increase in the number (proportion: 0.73 0.004) of trophectoderm cells in the embryo. In the second experiment 76 mature ewes (4-5 years) of comparable body weight and condition (55-81 kg) were used to describe the number and quality of embryos retrieved following nutritional manipulation. The same nutritional treatments considered in experiment 1 were used in this experiment but were fed for different lengths of time. There were six dietary treatments in total i.e., HHH, HHL, MHL, MLH, MLL, LLL (Fig.1b). The treatment began eighteen days before A.I. and continued after until embryo collection on day six. The number of embryos collected, the number of corpora leutea and the proportion of embryos lost was not influenced by changes in the diet. Weight was significantly (P<0.05) reduced for those sheep fed a L ration regardless of whether this treatment occurred before or after mating. Although no significant differences were found in the number of embryos collected, the total number of cells that each embryo produced was significantly (P<0.05) reduced for sheep receiving a H ration for the whole trial period or after mating. A significantly higher (P<0.05) proportion of these cells were trophectoderm cells in sheep fed a L ration after mating than in sheep receiving a H ration. These results indicate that the timing of changes in feed allowances before mating does not affect embryo quality. However after mating changes in feed allowances are crucial for demonstrating effect of nutrition on embryo quality and further development and performance.
Prof. Dr Muhammad Azam Kakar has interests and vast work experience in the past few years have expanded the focus on basic research in the biological sciences to the application of science, technology and policy to address environment and development concerns. In addition he is also responsible for supervision of seven PhD and 39 M.Phil students. Prof. Kakar is a Reproductive biotechnologist by training, with a DVM, M.Phil (Pak), MS (Japan) and Ph.D from the University of Adelaide South Australia. He was also part of the team who created the first Australian Clone Sheep MATILDA using somatic cells in March at Turretfield Research Centre, Rosedale, South Australia.
In food industries, food is made to be appealing to sight as well as to taste for they are the primary factors which determine consumer acceptance. One of the main challenges faced when handling ready to eat food are the browning reaction as well as the fast degradation due to microbial multiplication. Throughout the years, different processes have been used to prevent the above stated such as heat treatment, addition of chemicals, modification of the food storage conditions. Furthermore, in the banqueting fields where food stocks turnover is high and the preparation and service time have rapid pace, the traditional methods of preservation are time consuming and cost inefficient. Therefore, a new approach is needed to target the mentioned challenges in this sector. Ascorbic acid, commonly known as vitamin C, is widely recognized for its benefits in the nutrition and health fields, however the advantages it represents in the food technology and food safety fields are disregarded or not very well known. This research will highlight the role of ascorbic acid in the preservation of ready to eat food, in particular strawberries, iceberg and avocado, in terms of organoleptic characteristics (taste, sight, texture) and microbiological profile extended shelf life.
Aline Jabre - BA in Nutrition and Dietetics and Current Masters in Aline Jabre : Human Resources in Lebanese International University.
Started my career from 4 years as a customer service agent to reach my current position as Head of Personnel at Sage & Savvy.
Aya Issa -BS environmental health in AUB - MSc Food safety hygiene and management in University of Birmingham.
Started my career from 3 years as quality assurance officer, to reach my current position as operation manager at Sage & Savvy.
Foodborne illness caused by Norovirus, Hepatitis A (HAV), and STEC on fresh produce remains a concern worldwide. In this study, commercial/home processing and storage practices of strawberries were evaluated for inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 and STEC. The MS2 bacteriophage was used as a surrogate of Norovirus. An Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) isolate from an outbreak linked to fresh strawberries was used. Strawberries were spot inoculated to achieve 6.6 log PFU/g MS2 or 5 log CFU/g (STEC). The inoculated strawberries were washed for 90s using tap water, electrolyzed water (50 ppm free chlorine) or 50 ppm chlorine. After washing, the strawberries were separately stored at 4oC for 2 days, or -20°C/-80°C for 30 days. Samples were processed and plaque assay was conducted to determine the population of MS2 or plated on selected media at pre-determined days of storage. Frozen and refrigerated storage had little effect on inactivating MS2 or STEC. No significant difference in MS2 population was observed between -20°C and -80°C storage. At the end of storage period (30d), 5 log PFU/g MS2 remained active on the strawberries. Washing of berries in water containing chemical antimicrobials prior to and after frozen storage had an additive effect on inactivating MS2 and STEC compared when water alone was used. Washing with a water antimicrobial significantly reduced the population of STEC. Under conditions evaluated using water antimicrobials; MS2 and STEC remained active on refrigerated and frozen stored strawberries. Regardless, it is recommended to wash strawberries using a water antimicrobial prior to processing and consumption.
Karl R. Matthews, Ph.D., is a Professor of Food Microbiology and Chair of the Department of Food Science at Rutgers University. Matthews’ research covers elucidating at the molecular level the interaction of human enteric pathogens with plants to developing novel antimicrobials to processing method that improve the microbial safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Food Safety and Associate Editor of Frontiers in Sustainable Food and Agriculture. Matthews is senior-author of Food Microbiology – An Introduction, editor of Microbiology of Fresh Produce, and senior-editor of The Produce Contamination Problem – causes and solutions.
Safety in the supply chain in the food industry is the key for product safety and conformity according the regulations and quality standards. The definition of a European standard and later also a possible global standard for the hygiene of any transport container for ground, sea and air transportation like silos, containers, truck semi-trailers or any other transport container is necessary to improve the safety and conformity of food products and to avoid incidents caused by non-conformities, deviations or any other out of specification events with relation to the product safety and with relation to a consumer risk like foreign bodies e.g. glass, plastic, dust or bacteria and fungi. Therefore the “association for the safety in the supply chain ENFIT e.V.” with his members, stakeholders of the food supply chain, stakeholders of the transport container life cycle and some European Union Institutions decided to work on a future standard to define hygiene standards for transport containers in the food supply chain starting from the raw material until the final product under consideration of the transport container life cycle. The standard need to specify the hygienic transport container design, food compatible materials, cleaning procedures, hygienic test procedures, tracking of all life cycle activities beginning with manufacturing, use, cleaning, service and repair services until end of life.
Frank Stein, Dr. Dr. h.c., Professor at the I. Arabaev Kyrgyz State University, Research Topics and work descriptions: Quality management and regulatory affairs of pharma- medical device- and food production, improvement of research and development processes in industry in cooperation with universities, standards and regulations for the supply chain, manufacturing and product development. Special competences: product and process risk evaluation and management in medical device, pharma and food industry, life cycle assessment (LCA), management of several regulations in one quality management system. At present: member of the Advisory Board and Standard Committee at the Association for the Safety in the Supply Chain ENFIT e.V., development and implementation of standards and regulation for the supply chain and transportation in the food, pharma and chemical industry together with EU institutions, trainer at the German Standard Institute (DIN) and British Standard Institute (BSI) for regulations and quality management in the medical device, pharma and food industry, Senior consultant at consulting company healthcare projects for industrial consulting projects.
Meat production is still one of the vital sources of national income in the developing countries including Egypt, where the human demand for animal proteins is increasing. Sheep, cattle and camel consider the main sources of animal protein for the Ismailia city, Egypt population. An abattoir survey was conducted on 2015 to determine the major causes of liver and kidney condemnation at Ismailia abattoirs, Egypt. In this study, a total of 9788 slaughter animals (1890 sheep, 7652 cattle and 246 camel) were examined by postmortem inspection using standard inspection procedures. The gross liver and kidney lesions were collected allover the examined time of the study. The absolute total meat weights (Kg) obtained from sheep, cattle and camel allover year 2015 were 1480800Kg. The obtained results clearly revealed that cattle meat during year 2015 was 1377360Kg and considered the first selection by Ismailia population because of their palatability and flavor. The second meat of choice was sheep meat (56700Kg) followed by camel (46740Kg). A total of 1540 kg condemned meat was obtained from slaughtered animal at Ismailia abattoir during year 2015. The total kilograms of condemned meat from sheep, cattle and camel were 134 (8.7%), 1350 (87.7%) and 56 (3.6%) Kg respectively. The total numbers recorded of gross liver and kidney lesions of slaughtered animal at Ismailia abattoir were 228 and 50 lesions respectively. Gross liver lesions of sheep, cattle and camel were 18 (7.9%), 197 (86.4%) and 13 (5.7%) lesions respectively. Gross kidney lesions of sheep, cattle and camel were 2 (4%), 48 (96%) and 0 (0.0%) lesions respectively The present study provides baseline data for the future production of high quality meat at Ismailia abattoir.
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Drying is a traditional process that can be used to preserve food. It is well-known in the preparation of a diversity of special processed meats, such as, jerky, a popular food snack, where shelf life and food safety are essential properties. Poorly dried meat is a main source and route of infection by food-borne bacteria causing food-borne illnesses, such as, salmonellosis and infestation by Escherichia coli. To extend the shelf life and to assure food safety of meat, the use of either synthetic or natural preservatives have been applied to avoid food spoilage from occur. Since concern over the safety of chemical food additives has raised in recent years, a growing interest in the application of natural food preservatives for meat has increased. Hence, it is necessary to improve the meat preservation process by using natural antimicrobial agents. To the best of our knowledge, the use of essential oils when the meat is being dried has not been evaluated. In this regard, there is an opportunity to increase the value of dried meat and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses by applying essential oils during the drying process. This investigation presents a novel method of applying essential oils during meat drying, specifically in vapor form directly in a drying chamber. We evaluated oregano essential oil (OEO) and thyme essential oil (TEO) to inhibit the growth of bacteria. For the evaluation, we detected minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). As a result, it was found that the application of the OEO in meat is effective in inhibiting Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. After 6 hours of drying at 55°C, 2 ml (0.038 mL L-1 air ) and 1.5 ml (0.028 mL L-1 air) of OEO were considered as the MICs, against S. enteritidis and E. coli respectively. For TEO treatment, E. coli was reduced with a MIC of 1.5 mL dose (0.028 mL L-1 air) due to a significant decrease in the counts after 6 h of drying at 55 °C. In conclusion, the present method is an alternative option to synthetic preservatives and it significantly reduces microbial growth in dried meat.
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This study was conducted to investigate the “Influence of different preservatives on physico-chemical and sensorial quality of tomato pulp during storage temperatures” during the year 2016-17. Results show that Dry matter, Vitamin C and Serum loss, was increased at room temperature with SB Whereas Titratable acidity, Total soluble solids (Brix°), Moisture content, ash content and pH value were decreased during storage period. The results indicated all parameters including pH value, moisture, dry matter, vitamin C, titratable acidity, total soluble solid, ash and serum loss were significantly higher in refrigerated temperature (7±2ºC). Whereas, the results of tomato pulp at room temperature contained lowest pH value 3.07, moisture content 94.01, Vitamin C 12.56, titratable acidity 2.40, total soluble solids 2.92, ash content 0.11 and serum loss5.23, and highest dry matter 3.90 content respectively. Sensory analysis showed the highest score for color, taste, texture, aroma and flavor and over all acceptability respectively was observed in tomato pulp contained potassium Meta bisulphate at refrigerated temperatures (7±2ºC) compared to the tomato pulp contained sodium benzoate. Furthermore result indicated that the tomato pulp contained Potassium Meta bisulphite highest ascorbic acid 70.22±38, (mg/100g); 51.22±10 Lycopene content (mg/100g) 47.29±99Total phenolic content (mg/100g) at refrigerated temperatures (7±2ºC) as compared to the tomato pulp contained sodium benzoate ascorbic acid 66.02±64, (mg/100g); 46.07±22 Lycopene content (mg/100g) 37.40±34 Total phenolic content (mg/100g) respectively. Potassium Meta bisulphite extended the shelf life and improved tomato pulp to 2-3 weeks, respectively, at refrigerated temperatures (7±2ºC) might be a better way for long term preservation of tomato pulp and its chemical constituents showed minimal changes over the period of study. Microbial contamination was only found in room temperature (30±2ºC) storage. Keywords: Storage, tomato, preservatives
Shahzor Gul Khaskheli, a native of Matiari (District Matiari) City of Sindh province located on the National High Way Road, obtained the B.Sc. (Agri) Hons degree in 2009, M.Sc. degree in Food Science and Technology in 2011 from Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. He got Chinese Government Scholarship from People’s Republic of China in 2012 and completed PhD in Food Technology with specialization in Food Processing and Preservation Technology from College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China in 2015. He worked on the processing and characterization of mushroom. In November 2015, he joined as Assistant Professor in the Institute of Food Sciences and Technology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam till date. Dr. Khaskheli has more than 15 publications to his credit published in international and national journals of repute. Dr. Khaskheli has distinguished career in research, extension and teaching, with broad experience in Food Science and Technology.
In Sudan, 60-70% of the population are engaged in traditional agriculture where it remains the crucial sector in the economy as major source of raw materials, On the other hand the organic agriculture represents a deliberate attempt to make the best use of natural resources and create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically viable agricultural system that rely on farm renewable resources and management of ecological and biological process. This paper aims to highlights current status of organic Agriculture in Sudan, identify factors limit or encourage the adoption of this farming and provide guidelines for research and policy intervention areas beside investigate in to what extent organic agriculture can share in food security in Sudan. Most of the Sudanese farmers use no or minimum synthetic inputs in their traditional agriculture, However, the country is lacking the main elements distinguishing organic agriculture from other forms of sustainable agriculture such as the existence of legislations to control the trade in organic products internationally, competent authority and the national or/and international offices of the inspection and certification. Besides the absence of the organic agriculture polices and policy action plans.
Mohamed S. Abdalla is an Assistant Professor and Technical Advisor at the German International Cooperation (GIZ) Organic Farming Project, where he has been since 2006. He also currently serves as Technical Coordinator for the Organic Farming Project, KSA. He received a B.Sc. in 1996, M.Sc. in 2004 and the Ph.D. in Natural Resources in 2010 from the University of Khartoum, Sudan. Izeldin A. Babiker is an Associate Professor at the University of Zalingei, where he has been since 2011. He also currently serves as Technical Consultant for the MEWA, KSA. He received a B.V.Sc. in 1991, M.V. Sc. in 1995 and the Ph.D. in Animal Production in 2005 from the University of Khartoum, Sudan.
The study was conducted on Apricot Turkel stored in accelerated conditions i.e. Temperature 40±2 degree cell. and Humidity at 75±5% to evaluate its impact on apricot Turkel in terms of parameters like taste, odour, appearance, moisture content, insect infestation, total ash, acid insoluble ash, oleic acid ,aflatoxins and microbiological parameters like total plate count , yeast & mould, E.Coli, Coliform, s.aureus, which help to determine the fact how it affect food safety aspects of product . The study was executed on retail pack of the product, available in the good retail store. Prior to initiate the study packaging integrity was assured precautionally. As a result of result of study of exposure in accelerated conditions and periodical analysis of Apricot Turkel at it was concluded that disintegration in the product started organoleptic ally, chemically and microbiologically, and there was significant alteration in the initial parameters and parameters post to the exposure in accelerated conditions.
Narendra Tripathi is Ph.D. in Environmental Science, from Mewar University Rajasthan. He has 20 years experience in Quality Food Safety and Compliance. He has worked with organizations like Wal-Mart India Pvt.Ltd, DS Limited Food Division, Reliance Retail Limited, Ayurvet Limited (Formerly Known as Dabur Ayurvet Limited), Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt.Ltd and Dabur India Limited.In current role he is carrying the responsibilities of Head Quality, Food safety and EHS compliance at Zeon Lifesicences Limited. Experienced in all aspects of Quality Assurance, Quality Control, Food Safety , International systems ( ISO 22000, ISO 9001, HACCP,PAS 220(ISO 22002-1),FSSC 22000,)Regulatory requirements FSSAR- 2011, The Legal Metrology Act -2009 and The Legal Metrology Packaged and Commodities rules 2011,The Environment (Protection )act 1986-Environment Protection Rules-1986 , The Consumer Protection Act 1986(The Consumer Protection Rules 1987, The Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940, In process Products , Finished products, Packing materials and services. He has expertization in Food safety risk assessment across supply chain, Commercialization of new raw materials/ products, design/implementation of Prerequisite programs (PRPs), establishment of Good manufacturing practices (GMP) across food manufacturing units, third-party sites and distribution channel, Demonstrated capabilities in development and successful implementation of GFSI aligned food safety management systems.
Improving pellet durability is an effective means of decreasing fines. Pellet durability may be developed by operation of diet formulation. Use of raw materials with good binding ability such as wheat, barley, rape and use of pellet binders will have an influence. Feed manufacturing practices will also have an outcome on pellet durability and potentially include less expense than altering raw materials or using pellet binders. Binders are regularly used in poultry feeds to improve pelleting rate or to reduce fines. Generally, several carbohydrate sources containing guar gum, carrageenan and xanthan have been used as binding bases in feed. Guar gum is the most common product resultant from guar bean that is an yearly legume belonging to the Fabaceae family. It has been previously shown that the addition of guar gum to feed can result in more stable feces. Carrageenan is extracted from red seaweed and has been used widely as a food additive for humans from many years ago. This additive also has been formerly used as a binder in the diets. Lignin based binders/lignosulfonates; hemi-cellulose binders; mineral binders (clays); specialty binders (gums, starches, formulated products, etc.). Binder prices may meaningfully affect the cost of the diet, therefore the utilization of natural substances, biodegradable and renewable may be beneficial from an environmental and economical point of view. Although there is not such a thing as the best binding agent, the research in this field is actively ongoing, since different species and even the same species during different phases of the life cycle have different feeding behaviours and nutritional needs. However, despite progress in recent years, knowledge of micro-bound diets and their impact on digestive physiology and growth performances of reared animal species is still not sufficient in light of the industry’s needs and thus further research is required. In this review we will focus on a particular aspect of livestock feed represented by binders. Key Words: feed additive, feed processing, pellet binders
Prof.Dr. Yavuz Gurbuz is working as a Professor at Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Nutrition University of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam, TURKEY Degree Department University B.Sc. Faculty of Agriculture; Department of Animal Production Ankara University M.Sc. Faculty of Agriculture; Department of Animal Production Harran University PhD. Faculty of Agriculture; Department of Animal Production Ankara University Post-PhD Department of Animal and Microbial Sciences United Kingdom University of Wales Assoc. Prof. Dr. Animal nutrition and Feed Technology Higher Education Prof. Dr. Animal nutrition and Feed Technology University of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Experience Abroad Activity Department University Year Post-Doctora,( financial supported of TUBITAK) ( 3 month) Animal and Microbial Sciences University of Wales, IBERS, United Kingdom 2007 Advanced Courses International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (financial supported of CIHEAM), Animal Production and Environmental Management Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Zaragoza (IAMZ), Spain 2009 Erasmus Programe (financial supported of KSU) Department of Sustainable Agriculturel Systems University of Natural Ressources and Life Sciences Australia, Viyana, 2013 Feed Technology XVI International Symposium -2014 Institute of food and feed technology University of Novi Sad, Serbia 2014 FP7 Europea Project Course ( financial supported of EAAP) ( 1 Week) Rumin Omics FP7 Project Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuoro, Piacenza- ITALY 2014 Career Job title Year Agriculture Engineer Koy-tur Holding A.S. Ankara Feed Mill 1990-1993 Academic Stuff Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Background: legumes flours, due to their amino acid and fibre content are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of bread and bakery products .
Objective: this study the influence of the partial replacement of wheat flour by legumes flours (chickpea, lentil and white bean) the study was to investigate the effects of wheat flour substitution with legume flour in cake in terms of the sensory and nutrition properties of the prepared cake samples were evaluated. Cake samples were prepared from (a) Control(100% wheat flour). Chickpea (b)(wheatflour80%+chickpeaflour20%),(c) (wheatflour80%+ Chickpea flour 40%), Lentil(d) (wheat flour 80%+Lentil flour 20%),(e) (wheat flour80%+ Lentil flur20%) , White beans(f) ( wheat flour80%+white beans20%) and (g)( wheat flour 80%+white beans 20%). The sensory and quality attributes of the seven types of cakes were evaluated . Result showed all products were found to be acceptable as recorded the panelist in terms of color ,odor , texture, taste, and over acceptability. The study showed an increase in amino acids composition of the cake as compared to the control. In addition, the high trend in the essential amino acid increased in samples cake prepared from wheat with legumes in 20% compared with the wheat control. The study recommend that using composite flour should be encouraged among food industries to make economic use of local raw material and produce high quality food products such as cake particularly for the population of developing nations.
Keywords: composite flour, legumes, sensory evaluation, Amino acid .
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Aging depends on genetic and environmental factors, including dietary habits. Besides, there is a clear existence of a causally link between changes in the human microbiota and the onset and progression of age-related diseases. Could probiotics extend human life expectancy and simultaneously prevent age-related diseases development? To tackle this enigma we used the spore-forming probiotic bacterium Bacillus subtilis, different animal models and food matrixes to study the beneficial effects by which B. subtilis affects host health and longevity. We found that biofilm-proficient B. subtilis cells colonized the gut and extended host lifespan significantly longer (at least 50 %) than did biofilm-deficient isogenic cells. In addition, to biofilm proficiency, the quorum sensing pentapeptide CSF and nitric oxide (NO) represented the entire B. subtilis repertoire responsible for the extended and healthy longevity of host. B. subtilis enhanced the activity of sensory and motor neurons (ASH and AWA), therefore improving host behavioral responses, and downregulated the formation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein (i.e., Parkinson prevention). B. subtilis also increased the expression of genes involved in the regulation of aging and stress resilience (DAF16/FOXO, HSF). These life-enhancing effects were transduced by downregulation of the insulin-like signaling system (DAF2/IGF-1) which is precisely a key partaker in the healthy longevity of living human centenarians. The high robustness of the B. subtilis spores to survive different industrial manufacturing processes and long-time storage, makes this bacterium an ideal probiotic to be incorporated in different beverages and foods (to be presented here) to enhance human neural plasticity and healthy longevity. Our final goal is to test whether the regular consumption of probiotics (i.e., B. subtilis) in human food and beverages decreases the rate of human aging and stamp out disease at the earliest possible moment as the Nobel Prize winner E. Metchnikoff hypothesized a century ago.
Roberto Grau completed his Biochemistry PhD from Rosario National University in Argentina and obtained his postdoctoral degree from The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Experimental Medicine at San Diego, California, USA. He is a Pew Latin American Fellow (San Francisco, USA), a Fulbright International Scholar (Washington DC, USA) and the director of the Molecular Microbiology and Environmental Science Laboratory of the National Scientific and Technical Research Council of Argentina (CONICET). Roberto obtained many national and international awards, published over 30 papers in standing journals, trained more than seventy professionals in science and founded and/or catalyzed the creation of half a dozen biotechnological companies.
Optimizing process conditions of dehydration and drying technologies was targeted for the development of probiotic apple snack in this study. Experiments on ultrasound assisted osmotic dehydration (US-OD) of apple cubes designed by Box-Behnken were performed by using osmotic solution concentration (40, 45, 50%), solid and liquid ratio (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 w/w) and ultrasound assisting time (min) as independent variables. The dehydration conditions were optimized at 49.95% sucrose concentration, 1:6.74 apple and solution ratio and 10.10 minutes to reach maximum water loss determined by measuring moisture content of US-OD treated apple cubes. Sucrose concentration was the most effective variable for the US-OD technology. Apple cubes dehydrated at the optimized conditions were penetrated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG with a 9 log cfu/mL initial viable cell concentration during 5 and 10 minutes. Conventional and vacuum dryers were used for the drying of the apple cubes at a specific temperature, 37°C. It was observed that the moisture content reduction in the air dryer is more and the remaining number of viable cells is sufficient to qualify both dried products as probiotic.
Keywords: Ultrasound, osmotic dehydration, probiotic, optimization
Derya Dursun, Researcher holding PhD in Department of Food Engineering, Gaziantep University. Research topics: microbiology and kinetics of fermented foods, bio-production of valuable products, utilization and valorization of wastes, experimental design, mathematical modeling and optimization of fermentation systems, preference mapping of food products, entegrating of functional products (pre/probiotics, antioxidants etc.) and food processing. Competences: solid and submerged state fermentations, food processing, modeling and optimization of food systems.
P. larvae subsp. larvae, the agent of American foulbrood and Melissococcus plutonius, the agent of European Foulbrood in honeybees are leading factors afflicting honey bee health and causing huge colony losses. To control this diseases antibiotics are used which pose risks not only to honey bee health but is also a threat to humans. A number of biological controls methods are investigated in this regard for the control and prevention of these diseases. In this respect, probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are highly investigated. Propolis, a non-toxic wax like resinous substance found is bee hives is reported to be highly antibacterial and eco-friendly. In this study we aimed to determine the synergistic antibacterial effect of Probiotic Lactic Acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from honey bee (Apis mellifera) intestinal specimens, and different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of Propolis, against Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius. Initially a number of LAB were isolated from honey bees by culturing the intestinal specimens on MRS and M17 media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The isolates were identified by biochemical and 16SrRNA sequencing. Four different concentrations of Propolis collected from beehives of Alborz, Kurdistan and Tehran province, and the identified LAB isolates were tested for their antibacterial spectrum against Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) and sterile saline were used as positive and negative control, respectively. The survival and growth of the L.casei TA0053, L.actis NM00126, P.acidilactici TA0300 and E.faecium TA0312 (108 CFU/ml) in the presence of different propolis concentrations at different time intervals were investigated and their MIC determined. Synergistic effect of propolis and LAB bacterial strain against different cell concentrations of Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius was evaluated and their MIC recorded.
Dr Naheed Mojgani, PhD in Microbiology is Associate Professor at Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), Iran. She is the Head of the Human and animal Probiotic Research Lab at RVSRI and senior scientific Advisor at a probiotic manufacturing company (Biorun.Co Iran). Dr Mojgani has commercialized a number of local probiotic isolates and has transferred the technology know how of probiotic supplement production. She has supervised a number of PhD and MSc research dissertations, has published more than 40 scientific papers and has presented her research work at a number of international and national conferences.
Most of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are anaerobic or facultative anaerobic and exposure to oxygen might be detrimental due to their inefficiency in dealing with reactive oxygen species. Leuconostocs are members of LAB with wide applications in the food and medical industry. Whereas they are generally catalase-negative, a lot of strains of Leuconostocs are tolerant to oxygen. Despite the extensive applications in industry, issues concerning the aerobic life of Leuconostocs, e.g., the mechanisms involved in oxygen tolerance, have not been fully addressed yet. In this study, the mechanism underlie the oxygen tolerance of L. mesenteroides CGMCC10064 was investigated. Observations showed that cells of CGMCC10064 cultivated in sucrose medium produced large amounts of exopolysaccharides (EPS), which were required for aerobic growth. These EPS were composed of soluble and insoluble α-glucans. Further experiments showed that the amount of insoluble EPS would increase in response to oxygen stress, and oxygen exposure would induce the formation of cell aggregates mediated by the insoluble EPS, which would entail escape from the oxygen stress. Moreover, soluble EPS could improve the aerobic growth of CGMCC10064 through extrusion of dissolved oxygen from the aqueous circumstances. These results shed light on the physiological roles of the EPS widely seen in Leuconostocs, and highlight the potentials of these EPS in manufacture and preservation of probiotics, as most probiotics are oxygen-sensitive and oxygen stress has imposed severe restrictions on the application of probiotics.
Minghui Yan, Senior scientist in Dairy Research Institute, Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd.. Research topics: food microbiology within the area of raw milk and dairy products; interactions among food-associated microorganisms and mechanisms of the interactions; the growth and physiological characteristics of lactic acid bacteria. Competences: food microbiology, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), food safety.
Hyperoxaluria is the single strongest promotor of kidney stone formation, whose medical management represents a burden to the individual patient as well as the veterinary health care market. Till date we do not have any specific medication or interventions for calcium oxalate stone formation. The major lacunae identified during the literature collections are, even though several researchers are conducted experiments with oxalate degrading organisms, its stability against unfavourable environment, cell viability and stability are still under debate. For the past few years, our laboratory is focusing on increasing the stability of these oxalate degrading organisms against unfavourable conditions by preparing them in an encapsulated form. The micro-encapsulated oxalate degrading probiotic consortium were investigated for its cell viability and stability under acidic pH, bile acids and its oxalate degrading capacity under in vitro condition, concurrently mRNA expression of its oxalate degrading enzymes such as formyl-CoA transferase (Frc) and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (Oxc) were investigated using q-PCR. Currently experimental studies are in the process to explore the efficacy of microencapsulated oxalate degrading bacterial consortium in high oxalate fed experimental hyperoxaluric animals.
Pragasam Viswanathan, Professor of Biotechnology in Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India. His lab is extensively working on renal diseases especially in prevention or attenuation of calcium oxalate stones and infection stones, diabetic nephropathy, acute kidney injury and urinary tract infection both in experimental and human model studies. He has published more than 50 papers in international peer reviewed journals. He is also faculty mentor for start-ups at Technology Business Incubator of VIT.
In the field of food, such new media like dynamic images, short videos, live broadcast, can show the real state of food and resonate with the audience merely by the hot steaming and chewing sound. Can you imagine over one hundred thousand hits just for a live broadcast of instant noodles? And it contains considerable commercial values. This phenomenon seems inconceivable. Actually, this output method enlarges the charm of food and attracts audience mainly by empathy of eating. The live broadcast, especially at meal time, always brings a huge number of followers for food and the restaurant so that the marketing purpose can be achieved. These trends allow consumers to share their experiences on their social media platform to show their lifestyle and individuality. For example, one of the hottest trend in China 2017 was the cheese tea, a drink made from Chinese tea with cream cheese whipped on top that gives a fluffy and light texture. People taking selfies to post on WeChat after 2 hours queuing, is a classic case of status purchase, where drinking a $5 cup of tea is almost secondary compared to the act of sharing the experience on social media. As KOL among foodies, popular bloggers, 80% of whose followers are highly-consumptive young people, always get mass responses when recommending food. This mode of advertising thus becomes indispensable in current food marketing. Food has occupied an important place in a global social platform and keep converting the social currency into purchasing power, thus becomes an unshakable marketing mode in this new media era. Besides the changes taking place in new media, China also faces variety of revolutions in different areas. Such as the rapid rise of food delivery, self-service restaurants and stores, smart payment(wechat & alipay) etc. make China the global pioneer of food technology revolution. China used to learn a lot from the world and now it's time for the world to learn something from China.
Yaqing Qi is the Founder of Chow Chow Fruit(China). Cooperating with Zhejiang University(3rd best university in China) Food Science Laboratory, with focus on vegan food and molecular gastronomy, the company dedicated to promote the idea: Eat Healthy, Eat Light and Eat Smart. The program is highly acknowledged by Chinese Minister of Education in 2016. As a member at TCM(traditional Chinese medicine) food & medicine Phd committee in China, she combines the concept of TCM with food: Medicine and Food share the same root. She is also an attendee of Anuga Food Messe in Cologne, Germany(2017) , Food&Beverage Technology Exposition in Shanghai(2017), SVIA Entrepreneur Program in Stanford University and Food Science(2017).
lobal food production is at an all time high, yet so is the number of people without access to food and water, as well as the proportion of people suffering from the effects of a bad diet. At the same time, the food industry has seen a tragic lack of true innovation, with current services either failing to satisfy customers, or employing an unsustainable and inefficient business model. The absence of traceability and transparency leads to a prevalence of unethical business practices and prevents consumers from having an audible voice in the industry. Our software provides everyone with the opportunity to choose a long-lasting, pleasurable, nutritional and globally sustainable diet while changing the current landscape of the food industry to reduce waste, pollution and improve transparency. By providing a software tool for food creators to design meals using the grocery retailers inventory, we optimize the logistics of how food is distributed, and who owns that food asset. Knowing the ownership of the food asset is key for product recalls/ health traceability. Using blockchain technology doesn’t just mean our data is safe. It maintains the integrity and anonymity of the data, and as a whole, our database becomes the largest and most detail source of nutritional information in history. Our focus is steering consumers as well as food manufacturers in a direction of health, sustainability and accountability using the power of peer designed meal-kits.
Sequoia LaDeil Velez, studied herbal medicine and psychology at Karl Franzens University. Research topics and work description: His work as a farmer, beekeeper, and medical herbalist with vast knowledge of food waste within households and grocery retailers. He is the founder of the EONOS Foundation an alliance bridging universities, hospitals, and shoppers through data shared with researchers on the blockchain for traceability of food and diseases. Competences: psychology, biomedical herbalist, blockchain, farmer, beekeeper.
The drying food industry needs to supply markets with superior-quality products to satisfy a more rigorous customer demands. Warm air drying (WAD) is the most frequent operation for food preservation. However, drying foods with WAD follow important alterations such as shrinkage, case-hardening, thermal degradation of nutrients, browning, etc, then vacuum drying (VD) could be an interesting alternative process since it works at low oxygen concentration and low temperature. Nevertheless the physics of vacuum drying must be well understood. In order to improve our knowledge about VD, mathematical models can be used.
In this work, a one-dimensional mathematical model for contact vacuum drying of tuberous slices is proposed. The simulated drying conditions were 55, 65 and 75°C with three vacuum pressures: 26, 56 and 79 kPa. The model considers three partial differential equations for the product scale and two ordinary differential equations for the dryer scale. Moisture content, temperature and air density were the primary unknowns to solve at the scale of product. Air density and water vapour density were solved at the dryer scale. The boundary conditions take into consideration the moisture and energy transfer, and involves the pump flow rate. The drying kinetics and the gas pressure changes inside the chamber are well simulated. The vapour pressure in the chamber reflects the active and passive regimes of drying, and drying rate increases as the vacuum pressure in the chamber decreases.
Keywords: Vacuum drying, modelling, boundary conditions, tuberous crop.
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Nowadays, people are increasingly aware of healthy nourishment and healthy snacks. In some cases people are consuming the snacks while longtime work hours, before going to sports, while training down or to stay healthy. These are leading the industry to produce fruit or vegetable based snacks. Fruit and vegetable bars are the new trends in the market. The question is whether these snacks are health or not? Moreover “What is the proportion of dried fruits and vegetables? Some scientist says that it is beneficial some says not. As we know due to drying fruits and vegetables become denser in terms of e micro-nutrient, folate, and vitamin C while concentrated by a factor of 3-5 compare to fresh ones. For example 100 gr dried apple contains 58 g of sugar while USDA suggests limiting sugar intake to no more than 45g a day. So that describing the dried fruits or veggie as healthy snack or not is not true. Therefore to clarify these facts is important for human health and production systems.
Tunahan ERDEM, Research assistant in the Dept. of Agricultural Machinery and technologies Engineering (ADANA/TURKEY). Research topics and work description: food drying, oil extraction and storage of the food production and design of industrial dryer.
Packaging is defined as an enclosure to protect food from tampering or contamination from physical, chemical and biological sources.The primary purpose of food packaging is to protect the food against attack from oxygen, water vapour, ultraviolet light as well as both chemical and microbiological contamination. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of certain additives into packaging film or within packaging containers with the aim of maintaining and extending product shelf life. Active packaging, however allows packages to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The principles behind active packaging are based either on the intrinsic properties of the polymer used as packaging material itself or on the introduction (inclusion, entrapment etc.) of specific substances inside the polymer. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is a ligneous perennial shrub growing in Mediterranean region and Asia and widespread in Turkey, Italy, Spain, Russia, Syria, Iran, China, and Israel. The licorice having multi years has blue and violet flowers. Licorice is a favourable herb used in food and pharmaceutical for thousands of years in the traditional medicine system. Licorice extracts have been used for more than 60 years in Japan to treat chronic hepatitis, and also have therapeutic benefit against other viruses, including human immunodeiciency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes simplex. Deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) preparations are useful in treating various types of ulcers, while topical licorice preparations have been used to sooth and heal skin eruptions, such as psoriasis and herpetic lesions.
Divya Yadav has successfully completed her M.Sc Food and Nutrition from Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies, India and B.Sc Biotechnology from Maharshi Dayanand University, India. She has got hands on expereince on many sophisticated machines like UV Vis Spectrophotometer, PCR, etc. She also coordinated Indo Japanese Conclave III, held at Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies during 13-14 Feb, 2017.
Background The wines of Tokaj especially those which are prepared by a technique related to Botrytis cinerea have reached a special international respect for centuries. Now we compared the standardized mortality numbers of inhabitants with cancers and cardiovascular diseases in four wine regions and in one not-wine region of Hungary within 2000-2010. In addition we looked for some new biochemical specificities of the wines of Tokaj.
Methods: In Tokaj (white wine), Eger (red wine), Balaton (white wine), Szekszárd/ Villány (red wine), Hódmezővásárhely (not wine region) the standardized mortality data of 206 159 persons were compared. Using a biochemical reaction producing chemiluminescence we tested the dominant anti-oxidant or pro-oxidant features of the various types of wines.
Results: The significantly least number of cancers occurred in Tokaj, however the number of cardiovascular mortality was the highest here. On the other hand, the fewest cardiovascular mortality took place in the red wine regions Szekszárd/Villány, but showing here and in the other red wine region ,Eger significantly higher values of cancers. By the indexes of stimulation calculated from the chemiluminescence measurements the anti-oxidant feature of red wines and the pro-oxidant feature of the wines of Tokaj could be determined. Especially the "Aszu of Tokaj" showed a strong pro-oxidant character.
Conclusions: The dominantly pro-oxidant effects of the wines of Tokaj and anti-oxidant features of red wines showed reversed effects on the mortalities caused by cancers and cardiovascular diseases.
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This presentation is intended to present to professionals with advanced and up-to-date information about the functional roles of the GI microbiome and its impact on human health, obesity and type 2 diabetes management. It explores the possibility of improving health by the intake of specific nutrients intended to modulate the microbiome for improved function. Dietary choices have direct and indirect influences on health via the role of the microbiome. This presentation will share the scientific evidence that connects the means of achieving a healthy microbiome with specific nutrients, a novel science-based approach to help with weight management and blood sugar levels. In this webinar, GI microbiome anatomy and function are reviewed in order to set the stage before launching into specific interactions of the microbiota with dietary nutrients. Next is a discussion of the types of nutrients needed. Clinical data testing a unique combination of specific prebiotic nutrients on human beings will be presented. This presentation was developped with the sponsorship of Microbiome Therapeutics and the expertise of Dr. Mark Heiman, a Ph.D. Scientist in Neuroendrinology – adjunct professor at the Tulane School of Medicine. Dr. Heiman retired after a long career at Lilly where his team discovered the roles of leptin and ghrelin. Dr. Heiman spent his final years at Lilly as the Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) of Obesity Research.
Muriel Doyle is a Nutrition Consultant, Registered Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator. She is a native of Belgium, living in Texas who has a life-long love of gastronomy and the art of healing using nutrition sciences. She studied at the Catholic University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels to pursue a master's degree in Biomedicine with a focus in human nutrition and metabolic disorders. The institution gave her an avant-garde understanding of the functional foods, being one of the key world leader 30 years ago. While living in the USA, she earned a Master's degree in Food Science and Human Nutrition from the University of Maine. Muriel networks actively with professionals and businesses to provide safe and science based expertise to the public. She offers peer education on prevention and holistic approach to lifestyle and nutrition related chronic diseases such as Diabetes. She has a passion for the fascinating application of The Microbiome Modulation Using Key Dietary Nutrients.
Evaluating of detoxification of Aflatoxin M1 by a potentialy probiotic bacteria “Bifidobacterium animalis” in concentrated yogurt was the main purpose of this research. In this study, the effects of different levels of probiotic bacteria inoculation including : 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 2.5% on aflatoxin M1 detoxification in bovine full fat yogurt during days of storage at 5±1º C was evaluated by ELISA method. All tests of treatments were done on days 1st, 7th, 15th and 21st and compared with the control. The result of this study determined that there was a difference between treatments in terms of effect on aflatoxin significantly (p<0.01). The results also showed that the amount of aflatoxin present in yogurt decreased with increasing number of probiotic bacteria. Therefore, using of this probiotic bacteria especeially in 2.5% of probiotic, has a positive effect on reducing the amount of aflatoxin M1 residues in full fat yogurt. Key words: probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis, concentrated yogurt, Aflatoxin M1 , ELISA
Keiwan Ebrahimi Mohammadi, Free Scholar in food Hygiene in the UK. Degree of education: PhD in Food Hygiene, Ex-lecturer (Assisstant Proffessor) in Department of food science and technology in IA University-Mahabad branch, Iran for more than 14 years. Research topics and work description: food Microbiology, Food Toxicology, Mycotoxins in food and feed stuff, Probiotics (Survivability and their impacts on physicochemical, sensory and reological properties in different food such as dairy products and chocolates, Biotechnology (β-carotene Production by Dunaliella sp. Isolates from the hyper-saline Lakes) etc....
Metabolic syndrome, variously known also as syndrome X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences are minor. With the successful conquest of communicable infectious diseases in most of the world, this new non-communicable disease (NCD) has become the major health hazard of modern world. Though it started in the Western world, with the spread of the Western lifestyle across the globe, it has become now a truly global problem. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is often more in the urban population of some developing countries than in its Western counterparts. The two basic forces spreading this malady are the increase in consumption of high calorie-low fiber fast food and the decrease in physical activity due to mechanized transportations and sedentary form of leisure time activities. The syndrome feeds into the spread of the diseases like type 2 diabetes, coronary diseases, stroke, and other disabilities. The total cost of the malady including the cost of health care and loss of potential economic activity is in trillions. The present trend is not sustainable unless a magic cure is found (unlikely) or concerted global/governmental/societal efforts are made to change the lifestyle that is promoting it. There are certainly some elements in the causation of the metabolic syndrome that cannot be changed but many are amenable for corrections and curtailments. For example, better urban planning to encourage active lifestyle, subsidizing consumption of whole grains and possible taxing high calorie snacks, restricting media advertisement of unhealthy food, etc. Revitalizing old fashion healthier lifestyle, promoting old-fashioned foods using healthy herbs rather than oil and sugar, and educating people about choosing healthy/wholesome food over junks are among the steps that can be considered. Keywords Metabolic syndrome .Insulinresistance . Prediabetes .Obesity . Abdominal obesity .Waist-hipratio .Healthy herbs . Leisure time physical activity (LTPA)
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Nutritional epidemiology tries to measure a huge number of influencing factors of one’s diet and food choices for e.g. probiotic fermented food. Fast technological progress and digitalization are adding more and more new factors to consider and measure. Smartphones, social media and content consumption can be huge parts of one’s daily life. They are influencing our choices, but merely considered in nutritional epidemiology. Children got role models. Someone to look up to and imitate in behavior. Giving peoples role models and influencing their identity – the way people think about themselves and therefore behave - are more efficient than changes in habits “I ferment every month cabbage to sauerkraut” or merely communicating information “Ferment your food, it’s healthy!”. Role models for promoting fermented food and cases of good practice are available in English and German speaking countries. Through a better understanding in using role models in marketing for the promotion of making and eating probiotic fermenting food we can have a better impact on public health. Imagine the effect of having bacteriawoman and brobioticman as a comic hero. Or seeing Jay-Z making his own kimchi and drinking sauerkraut juice instead of champagne with Beyoncé. While brushing dirt off his shoulder.
Adnan Pjanic, is a graduate of the University of Vienna in Nutritional Sciences and master degree specialization in Public Health Nutrition. He has worked as a freelancer in the sector of product development and marketing for several companies to promote healthy diets and lifestyle choices. He started with photography, foodblogging and content creation about fermented foods. Now his focus is on working on digital businesses using psychology and marketing with new media.
Nowadays, the novel technology of Black Soldier Fly (BSF) rearing is constantly developing around the world. It is known that BSFs serve as nature’s recyclers of organic waste producing organic fertiliser. At the same time, this technology results in feed protein from BSF larvae, suitable for aquaculture and animals, which provides a solution against protein deficiency. In addition to feed protein and organic fertiliser, BSF is an excellent source of chitin and chitosan, its deacetylated derivative. Chitin is a natural biopolymer found in insect exoskeleton. Due to its unique properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and non-toxicity, chitosan has many applications ranging from drug delivery and cosmetics to food processing and agriculture. A method for obtaining amorphous chitin from the larvae of BSF was developed. The studied material was obtained from BSF at different stages of ontogenesis and different methods of preparation were used. The samples included larvae, pupa casings and dead insects. Chitin was obtained by extraction using concentrated phosphoric acid. However, other compounds (proteins, fats, mineral salts) did not pass into the solution. The purity of the resulting chitin was confirmed by physicochemical methods (IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, titration of amino groups). The possibility of using chitin of BSF as a substrate for determining the activity of chitinase and chitosanase enzyme preparations was shown. This method allows to obtain chitin of high purity, which could be deacetylated to chitosan, suitable for medical applications. This work was supported by Biogenesis company and RSF grant 16-14-00046.
Adelya Khayrova has graduated from the University of Bath (UK) on MSci Chemistry with Management programme. Currently she is undergoing her PhD at the Federal Research Centre “Fundamentals of Biotechnology” of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. She is a development manager of Biogenesis, and consulting Entoprotech and Intecla. These are biotech companies designed to reduce organic waste around the world and convert that waste into sustainable agriculture products.
Food is one of the primary stimuli essential for the organism survival, since it assures the necessary caloric resources to pursue physiological activities. As the other primary stimuli, food is endowed with rewarding properties fundamental to sustain the behaviors aimed at foraging, consuming and planning the appropriate strategy to repeat the pleasurable experience. Many neuronal systems are involved in the complex regulation of the responses involved in food intake. In particular a robust literature demonstrates an adaptive stimulation of dopamine (DA) transmission in response to food consumption preferentially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, a terminal area of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. Although the hedonic quality of a food is independent of dopaminergic transmission, the phasic increase in mesolimbic DA trasmission induced by palatable food consumption confers to it motivational value and salience. Infact it has been hypothesized that the DA stimulation in this area play a facilitatory role in the strengthening of food-stimulus associations leading to an attribution of motivational value to discrete conditioned stimuli or contexts that become predictive of food availability. Furthermore, other neuronal systems, for example the orexinergic and cannabinoid systems, several hormones (ghrelin, leptin, amylin, insulin) and neuropeptide Y are implicated in the modulation of the rewarding and/or incentive properties of food. In eating disorders the function of the neuronal systems involved in the control of food intake and energy homeostasis and their interplay are likely altered and, in particular, it has been proposed that a loss of adaptive regulation of food-stimulated increase in dopamine transmission in the NAc shell may play a relevant role in these disorders.
Valentina Bassareo, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari (Italy). Research topics and work description: Role of dopamine in the mechanism of drugs of abuse and natural rewards. Interactions between dopaminergic and orexinergic systems. Role of dopamine in the mechanism of energy drinks and their effects in the cardiovascular system. Role of dopamine in the associative learning. Competences: pharmacology, neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, neurobiology, neuropsychoharmacology.
Natto is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Natto may be an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and slimy texture. In Japan natto is most popular food. We recently isolated a tumoricidal peptide from Natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food. The peptide has a function of anticancer, antibacterial, and antivirus effect. As a result of analysis of the secondly structure of the natto peptide, isoelectric point, a helix rich amphiphilic, and basic amino acid every several residues, we had a characteristic of the antimicrobial peptide. The peptide consisted of 45 amino acid residues, and its structure was predicted to be rich in α-helix. It excreted antimicrobial activity only against Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis group (B. subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus licheniformis). Lesser antimicrobial activity was observed for Streptococcus species other than S. pneumoniae. Hemolysate or hemin was required for the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. The Natto peptide damages the cell membrane of B. subtilis. On the other hand, chain morphology was induced in S. pneumoniae, which is naturally diplococcus, during the early phases of the Natto peptide treatment; following that the cells were rapidly lysed. This suggested that the Natto peptide displayed a novel narrow spectrum of bactericidal activity and inhibited cell separation during cell division of S. pneumoniae.
Hideaki Itoh, Professor of Akita University (Japan). Research topics and work description: Antimicrobial peptide and molecular chaperone. Competences: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology. Protein purification, structure and function of protein.
The world population is likely to touch 9 billion mark within another 25 years, thus making conventional protein sources highly insufficient to meet the needs. One of the best alternative source of protein is in insect protein. In this presentation various protein forms and their chemistry, effective assimilation to human body and their availability is discussed. Also additional benefits to changing into an insect diet is briefed. A direct comparison between vegan based protein , animal protein and insect protein are made. Insects though nutritionally excellent material, We face challenge in selecting a suitable edible species from a huge variety of species . Some of them contain a number of nutritionally valuable amino acids including high levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Some insects contain large amounts of lysine, tryptophan and threonine, which is deficient in certain cereal proteins. Protein content in them was in the range of 13 to 77% by dry matter. More tan 80 species of edible insects were investigated in Mexico, and the average protein content was from 15% to 81%. Insect protein digestibility, which is 76 to 96% . many countries like China, Brazil, Thailand and Ghana consider insects a standard part of their cuisine.
Dr.C.Gireesan, current global head of food division at SMS Laboratory, Been associated with Shriram institute For Industrial research as Sr. Scientist for 25 years, and was Senior General Manager of TUV-SUD for almost ten years before joining the current organization. Also been associated with food analysis and food process certification for more than 35.
Probiotics are living microorganisms that provide certain health benefits to the host’s by improving immune system and inhibiting the growth of pathogens. Probiotics are used in different food products such as fermented milk, yoghurt, fermented beverages, fermented vegetables, cheese etc. Cheese is the distinctive way to preserve milk. Different varieties of cheese are developed all over the world. The present study was designed to develop probiotic semi hard cheese with the incorporation of probiotic (Bifidobacterium bifidum). The Bifidobacterium bifidum (probiotic) was isolated and characterized for morphological, physiological, biochemical and sugar fermentation profile. Survival of Bifdbaterium bifidum was assessed through gastric transit. The raw goat milk was procured and analyzed for pH, acidity, ash, protein, fat, lactose, SNF and total solids. The probiotic cheese was prepared with different concentration of Bifidobacterium bifidum T0 (0%), T1 (0.5%), T2 (1%), T3 (1.5%), T4 (2%) and subjected to physico-chemical (pH, acidity, protein, fat), rheological, microbiological and sensory analysis. Firmness of probiotic soft cheese samples increased significantly during storage. The pH decreased while the acidity increased throughout the storage. Viable cell count was > 10 6 CFU/g in all the treatments except T0 and T1. T3 was proved to be the best on the basis of overall acceptability. The current research investigations revealed that the semi hard cheese can be used as an effective vehicle for the delivery of probiotics.
Key words: Probiotics, Gastrointestinal, Semi hard cheese, survival, B. bifidum
Iqra Yasmin is a PhD student in the field of Food Science & Technology from National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture and Master degree in Food Science and Technology from the same University. She received IRSIP scholarship and worked as visiting research scholar in Food Innovation Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA. Her research project has been focused on isolation of probiotics and encapsulation techniques to improve survivability and stability of probiotic during processing and storage.
Probiotics are microorganisms, claimed to provide health benefits when consumed. Within the European Union, there is not any regulation on probiotics as such, which does not mean for all that these pretended-healthy microorganisms are free from any legal framework. Novel probiotic strains that was not consumed to a significant degree within the Union before 15th May 1997 are likely to be considered as a novel food. As such, they must be must be specifically authorized and included in a unique list of authorized novel foods, before being placed on the European market. The new regulation on novel foods, which has applied within 1st January 2018, equips food business operators with the tools for facilitating innovation while assuring a high level of protection of human health and of consumers’ interests. Once ensured strains can be legally added to a specific foodstuff, and therefore, all risks of qualification of adulteration eliminated, the use of ‘probiotic’ indication on the labelling of the foodstuff must be also authorized. Indeed, this term is considered by the European Commission as implying a health benefit, and must therefore be classified as a health claim, that must also be authorized after European Food Safety Authority’s assessment on their scientific evidences. Needless to say, all other regulations applying to the finished food containing probiotics claims keep apply, such as food supplements requirements for instance. To conclude, with several EU regulations applicable to probiotics, stakeholders operate in a challenging business environment in which compliance to the correct set of rules is complicated, yet crucial.
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Obesity is a chronic condition defined by an additional amount of body fat. Obesity has reached epidemic stages worldwide and the foremost underlying reasons are the Increased in food consumption, Inactive lifestyle of people, Environmental and genetic factors and Changes in gut microbiota. This epidemic is causing a spike in obesity-related conditions which causing diseases like heartattack, hypertenion etc. The most frequent cause which indicates the obesity development is a dysbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor which stimulus whole-body metabolism by disturbing energy balance but also inflammation and gut barrier function, integrate peripheral and central food intake regulatory signals and thereby increase body weight. Probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to the health of gut microbiota, can affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. Multiple studies have been studying the effect of the referred probiotics diet in the organism and its possible contribution to treat obesity as well as other comorbidities. Amongst the species already studied, the most commonly used are Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterococcus spp. The gut flora seems to play an significant role in metabolic processes, with one indicator being that diet substantially influences the composition of gut flora. For example, a more diverse or complex diet results in a more diverse flora.
Khushbakht Fatima has completed hir Master of Scienc ein International Health from University of heidelberg, Germany and bacelors studies in Food and Nutrition from College of Home
Probiotics and prebiotics are increasingly being added to foodstuffs due to their health benefits. Probiotics are nonpathogenic live microorganisms that are thought to have beneficial effects on the host, whereas prebiotics are ingredients that stimulate the growth and function of beneficial intestinal microorganisms. The most common probiotics are bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria, such as lactobacilli, lactococci and streptococci. Several studies have provided evidence of probiotics effectiveness for the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea, dental caries, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. We can found these useful microorganisms in most of fermented products like yogurt and dairy products. Interestingly, probiotics can enhance our immunity and prevent from deferent infections like upper respiratory tract infections. Therefore, probiotics are incorporated into an expanding array of foods, nutritional supplements and pharmaceutical products.
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Dietary fiber also known as roughage is a poly saccharide having ten or more monomeric units. Endogenous enzymes in small intestine are unable to hydrolyze the dietary fiber; however, in large intestine it is partially or fully fermented. Dietary fiber is valued due to its physicochemical properties e.g. fermentation (Resistant starch, β -glucan, pectin and guar), water holding capacity (non fermentable hydrocolloids e.g. cellulose, arabixylans and algal hydrocolloids), viscosity (pectin, guar, beta glucan and pysillium), gel formation(guar, locust bean gum, alginate), binding of organic molecules (Hydrocolloids with large hydrophobic surface area, for example, β-Glucan, Arabixylans, Methyl-cellulose, Large particles irritating the colon (Rough wheat bran) and satiety (Modified starch).Public health burden is increasing due to change in eating pattern of people round the globe. Dietary preferences are causing many diet related problems like obesity and cardiovascular disease. Dietary fiber is playing potential role in alleviation of these diet related diseases. Dietary fiber has proved its functional role in management and prevention of obesity, diabetes and cardio vascular diseases. It is proved from studies that appropriate intake of dietary fiber maintains and regulate normal gastrointestinal functions, blood glucose level and maintains healthy lipid profile. Dietary fiber has potential role in weight loss and improvement of immune function of the body. Its delayed gastric emptying promotes the weight loss and hence decreases the obesity which is increasing alarmingly. There is need to use the dietary fiber as per recommendation to decrease the public health burden of the developing countries.
Key words: Dietary fiber, lipid profile, physicochemical properties, therapeutic
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Important reactions to the body, especially humans, are enzymatic reactions. These reactions play a vital role in the metabolism and body requirements. The obvious characteristics of these reactions are their selectivity, in which the reaction respondents selectively participate in the reaction. For example, the glucose reaction with the glucose oxidase enzyme or the urea reaction with urease enzymes etc. This intrinsic property has provided many opportunities for researchers to diagnose and treat illnesses so that by knowing the exact reactions , The performance of the products from the reaction (chemical products and energy changes, etc.) and appropriate modeling by performing laboratory and animal tests and humans under controlled conditions can be used to provide appropriate methods, both for the diagnosis of the disease and for its treatment by scheduled programs. In this regards, a wide range of studies have been carried out at the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory. For example, in this presentation, research and initial modeling for the study of glucose and glucose oxidase enzyme reactions to produce a diagnostic and therapeutic system (pharmaceutical and nutritional) on a laboratory scale, animal and human analysis presented, that eventually managed to build a device for this reaction in the human body and continue to provide oral and / or injectable drug and nutrition methods and continuous control over its impact on the human body and tissues.
Mohammad Rabiee, PhD, is an associated professor of Biomedical Engineering Department of Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. His current research interests include smart drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and biological sensors. He has published over 76 ISI papers and also over 70 International Conference papers, in addition, he has been teaching and research for 26 years at Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
The oral cavity is considered in human beings the second richest body structure in bacterial flora after the intestinal tract. The age evolution of human beings will define well the places where the different groups of microorganisms will be installed, which occurs after the formation of the dental structures of the individual. The balance of this process will depend on the host and the microorganisms found there, on the nutrients, pH, humidity and other elements necessary to perform its metabolic functions. This organization of oral microflora and ecosystems was investigated and referenced by renowned researchers, who were able to differentiate the existing ecological niches and microorganisms that were there. The interest was to know the biological characteristics of the bacteria responsible for Caries and Periodontal Diseases, and the infectious mechanism they used to destroy the enamel and the periodontal tissues. Biofilm formation, a virulence factor characterized by the ability of adhesion acquired by bacteria, is the response of molecular signals that activate and emit between them a state that induces the bacterium for the transfer of genes that will potentiate its virulent capacity, increasing its pathogenic potentialities. Helicobacter pylori (Hp), linked to various diseases of the stomach, is considered to be transmitted by food intake, having the stomach as its reservoir. From the frequent observation of oral infections and gastric disease in the same patients studied, was launched the hypothesis that the oral cavity would be reservoir of the bacterium. Conventional and molecular methodologies were applied in this studies
Corsina Velazco Henriques,Full Professor.Teaching and Research at the Tropical MedicineInstitute San Marcos University, Lima-Peru. Created and organized the Reference Laboratory forPhagetyping Staphylococcus aureus,linked to that of Colindale in England. In Portugal formed theOral Microbiology Laboratory with thecollaboration of J.Slots and Contreras of the University California, and DDuffaut of theUniversity Toulouse. I applied for International Fellowships obtained for postgraduate studies at the Institute of Microbiology of UFRJ-RioJaneiro and to develop research using advanced, conventional and genetic transfer methodologies in the Universities of Bonn and Munich. I was invited to integrate international delegations of scientific exchange in Universities,Johannesburg, CapeTown, Beijing and Shanghai
A considerable proportion of dietary plant-polyphenols reach the colon intact; determining the effects of these compounds on colon-health is of interest. We hypothesise that both fibre and dietary polyphenols present in açai (Euterpe oleracea) provide prebiotic and anti-genotoxic benefits in the colon. We investigated this hypothesis using a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of açai pulp, and a subsequent pH-controlled, anaerobic, batch-culture fermentation model reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Following in vitro digestion, 49.8% of the total initial polyphenols were available. In mixed-culture fermentations with faecal inoculate, the digested açai pulp precipitated reductions in the numbers of both the Bacteroides-Prevotella spp. and the Clostridium-histolyticum groups Also this study has observed increase in the short-chain fatty acids produced compared to the negative control and significant anti-oxidant and anti-genotoxic potential through digestion and fermentation. This study (in vitro) has confirmed that, interactive effect of the polyphenols and fiber contain in the diet on gut microbiota and associated benefits to colon health.
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The Study is on the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from kununzaki samples against Helicobacter pylori strain J99 and P12. The study was carried out invitro using well diffusion assay. The lactic acid bacteria counts were determined and the organisms were identified using standard bacteriological techniques. Suspension of the isolates of the two Lactobacilli species(108cfu/ml) were preperared and aliquots of 0.05mls of the suspensions of the individual Lactobacilli species were dispensed into agar wells created on a specialized medium(GC agar) and incubated at 37•C for 48 hours under microaerophilic condition. Zones of inhibition of Helicobacter pylori strain J99 and P12 were observed and measured according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards, 2013 publication. Lactobacillus acidophilus (50%), Lactobacillus casei (20%), Lactobacillus plantarum(10%), Bacillus cereus (10%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10%) at their repective frequencies of occurences in perenthesis were isolated and identified. The results were compared with that of amoxicillin as control. The results showed that Lactobacillus acidophilluswith the zone of inhibition of 51.25mm was more effective against Helicobacter pylori strain J99, while Lactobacillus casei with the zone of inhibition of 39.50mm was more effective against strain P12. There was a stronger effect against both strain J99 and P12 when Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei were combined with the zone of inhibition of 80.00mm and 77.75mm respectively. It could be concluded from this study that Lactobacillus sp from ‘kunun zaki’ demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against Helicobacter pylori, a major causative agents of peptic ulcer.
Key words: lactic acid bacteria, kunun zaki, Helicobacter pylori, Inhibitory effects
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Chilling and freezing are widely used for poultry meat preservation. However, freezing leads to many quality alterations, as crystallized water causes fiber and cell disruption. Fresh/chilled poultry, considered of higher quality, is visually indistinguishable from frozen poultry, presenting an attractive target for adulteration. To inforce regulations, a robust analytical method capable of correctly identifying thermal history is required. A technique described by Gottesmann & Hamm relies on the activity dosage of the mitochondrial enzyme β-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HADH). This study aims to optimize the procedure and determine a more sensitive cut-off limit distinguishing fresh from frozen poultry meat. In the conducted descriptive empirical study a total of 109 chicken breasts were sampled from the Lebanese market and examined. Two sets of chilled breasts were analyzed before and after freezing at -22˚C for 5 days, with or without defrosting at 4˚C for 24 hours. A third set of frozen breasts was studied before and after refreezing at -22˚C. Released in the intracellular fluid, HADH was measured spectrophotometrically through the conversion rate of NADH to NAD+ based on the following reaction: Acetoacetyl−CoenzymeA + NADH + H+ HADH β-hydroxy-CoenzymeA + NAD+ HADH activity was found to be significantly higher for frozen samples, and a new cut off limit was suggested in this study, resulting in 100% correct identification of frozen poultry instead of 93.75%. Greater control over incorrectly labelled poultry meat and increased consumer protection can be achieved with the use of the modified thermal identification method.
Desiree El Hajj is a nutritionist, holder of a master’s degree in Food Technology and in Microbiology, who is completing her PhD thesis in Nutritional Sciences at Saint Joseph University of Beirut- Lebanon. She has focused her studies on subjects related to food safety and quality aiming to improve consumers’ health and nutritional choices.
Food adulteration and fraud existed on this earth for since the beginning of civilization. Adulteration or substitutions are considered as a major challenge in maintaining the efficacy of commercial plant products. Adulteration in the spices and herbal products not only declines the quality of food commodities but also results in a number of harmful effects on consumer health. Authenticity testing seeks to confirm that all ingredients claimed on a product label are present in that product. Spices and herbal products are widely used in day to day live and are often sold in ground or powdered form, which make it a key object for adulteration or substitutions with low cost imitated plant-based adulterants and fillers. Concerns about aultration in herbal products and strict regulation have ensured the development of various techniques like physical, biochemical/immunological and molecular techniques, for adulterant detection in ffinal product. Molecular methods are more preferable due to their detection power or high throughput when it comes to detection of biological adulterants. DNA and protein based methods for food authentication are used for species detection and identification. Since DNA is identical in all somatic cells of a given organism, it is invariant whether the DNA is extracted from any other tissue. High stability of DNA molecule allows the analysis of highly processed plant products, as well as trace contaminants. DNA-based methods for food authentication depend on the highly specific amplification of DNA fragments by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Therefore, the concept of DNA barcode could ensue as a promising technique in revealing adulterants for both spices and herbs. DNA barcodes uses short, standardized gene regions as internal species tags and used to controls quality of products, guarantee its traceability and safeguard public health. The CBOL hassle the usefulness of DNA barcoding in plant species identification, especially for critical groups. This technique relies on construction of accurate barcode libraries that can be further used as reference database to counterpart the anonymous species. Many vegetative adulterants bearing morphological resemblance to the target commodity by default or design has become a problem of concern and reported in commercially available natural products. The barcoding loci psbA-trnH and rbcL proved to be very useful in this regard and attracted global attention of many researchers. With advances in technology, DNA barcoding combined with HRM, mini-barcodes, digital polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing provides additional tools for authentication of spices and herbal products by detecting single base variants or species-specific difference in short region of DNA. Since, clarity of a natural product is the keystone of its perceived biological efficacy besides taste and aroma. Therefore, adventitious use of DNA barcode techniques for characterization, traceability, mislabeling spices and herbal products may provide an answer to this challenge in the upcoming future.
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Tomato is a climacteric fruit and has a relatively short postharvest life. Every year approx. 25-40% tomato losses occur due to lack of suitable methods of post-harvest storage. Salicylic acid has high potential in monitoring post-harvest losses as a natural and safe phenolic compound. Therefore, the present research was planned to study the effect of salicylic acid (0.5mM, 0.75mM, 1.0mM, 1.25mM and 1.5mM) on the bioactive compounds and shelf life of tomato (Sel-7 and BSS-488 and market variety) at turning stage during storage. A progressive increase in the physiological loss in weight, total soluble solids, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, lycopene content and β-carotene content was observed in all the varieties while fruit firmness decreased throughout the storage period. The levels of ascorbic acid increased with the storage period (upto 9th day) and also with increasing concentration of salicylic acid in Sel-7 (24.05-46.5 mg/100g), BSS-488 (12.91-31.85 mg/100g) and in market variety (21.39-44.45 mg/100g). Similar trend was observed in lycopene [Sel-7 (0.90-4.71 mg/100g), BSS-488 (0.77-3.61 mg/100g) and in market variety (0.96-3.92 mg/100g)-maximum at 12th day of storage at 1.5 mM] and in β-carotene [(Sel-7 (573.38-990.01 μg/100g), BSS-488 (1051.37-1498.46 μg/100g) and in market variety (785.28-119.22 μg/100g)]. Increasing salicylic acid concentration and storage period elevated the activities of SOD [(Sel-7 (23.56-36.62 unit/g f.wt), BSS-488 (18.01-28.11 unit/g f.wt) and in market variety (20.21-31.89 unit/g f.wt)] and POX [(Sel-7 (269.38-394.12 unit/g f.wt), BSS-488 (419.41-609.43 unit/g f.wt) and in market variety (320.69-469.25 unit/g f.wt)].MDA content also increased with increasing concentration of salicylic acid (1.5mM) and storage period (upto 9th day) [(Sel-7 (2.97-4.95 nmole/g f.wt), BSS-488 (1.73-2.880 nmole/g f.wt) and in market variety (2.49-4.12 nmole/g f.wt)]. Pretreatment with salicylic acid (0.75mM) delayed changes in all the studied parameters which were more in the Sel-7 as compared to BSS-488 and market variety. The results suggested that 0.75 mM concentration of salicylic acid was the most effective concentration in preserving the bioactive compounds and delaying the ripening related changes.
Dr. Jayanti Tokas, presently working as Scientist in the Department of Biochemistry, COBS & H, Chaudhary Charan Singh Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India has an experience of 10 years in teaching and research. She is gold medalist from Kurukshetra University and recipient of Senior Research fellowship awarded by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Government of India for doctoral studies. She has been selected as a Ph.D student member of Board of studies” Animal Biochemistry Division, NDRI, Karnal, India. She has published 40 research papers, 5 review papers, 7 book chapters and 20 articles in various reputed national and international journals. She also has 01 bulletin, 01 book and 01 manual to her credit.
Marginal soils have a problems of low availability of nutrients and low fertility that can lead to low crop production. The excessive application of inorganic fertilizers had been not only increased the production but also gave a significant effect on land degradation and environmental problems. The experiments had been conducted to investigate the application of biofertilizer consortia (phosphate-solubilizing mircrobes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria) and anorganic fertilizers on growth of upland rice. This experiment used a Randomized Block Design (RBD) in factorial pattern, consisting of two factors with three replications. The first factor consisted of biofertilizer consortia , which were ; without biofertilizer, biofertilizer consortia A (Pseudomonas mallei, P. cepaceae, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp., Azotobacter chroococum, Azospirillum sp.) biofertilizer consortia B (Azotobacter choroococum, A. viilandii, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas cepaceae, Penicillium and Acitenobacter) and biofertizer consortia A+B. The second factor were NPK fertilizers with four levels ( 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% dosage of recomendation). The results showed that the application of biofertilizer consortia increased growth of upland rice and fertilizer efficiency on marginal soil. The dosage of inorganic fertilizers was reduced until 50%.
Keywords :, biofertilizer, concortia, marginal soil, upland rice
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The project Agrio et Emulsio (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-023583) presents a proposal in Food Design & Technology, in the areas of vinegar products (Agrio) and food emulsions (Emulsio). Combines its technical features and food pairing ability, with mediterranean traditions, Nouvelle Cuisine, concerns about food in health and unique location of ESAS in Ribatejo, where the Portuguese’s main vinegar and food emulsions industries are located. Portugal is a small producer with about 2% of the EU vinegar production and with no noble vinegar manufacturing traditions, but the upward trend in demand and the dietary value of this low-calorie and functional food creates opportunities for innovation and growth. On the Agrio line, which started in 2009, at ESAS, with the students’ participation, vinegar technological ability (solvent, acidifying, extractive, preservative, fermentative, etc.) enables the development of multiple products, by fermentative and non-fermentative prototyping. Throughout this project, in ESAS, unusual non-fermentative techniques in vinegar industry were created or adapted, such as multiple flavoring (vinegars and vinaigrettes, marinades), acid preserving of sweet fruits in vinegar (fresh pack bittersweet pickles), development of fruity cream mustards with innovative colors and flavors, vinegar glaze jams, chutneys, etc, which profile into the gourmet, diet or vegan/veggie markets, through sustainable methodologies that value regional raw materials and generates nobility, value and technical-scientific knowledge. At present, a spirit vinegar and a distilled vinegar of vinous origin are also on experimental development. Process assays articulate technical, analytical (physical-chemical, rheological, microbiological), sensory tests and stability tests. The project cycle ends with the production of prototypes in laboratory or small-scale pilot line, simultaneous with: demonstration of their quality, safety and shelf life; definition of strategies of marketing and also food pairing & food design, predicting a future scale-up to industrial production and product entry on the market. Prototypes are designed to provide innovation and convenience - long shelf-life and multiple food applications in industry/restoration - aiming the preservation of expensive/seasonal/surplus raw materials and valorization of byproducts, ensuring, simultaneously, good practices and food safety.
Cristina Laranjeira is Adjunct Professor at Department of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition at the Polytechnic Institute of Santarém – Superior School of Agriculture of Santarém (ESAS), in Portugal. She graduated in Chemical Engineering, at the Superior Technical Institute (IST) of the Technical University of Lisbon (UL), in 1987, took MSc degree in Food Science and Technology (Specialty: Food Engineering), also at UL, in Lisbon 1998. During masters, began the specialization in vinegar área. She was research visiting scientist at the University of Newcastle, UK, in 2001, in that particular area. Researcher at the Research Unit of the Polytechnic Institute of Santarém (UIIPS), since 2009. Expertise areas: Vinegar & Gin Science and Technology, Food Used Oils and Physicochemical Analysis of Water and Food. She is na expert of the National Innovation Agency (ANI) since 2011, in vinegar area, as a scientific evaluator of R&DT projects. Coordinator of the project UIIPS/ESAS & The Musketeers Group (2011-2016) “Physicochemical characterization of new and used food oils for identification of quality degradation indicators. and of the UIIPS/ESAS project (2009-2016) “Vinegar Technology, New Products Development”, with fifteen final prototypes at that time. At present she is the mentor and co-responsible of the project in consortium “Agrio et Emulsio, New Products Development” (Portugal 2020), started in 2017. She published more than fifty papers, proceedings and abstract's presentations in the country and abroad. She is invited referee of scientific papers, in domestic and foreign journals, and for a long time, is a member of the OE (Order of Engineers, Portugal) and SPQ (Portuguese Society of Chemistry).
Lately, consumers’ food choices have changed from traditional products to healthier ones enriched with micronutrients like vitamins. Consumption of fortified food products ensure recommended dietary allowance of vitamins and help in deficiency treatment. Vitamin B2 is involved in energy metabolism, keeps skin and vision healthy and also acts like a co-enzyme. The challenge of working with vitamin B2 comes from poor stability to light and predisposition to fast degradation. Microencapsulation can be an alternative method to incorporate vitamin B2 into fortified products, because can preserve this vitamin in stable conditions and offer a controlled release. The aim of this work was to produce vitamin B2 loaded microparticles by spray-drying technique. Microparticles with 0.5% (w/w) content of vitamin B2 were developed using the following biopolymers: arabic gum, chitosan, maltodextrin, modified chitosan, pectin and sodium alginate. The spray-drying process was performed using a mini spray-dryer BÜCHI B-290 and the product yield showed good results between 46.5 – 54.9%. Microparticles with a diameter of 0.10 – 0.16 µm, considering number distribution, and of 3.15 – 6.84 µm for volume distribution, were obtained. The shape and surface differed for each encapsulating agent. Controlled release studies of vitamin B2 from the microparticles were done using a spectrophotometric method and specific kinetic models like zero order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas and Weibull, were applied. The release tests were repeated after 4 months to check the stability over time. The results of this study proved the possibility of producing vitamin B2 loaded microparticles feasible for food industry applications.
Ioana Cristina Carlan is currently a PhD student of the Doctoral Program of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Faculty of Engineering from University of Porto – Portugal. Has completed both her BS (Biochemical Engineering) and MS (Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products) at Technical University Gheorghe Asachi from Iasi – Romania. She has 3 papers published and has attended 4 conferences. Research topics and work description: microencapsulation of water-soluble vitamins using spray-drying technique for food and pharmaceutical applications. Competences: preparation and characterization of biopolymer microparticles with vitamin active core material and controlled release studies.
The method for obtaining a red food color from sumac fruit (Phus coriaria L. has been developed. The method comprises convection drying of the fruit of the poison tree to a residual water content of ≤ 10% by weight grinding into pieces with an average size of 3-4 mm and extraction. Extraction is carried out in two stages for 30 minutes each aqueous solution of citric acid with separation of the resulting extracts, mixing them, evaporation of the mixed extract under vacuum to a dry matter content of 30% by weight, bottling in glass bottles and pasteurization. Determined that out the optimal solvent for red pigments of the crushed fruits of Sumac is an aqueous solution of citric acid with a concentration of 0.3 g / 100 cm3. The following optimal regimes for obtaining a red food colorant from sumac tannin fetuses were obtained: and the ratio between the masses of the dried ground raw material and the solvent in the first stage of extraction 1: 8, in the second - 1: 4; extraction time-only 1 hour; the temperature is 75 - 800 C, pH 3,2-3,5. It can be used for coloring in red-pink tones of varying intensity of sweet - acid (pH = 6 - 4) and sweet and sour (pH 4 or lower) drinks at a concentration of 700 - 1000 ppm (0.7 - 1 g/L).
Hafizov Qarib Kerim oglu, in 1992 he defended his thesis at the Odessa Technological Institute of the Food Industry and received the title of Candidate of Technical Sciences in the specialty "Technology of Canned Food". Currently, he continues his scientific activity at the Azerbaijan Research Institute of Horticulture and Tea Industry in the position of the Chief Scientific Officer of the Laboratory of Processing and Storage Technologies. He has authored about 100 scientific articles and 8 inventions. Hafizov Samir Qarib oglu, in 2018 he defended his master's thesis at the Belarusian State Agricultural University. Currently, he works at the Azerbaijan Research Institute of Fruit Growing and Tea Industry as the head of the laboratory. He has 8 scientific articles and 3 inventions.