Scientific Program

Sessions:

Abstract

Global warming is the net outcome of the warming effects of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, which is partially offset by anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and their precursors, to a poorly known extent. The largest part of the uncertainty comes from the cloud-mediated aerosol effects, by affecting cloud drop number concentrations. More polluted clouds have larger number of smaller droplets, which have larger total droplet surface area that reflects more solar radiation back to space. The smaller droplets are slower to coalesce to raindrops, thus further extending cloud lifetime and cover that lead to even greater cooling. The challenge in quantifying these and additional aerosol cloud-mediated effects comes from our poor ability to measure at a global scale the relevnt properties of aerosols and clouds. Cloud droplets condense on rising air currents that cool and become super-saturated with respect to water vapor. Both stronger updrafts and more aerosols lead to larger numbers of smaller cloud droplets. However, satellite observations of updrafts have been non existent. Aerosol concentrations are estimated very crudely based on their optical depth in the atmosphere. Therefore, model simulations, which are the basis for quantitative assessment of the impacts anthropogenic emissions on Earth's energy budget and its changes, cannot be constrained adequately by observations. This limits severely the credibility of the model calculations. The way to break this stagnation is by having new set of satellite observations of the missing properties until now. This has become doable with recent technological development inexpensively relative to other weather satellites.

Biography

Prof' Daniel Rosenfeld joined in 1988 the Hebrew University of Jerusalem as a faculty. He pioneered and subsequently became a world leader on the effects of natural and man-made aerosols on clouds, precipitation, climate and its changes. He did so while mentoring students by leading numerous international campaigns of research flights into storm clouds, and by designing meteorological satellite missions with NASA, EUMETSAT and ISA. He received numerous awards, including the Verner Suomi Medal from the American Meteorological Society (2003), the Friendship Award (2009) from the Chinese Prime Minister, and the EMET prize from the Israeli Prime Minister (2015).

Speaker
Daniel Rosenfeld The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Abstract

Analysis of water policy in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin revealsconflictsthat are present in many of the world's engineered rivers. The severely modified character of suchsystems renders them particularly susceptible to negative impacts from climate change. Historically they have been fined-tuned by massive investments in infrastructure and complex management regimes to maximise the economic and social benefits from a given set of hydrological and climatic conditions. Substantial changes in those conditionswillrequire major policy adjustments thatwill disrupt long standing water accessarrangements. However, the beneficiaries are very resistant to change. The resultingtensions are emerging in the debates about the implementation of the MD Basin Plan. Approved by the national parliament in 2012 and backed by $(USA)10 billion in government investment, the Basin Plan was meant to create a framework for sustainable management. Preparation of the Plan drew on a long and successful history of managing periodic droughts. But while the planning framework didtake account ofhigh historical variability there wasstrong political resistance from the irrigation industry, and development-focussed governments, to incorporating predictions of even greater extremes within a long term drying trend. At the same time pressure from irrigators locked in water entitlements based on assumptions about water availability which many researchers regard asseriously unrealistic. The promised environmental improvements from the MD Basin Plan have not been forthcoming and collapse of the underpinning inter-governmental agreementnow appears imminent. In conclusion the presentation will discuss what could replace it.

Biography

Daniel Connell researches the governance of trans-boundary rivers in the federal systems of Australia, South Africa, United States, Mexico, European Union (Spain), India, China, and Brazil.Themes include the impact of the historical legacy, water reform, environmental justice, public participation, cultural change, institutional design, distribution of costs and benefits across borders, water markets and risk created by the interaction of different levels of government. He also contributes to the ongoing debate about the future of the Murray Darling Basin the subject of his book Water Politics in the Murray-Darling Basin published in 2007. This has included presentations to government departments and agencies, Treasury, Environment Water and Heritage, National Water Commission, Land and Water Australia, Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Murray Darling Basin Authority, the rural Labor Caucus, the writing of Op-Ed articles for newspapers and interviews for radio and television. In addition, he works with Professor Quentin Grafton who holds the ANU UNESCO Chair in Water Economics and Trans-boundary Governance focusing on the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa.

Speaker
Daniel Connell Australian National University, Australia

Abstract

Energy-efficient building codes are meant to guide building designers, construction managers and realestate operators in promoting best energy efficiency practices in the construction industry. The built environment is designed as a shelter for humans as well as a filter to control environmentally undesirable conditions.Building technology also involves carbon emissions during the transport of materials and the generation of electricity used for most buildings' applications. Building energy codes and labeling can significantly reduce such carbon emissions. To improve living conditions in built environments, thermal management is applied through air-conditioning and refrigeration technologies. Some hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs),now being used as refrigerants, have a high global warming potential (GWP). All countries must keep their commitments under the Paris Agreement to pursue aggressive cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. Yet, even with full implementation, global temperatures will likely increase by between 2 to 4.5 degrees Celsius. The best and quickest way to prevent climate destabilization is to cut back emissions of super climatepollutants that make a disproportionate contribution to global warming despite being produced in much smaller quantities than carbon dioxide. These include ground-level ozone and black carbon soot from sources such as power plants and diesel engines, as well as methane (often from natural gas systems and agriculture) and HFC refrigerants usedin air-conditioning and other cooling systems.The October 2016 Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol has now committed all Parties to phasing down HFC use. These four super pollutants are between 28 and 4,000 times more potent than carbon dioxide as climate warmers. And because some are short-lived, slowing their release into the atmosphere can curb warming quickly. Naturally occurring refrigerantsare one type of alternativestofluorocarbon refrigerants. Natural refrigerants include carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrocarbons which have zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) These refrigerants have a broad range of application, including in cold storage and freezing as well as commercial and industrial refrigeration. Although natural refrigerants have been used for more than 100 years, they are more relevant today than ever before. Given the need for refrigerants having low GWP, the use of natural refrigerants can improve the environmental performance of refrigeration systems. Building codes comprise instructionsfor designing and implementing air-conditioning and refrigeration systems, but should also include requirementstoaddress flammability issues and explosion risks. Building systems designers should balance the use of low-GWP with non-ozone depleting substances (ODS) in aiming for an energy-efficient built environment.

Biography

Dr. Essam E. Khalil is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. He pursued his Ph.D. In Mechanical Engineering at London University, Imperial College of Science and Technology, UK. His expertise is related to Power Plant technology, Steam Engineering, Heat Exchanging Equipment, Undergraduate Course, Thermodynamics. Professor Essam E.Khalil has supervised and awarded 30 Ph.D. theses + 150 MSc theses. He received Cairo University Award of Excellence in May 2017, ASME Life Fellow in 2017, ASHRAE 2017 Exceptional Services Award, February 2017, The University of Jordan, Honors award, April 2016 and more.

Speaker
Essam E.Khalil Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract

The climate system depends on an extremely complex set of physical processes taking place in the ocean-land-atmosphere system, which in turn is influenced by various, mainly the quasi-bicentennial variation of the total solar irradiance (TSI). Only variation of TSI to 0.5% leads to small increments of the planetary temperature and is the initial triggering mechanism of subsequent multiple feedback effects. The feedback effects leading to significant changes in the Bond albedo, content of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and width of the window its transparency. Since ~1990, the Sun has been in the declining phase of the quasi-bicentennial variation TSI. Decrease in the portion of TSI absorbed by the Earth since 1990 has remained uncompensated by the Earth's longwave radiation at the previous high level due to oceans' thermal inertia. The Earth has and will continue to have, negative average annual energy budget and a negative thermal condition. The quasi-centennial epoch of the new Little Ice Age started after the maximum phase of solar cycle 24. The start of Solar Grand Minimum is anticipated in 2043±11. Beginning of a phase of a deep cooling of the new 19th Little Ice Age for the last 7,500 years is anticipated in 2060±11. The gradual weakening of the Gulf Stream which is driven by cyclic variations of the TSI leads to more strongest cooling in the zone of its action. The quasi-bicentennial cyclic variations of the TSI together with successive very important influences of secondary feedback effects controls of corresponding alternations of the climate.

Biography

Abdussamatov Habibullo Ismailovich: born October 27, 1940 in Samarkand. Education: Samarkand State University (1962), faculty of physics and mathematics; graduate courses in Leningrad State University (1965-1967); postgraduate course in Pulkovo Observatory (1966-1969). He works in Pulkovo Observatory since 1964. At the present time - head of the Space Research Sector of the Sunand the Lunar Optical Observatory project. He is featured on page 140 of the 2009 U.S. Senate Report of More Than 700 Dissenting Scientists Over Man-Made Global Warming. The European Scientific-Industrial Chamber in 2013 presented him with a gold medal for exceptional achievements (No. 0188). He is the author of some180 scientific publications, four scientific monographs, and seven scientific patents.

Speaker
Habibullo Abdussamatov Pulkovo observatory, Russian Federation

Abstract

The need for sustainable chemical products, materials and processes to reduce hazards, and release of greenhouse gas emissions, directly related to global warming has been considered as a must for many years. According to J. Jones https://blog.epa.gov/blog/2014/04/climate-change-and-green-chemistry-technologies/ more than 20 billion gallons of water and ca. 8 billion pounds of CO2 dioxide releases are avoided each year due to Green Chemistry innovations, i.e. cold water detergents, house paints that reduce harmful emissions and water, plastics prepared with CO2that decrease the use of petroleum resources, etc,.,. The projects developed in our group have helped companies to convert their wastes into materials and/or substances useful for themselves or others, closing cycles of obvious benefits, avoiding the use of toxic substances and achieving maximum reduction of energy expenditure, i.e. by using renewable ways of activation. Some examples are conversion of liquid wastes to fine chemicals and bio hydrogen, catalysts for environmental protection and/or for own wastes valorisation, biomaterials for regenerative medicine, immobilization of enzymes for bio catalytic processes or cleaner detergents.

Biography

M. A. Martin-Luengo graduated in Chemistry (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM, Spain). In the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC, Spain), she presented her Masterwork and her Ph.D. on supported catalysts, both with the highest qualification. As a Postdoctoral Grant Holder of the CSIC, she carried out research in UK and Belgium. Afterwards, she was granted a Fellowship IA to work with the Scientific Engineering Research Council (SERC, UK) on fuel syntheses from synthesis gas (Fischer Tropsch Processes). In 1992 she gained a permanent position of Research Scientist in the CSIC (Spain), where she has been working since. She has more than 100 publications, 120 congresses (being on several occasions Advisory and Organizing Committee Member) has several patents, an is a member of the RSC, ACS, and SECAT. Nowadays she carries out studies towards sustainable materials and chemical processes, preparing value-added substances and materials from agriresidues, of utmost importance in less developed countries. This work has been acknowledged by the CSIC

Speaker
M. A. Martin-Luengo Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, Spain

Abstract

Generally speaking, treatment and remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated water/soil environment is often carried out using microorganisms with the degrading function. In order to further develop new technologies for the remediation of contaminated environment, in-situ phytoremediation was adopted. Thus, we had made a systematic research on the screen-out of remediation plants, especially special ornamentals with the function of strongly degrading organic pollutants in the past decade. After the screening-out experiment, 5 remediation ornamentals including Hylotelephium spectabile, Mirabilis jalapa, Impatiens balsamina, Pharbitis nil and Tagetes patula were identified. Based on the successful identification of remediation ornamentals, the effectiveness of H. spectabile to in-situ phytoremedy petroleum contaminated water/soils was further studied in a field plot-culture experiment under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the 300-day plot culture experiment, there was significantly high degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by H. spectabile in contaminated water or soils with 100, 1000, 10000, 20000, and 40000 mg/kg of petroleum hydrocarbons. An increase in temperature and CO2 concentration promoted the degradation by H. spectabile, and the increment was up to 8.3-32.5%. Some plant growth indexes including plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and root length of H. spectabile indicated that the plant had a good tolerance to contaminated water/soils when the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in water/soil was equal to and lower than 10,000 mg/kg. In a sense, global warming is beneficial to the growth of remediation ornamentals and to improve the effectiveness of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated water/soil environment remediation. Based on the results, H. spectabile should be a promising ornamental for in-situ phytoremediation of contaminated water/soils with ≤ 10,000 mg/kg petroleum hydrocarbons, in particular, in-situ phytoremediation is a promising technology for cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated water/soil environment under global warming.

Biography

Qixing Zhou has completed his Ph.D at the age of 27 years from Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is Yangtze River Scholar, National Outstanding Youth Science Fund winner, Chairman of Pollution-ecological Specialized Committee of China, Professor in Environmental Sciences, Nankai University, China. He has published more than 500 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member in many international journals.

Speaker
Qixing Zhou Nankai University, China

Abstract

The urgent need to address climate change and achieve temperature rise goals is driving a remarkable low-carbon transition in the global energy system. As energy and water are two most important resources in the world and they are inextricably linked, it is significant to analyze the water impacts of low-carbon energy transition. The paper will review the latest research advancements on the water intenstityof the energy sector, as well as the historical and future water impacts of energy system change in the global, national, regional and even grid level.Important findings will be summarized through a careful investigation and comparison of the key underlying assumptions and scopes of the review studies, e.g., the time frame, region, methods, scenarios, etc. A specific focus will be given to studies and results for global low carbon transition scenrios fulfilling the Paris Agreement. Impacts of major economies' National Determined Contributions (NDCs) on water resources and stresses will be presented using the concept of embodied water consumption and the method of life cycle analysis (LCA). Finally, it will discuss the emerging new scientific questions and the corresponding methodological challenges as well as the policy-side challenges and opportunities for conjoined management of energy and water resources.

Biography

Prof. Can Wang is the Chair of Department of Environmental Planning and Management, at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University. He works in climate change policies and economics, acting as Principal Investigator for a number of national and international projects on climate and energy policies and technologies assessment, covering the topics of carbon tax, carbon market, low carbon transition, sectoral mitigation strageties, water-energy nexus, etc. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals.

Speaker
Can Wang Tsinghua University, China

Abstract

According to the United Nations World Water Development Report (WWAP, 2017), over 80% of the wastewater (and over 95% in least developed countries) is released to the environment without prior treatment. Pollution from these wastewater sources has led to serious water scarcity issues, which then has an adverse effect on human health. The report also proposed the "4Rs" strategy for better wastewater management, i.e. reduction of pollution at source, removal of contaminant from wastewater, reuse of wastewater, and recovery of by-products. One of the technologies that has gained good attention from both academics and industrial practitioners for waste minimisation initiative is process integration techniques, which may be defined as a holistic approach to design and operation that emphasises the unity of the process. The technology was initiated during the first oil crisis in the 1970s for the systematic design of energy recovery system and later extended for the design of various energy intensive processes. Following the analogy of heat and mass transfer, process integration was extended into mass recovery system since the late 1980s. The important branches of mass recovery problems are water minimization, gas recovery and property integration. The developed techniques of process integration may be broadly categorised as the insight-based pinch analysis and mathematical programming tools. After two decades of developments, the technique is rather mature, with numerous successful applications in various process industries. This talk focus on some established tools of process integration and their application in designing various sustainable processes.

Biography

Professor Ir. Dr. Dominic Foo is a Professor of Process Design and Integration at the University of Nottingham. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE), a Chartered Engineer and the Vice President for the Asia Pacific Confederation of Chemical Engineering (APCChE). He is a world leading researcher in process integration for resource conservation. He establishes international collaboration with researchers from various countries in the Asia, Europe, American and Africa. Professor Foo is an active author, with four books, more than 130 journal papers and made more than 190 conference presentations, with more than 30 keynote/plenary speeches. Professor Foo is the Editor-in-Chief for Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability (Springer), Subject Editor for Trans IChemE Part B (Process Safety & Environmental Protection, Elsevier). He is the winners of the Innovator of the Year Award 2009 of IChemE, Young Engineer Award 2010 of IEM, Outstanding Young Malaysian Award 2012, Outstanding Asian Researcher and Engineer 2013, and Top Research Scientist Malaysia 2016.

Speaker
Dominic C. Y. Foo The University of Nottingham, Malaysia

Abstract

For investigation, analysis and quality control of the environment, it is necessary to have adequate information about its condition. This information comprises an extremely great number of physical, chemical and biological parameters. For their regular checking, it is necessary to make a great number of measurements. Therefore, the problem associated with the environmental checking and control can be solved only by automated systems of environmental monitoring. Such systems are designed for the effective reduction of environmental pollution, and they are based on continuous checking, prediction and control of effluents under unfavorable conditions by means of effective organizational and technical measures, and rational redistribution of facilities (if their number is restricted) among the objects. The monitoring and control of the water environment conditions includes the problem of identification of pollution sources in order to take measures aimed at their elimination. This problem is especially topical for urban conditions, when the number of pollution sources is rather great, and there is no possibility of controlling each of them separately. Identification of pollution sources has not only ecological and technological effects, but a significant economic effect as well. The economic effect is reached by minimizing the technical facilities, in particular, the measurement facilities needed for the stand-alone control of each pollution source. The purpose of this work consists in the creation of convenient means for operative and reliable identification of excessive pollution sources of environmental water objects..

Biography

Kartlos J. Kachiashvili is Professor of the Georgian Technical University. He got his first scientific degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand. of Sc.) (Ph.D.) from the Moscow Power Institute (Technical University) - МЭИ (Russia) in 1978. He got his second scientific degree of Doctor of Sciences (Dr. of Sc.) from the D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Moscow) in 1990. He has 208 scientific papers published in various esteemed reputable International Journals. He is a Member of Various Professional Bodies and Editorial Boards of international scientific journals. He published seven monographs and three text-books in Georgia, Ukraine, USA and Indonesia.

Speaker
Kartlos Kachiashvili Georgian Technical University, Georgia

Abstract

Turkey agricultural sector today is developing with new techniques and products. One of the best examples of this is the production of vermicompost and its use in agricultural-landscape areas. Turkey is located in Asian and European continents (Eurasia) and the country's population is nearly 81 million. Turkey has 24 million hectares of agriculture land (excluding pastures+ meadows, including total arable land and under permanent crops). There is no data available on vermicompost production in Turkey. The production of vermicompost started to develop after 2011. The average solid vermicompost production in the 2017 was about 8000 tonnes produced by 11 companies with official production permit by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. Apart from this information, it is estimated that there are approximately 4000 unauthorized vermicompost producers in Turkey. The production of liquid vermicompost in Turkey is limited. A few producers also produce worm-tea in the country. On the other hand, livestock activities also increase day by day and a lot of waste comes out. It can be said that the most rational method for evaluation of waste is to produce vermicompost. Vermicomposting is an environmentally-friendly process used to organic waste. The interest in the vermicompost is increasing day by day in the whole country. As far as the vermicompost production is concerned, Turkey has a new specific legislation; it is published by the official newspaper no 30341 and dated 23 February 2018. The results of academic studies on vermicompost show that there are many positive effects on soil quality and plant growth. However, many other benefits of vermicompost on soil-plant systems are not yet fully understood. The use of vermicompost is important for the sustainability of agriculture. The main aim of the paper is to demonstrate and share reasonable causes for the increased interest in vermicompost and earthworms. As part of its targets set for the vermicompost sector by 2023 Turkey aims to be among the top five overall producers globally

Biography

He has completed his PhD in 2004 from Trakya University, Turkey. He works as an Associate Professor Doctor in Namık Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Turkey. He conducted post doctoral research in the University of Vermont, USA between 2014 and 2015. He has published more than 115 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of scientific journals. He studies subject about "plant nutrition, soil fertility, earthworms, organic farming and vermicompost production from different organic wastes which are popular subject all around the world recently." He invited to many international-national conferences as a keynote and invited speaker about his expert areas.

Speaker
Korkmaz Belliturk Namık Kemal University, Turkey

Sessions:

Global warming

Abstract

Natural hazards are natural processes that have their function in Nature, but when they manifest they can have a direct impact on societies and on the environment. From the beginning, the human being has been subjected to the threat of different natural phenomena, such as floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildland fires, etc. The study of exposure to risk must be associated with the territory or the geographical area inhabited. The risks, far from being reduced, we think that they increase in a world of increasing population and of continuous human colonization of the territory. From environmental psychology, the natural hazards are interpreted as stressful experiences that the individual or the community must face. The search for adequate strategies for risk management represents a challenge and a necessary motivation. In this paper, an analysis is made about the perception that Spanish citizens have of the risk of natural phenomena, both at a general level and in the area where they live. The results indicate that 67% of the individuals who participate in our study consider that they live in an area threatened by a natural phenomenon and that Spanish society is pessimistic about the evolution of the impact of natural phenomena. Mostly, it is thought that the situation will get worse. The natural hazards that most concern to the Spanish people in our study are: wildland fires, drought, extreme temperatures, desertification and floods. One of the most interesting findings obtained in this study is the change in the general perception of risk in individuals when the geographical distance between the simple concern for an environmental phenomenon and the exposure to a real element of threat and risk in the area where it is inhabited. On a positive note, point out that two thirds of the sample recognize that they have received information about this type of risk and phenomena. We believe that the studies on risk perception consider are a good tool for improving prevention and risk management. The study at the regional level can be useful for the development of environmental policies appropriate to each specific territory.

Biography

Psychologist and Environmental Consultant. He completed doctoral studies in the Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment of the UNED. Chief of Brigade in a Forest Fire Service with more than 20 years of experience. He collaborates with several companies and institutions in the area of training in Psychology in Emergencies and Human Resources. He is Professor at the University of Valencia in the Master in Intervention and operational coordination in emergencies and catastrophes and other postgraduate courseson emergencies. Director and President of the International Scientific Professional Committee of the National Symposium on Forest Fires (SINIF). He has lectured internationally and has been part of the Organizing Committee ofseveral International Congresses on Earth Sciences and Climate Change. He is part of the Editorial Board of several international scientific journals. He has published articles on forest fires, stress, psychosocial risks and emotional trauma, mainly in relation to emergency services and natural disasters. Currently, he is assigned to the Research Group on Climate and Territorial Planning (University of Alicante), where he researches on the social perception of forest fire risk and behavior in the event of possible disasters. His Research Interests are Forest fires, risk perception, natural hazards, environmental psychology and human behavior in emergency situations. Currently, he is assigned to the Research Group on Climate and Territorial Planning (University of Alicante), where he researches on the social perception of forest fire risk and behavior in the event of possible disasters.

Speaker
Jaime Senabre University of Alicante, Spain.

Abstract

The plot of global CO2 emission vs. world population for period 1850-2010 reveals the origin of global warming. It shows a linear relationship between the two variables and leads to a conclusion that population controls CO2 emission and 1.3 billion of population is the break-even point of CO2 for the earth ecological system. The danger of global warming is to push humanity to cliff edge of survival, which is evident if the data after 2010 are added. The recent data clearly located above previous. It means the per capita emission of CO2 increases considerably, although the world population increases steadily and the global emission does not change much. This happens because permafrost land melts followed by emitting CO2 and CH4 in huge quantity from underground. The updated plot reveals the crash of metastable state for the earth ecology at 6.7 billion of population, and then warming trend accelerates. The recipe to cure the earth is to quench the globe so that the permafrost land stops melting. Burning fossil fuels is the largest and largely controllable source of CO2 emission, therefore, zero emission must be realized before too late. The technique is to apply carbon reduction on burning flue gas followed by two-step cooling plus CO2-absorption. Solid sulfur separates at first cooling and ultrafine dusts removed with water in second cooling. The absorbed CO2 is then fixed in chemical synthesis and joined forced carbon circulation. The world population must be under control the same time to reduce it below 6.7 billion.

Biography

Professor Li Zhou has completed his six-year Diploma in Tsinghua University, Beijing at 1965; two-year visiting schoilar in the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA for 1981-83, and cooperative research in the University of Quebec, Canada for 1992-95. He is the director of High Pressue Adsorption Laboratory, Tianjin University before retirement at 2009. He was Member of Director Board of the International Adsorption Society for 2004-10. He is the author or co-author of several nomographic books and published more than 150 papers with h-index=27.

Speaker
Li Zhou Tianjin University School of Chemical Engineering, China

Abstract

Future climate projections and impact assessments are critical inevaluating the potential impacts of climate change and climate variability on crop production. Future climate were projected for the near term (2010-2039) and mid-century (2040-2069) time spans using 29 general circulation models(GCMs) under high and moderate representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (4.5 and 8.5) in cotton zone of Punjab-Pakistan. Calibrated cropping system model (CSM) CROPGRO-Cotton (DSSATv 4.6) was used to quantify the impact of climate change on cotton productivity. Enormous variation was observed in GCMs climatic variables, which were therefore classified into different categories. There is a projected increase in seasonal average temperature 1.780C and 2.930C in RCP 4.5 scenario and 2.050C and 3.860C in RCP 8.5 scenario of 29 GCMsmean ensemble as compared to the seasonal baseline (32.07 0C) in near-term (2010-2039) and mid-century (2040-2069), respectively. Maximum consensus by GCMs revealed the increase in temperature of 1.45 to 2.08 0C and 2.57 to 3.21 0C in RCP 4.5 scenario while 1.68 to 2.66 0C and 3.43 to 3.97 0C increase is expected under RCP 8.5 for near term and mid-century time periods, respectively. Similarly, rainfall changes are expected -12% to 10% and -16 to 14% in RCP 4.5 scenario while -15 to 17% and -8 to 20% change is expected under RCP 8.5 scenario in near term and mid-century time periods, respectively. Seed cotton yield (SCY) are projected to decrease by 13 % on average by 2039 and 25 % by 2069 under the RCP 4.5 scenario relative to the baseline (1980-2010). Mean seed cotton yield is projected to decrease by 17 % and 35 % on average under the RCP 8.5 scenario. GCMs, GFDL-ESM2M, GFDL-ESM2G and MIROC-ESM predicted the higher mean yield reduction ensemble of cultivars than others under emission scenario of 4.5 in near term and mid-century, respectively. Lower yield reduction was revealed in CCSM4, HADGEM2-CC, HADGEM2-ES, INMCM4 and CNRM-CM5 due to mild behavior of climatic variables especially temperature under RCP 4.5 in the near-term and mid-century. High reduction in mean yield is expected in CMCC-CMS, IPSL-CM5B-LR, GISS-E2-H, GFDL-ESM2M and GFDL-ESM2G under the RCP 8.5 scenario. GFDL-ESM2M and GFDL-ESM2G are hot and dry while HADGEM2-ES and HADGEM2-CC are hot but wet, resulting in less cotton yield loss.MIROC-ESM and GFDL-ESM2G projecteda severereduction in mean SCY (up to 73%) due to a steep increase in maximum and minimum temperature (7.04 0C and 4.62 0C, 5.11 0C and 4.07 0C), respectively and sever reduction in rainfall by mid-century and may call worse case scenarios. Climate models like, CCSM4, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES, INMCM4, CanESM2, CNRM-CM5, ACCESS1-0, BNU-ESM and MIROC5 are found less uncertain and showed stable behavior. Therefore, these models can be used for climate change impact assessment for other crops in the region. This multi-model and multi-scenario analysis provides a first overview of projected changes in temperature and precipitation, cotton yield and potential management options under changing climate scenarios in arid climatic conditions of cotton zone in Punjab-Pakistan. Key words: Multi-GCMs, RCPs, sustainable cotton production, temperature, rainfall, and uncertainty

Biography

Dr. Muhammad Habib Ur Rahman is a Lecturer in the department of Agronomy in MNS-University of Agriculture Multan. He has experience in education, research and outreach in agricultural and climate science. He has specialization in crop simulation modeling and application for decision support in agricultural system under changing climate scenarios. He is working on the integration of R.S, G.I.S with crop models for regional yield assessment/forecasting in collaboration with Washington State University and University of Florida, USA. He has project experience of "assessing climatic vulnerability and projecting crop productivity using integrated climate, crop and economic modelling techniques under the umbrella of agricultural model inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), and Pakistan agriculture information system project - building provincial capacity in Pakistan for crop estimation, forecasting and reporting based on theintegral use of remotely sensed data: GCP/PAK/125/USA, funded by USAIDand FAO.He is currently working on the projects of "development of heat tolerant cotton varieties having enhanced resilienceagainst climate change scenarios", "development of drought and heat tolerant wheat germplasm by dynamicassembly of leaf surface structural traits to self-irrigate with fog water" and "exploring climate change projections and impacts for cotton production usingmulti-GCMs and RCPs in cotton zone of Punjab-Pakistan". He has published 25 scientific papers in impact factor journals as well as book chapters and proceedings. Area of specialty include, Impact of climate change and variability of agricultural production and water resource use Computer modeling and simulation of agricultural systems Decision Support Systems, Geographic Information Systems and Remote sensing Climate change scenario generation for different RCPs using GCMs, Quantification of climate change impact on agricultural system through models Adaptation and mitigation strategies development for sustainable crops production Use of information and communication technologies in agriculture Monitoring of of weather and environmental variables and their impact onagricultural crops

Speaker
Muhammad Habib ur Rahman MNS-University of Agriculture, Pakistan

Abstract

Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing awareness of the environmental impact of CO2, NOx and CFCs emissions triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling, and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed to phase out chemicals used as refrigerants that have the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone. It was therefore considered desirable to reduce energy consumption and decrease the rate of depletion of world energy reserves and pollution of the environment. This article discusses a comprehensive review of energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change.

Biography

Dr. Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO'S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 200 review articles, 15 books and 150 chapters in books.

Speaker
Abdeen Omer Energy Research Institute, United Kingdom

Abstract

Global warming has been elevated to a religious icon of a devil. This allows us to blame all and sundry on the devil, feel righteous and do nothing useful. Billions of dollars are being spent annually on the so called global warming problem, politicians are carrying on about it endlessly, spending taxpayers money, based on their uneducated understanding of the problem. Industry is exploiting the emotional aspects for the benefit of their shareholders and scientists are playing with large numerical simulations, of dubious usefulness, like kids with new toys. It is time to take stock and put into focus the nature of the threat that is real under a business as usual scenario. I will start with explaining why the interglacial periodicity is 100,000 years, a new result that seems to have escaped attention. This understanding opens the way for a simple quantification of the effect of greenhouse gases and a synthesis of solutions to the, so called, global warming threat. I will use Western Australia as an example, of how the world could become carbon neutral, almost overnight, prosper economically and protect its biodiversity. The only question, in my own mind is, whether we have the courage to change course and not just follow our tribal leaders blindly into extinction.

Biography

Jorg Imberger received his PhD from UCB at 28 years of age and became Australia's youngest full professor at 35. His research interest are in environmental engineering as applied to rivers, lakes, estuaries and coastal seas. Recent foci include strategies for sustaining functionality of aquatic systems in a changing world. He is a Fellow of 10 International Academies and the recipient of 30 major honours including the Onassis International Prize, the Stockholm Water Prize and Member of the Order of Australia. He has published 5 books, with two in preparation, contributed to 19 books and has 278 publications listed in SCOPUS. Google Scholar credits him with 19,649 citations and an h-Index of 64.

Speaker
Jorg Imberger University of Miami, USA.

Abstract

Agroforestry is a sustainable land use system able to mitigate climate change and adapt farming systems to climate change. Agroforestry is defined as the combination of woody perennials with agricultural production obtained from the lower storey. Mitigation is provided thanks to the carbon that agroforestry is able to store based on its woody component but also thanks to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. Greenhouse gases emissions are mainly associated in the South West of Europe (Galicia and Portugal) to forest fire risk. Integrating livestock into forestlands is the cheapest and the most profitable way to reduce fire risk while producing animal products. Adaptation of farming systems is also another important aspect that can be obtained thanks to the implementation of silvoarable practices. Linear features such as hedgerows or trees in line are able to reduce evapotranspiration mainly caused by winds and increasing pasture production by 20%. Moreover, agroforestry practices are able to extend the grazing season reducing the needs of external outputs in livestock farms.

Biography

Speaker
Maria Rosa Mosquera Losada University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Abstract

Visibility is a measure of the light extinction caused by atmospheric aerosols and considered as a good indicator of air pollution. It is an important factor in everyday life, mainly in aviation industry and surface traffic. Visibility has become a major concern for air pollution and climate change studies. Studying the atmospheric visibility trends and the impact of air pollution on it,have attracted scientists from all over the world. In this study, we analyse the variation of the atmospheric visibilityusing measurements from January 1973 to 2013 in the central Arabian Peninsula. The magnitudes of the annual trends of the visibilityare studied and statistically tested using Mann- Kendall rank statistics at different significance levels. Detailed results of this work will be presented here.

Biography

Speaker
Maghrabi King Abdulaziz City For Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

The growing concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O (GHG) in the atmosphere are often considered as the dominant cause for the global warming during the past decades. The reported temperature data however do not display a simple correlation with the concentration changes since 1880 so that other reasons are to be considered to contribute notably. An important feature in this context is the shrinking of the polar ice caps observed in recent years. We have studied the direct effect of the loss of global sea ice estimating the corresponding decrease of the terrestrial albedo and the greenhouse effect. To this end we have also carried out an experimental study of the far infrared (FIR) absorption of thick samples of the GHG and analysed their strong overlap with water absorption bands in the atmosphere. Using a simple 1-dimensional model, the global warming of the surface is computed that is generated by the increase of GHG and the albedo change. A modest effect of the GHG is calculated of 0.08 K for the period 1880 to 1955, and a further increase by 0.18 K for 1955 to 2015. In other words, we find that the warming directly produced by FIR properties of the GHG in the past 65 years amounts to only 0.26 ± 0.05 K. A much larger contribution of 0.55 ± 0.05 K is derived from the melting of polar sea ice (MSI) of the Arctic and Antarctic in 1955 to 2015. It notably exceeds that of the GHG and may be compared with the observed global temperature rise of 1.0 ± 0.1 K during the past 60 years. Our data also suggest a delayed response of the mean global temperature to the loss of sea ice with an equilibration time of approximately 20 years. Data are also presented that the shrinking of Arctic sea ice originates predominatly from an increase of absorption of solar input in the melting zone by 6 ± 2 percent, i.e. surface pollution, while other mechanisms appear of minor importance. The validity of the theoretical model and the interrelation between GHG-warming and MSI-effects are discussed.

Biography

Speaker
Alfred Laubereau Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Germany.

Abstract

Global warming and the subsequent events of climate variability may have greater repercussions for marine ecosystems than for terrestrial ecosystems, because temperature influences, water column stability, nutrient enrichment, biodiversity of plankton communities and its reproductive cycles. To understand the impacts of tropical climate variability on the marine coastal ecosystems, a study has been undertaken to investigate the biodiversity and abundance of plankton in the most important tropical estuarine systems, a unique coastal marine environment in South India, The cumulative long term survey, over period of 25 years (period from 1990 to 2015) showed remarkable variations in environmental parameters, chlorophyll a concentrations and diversity of species, abundance of plankton communities. Besides, it showed seasonal variations: - being highest in summer (April – June) and lowest in monsoon (October – December). There were wide temperature fluctuations (range: 22.8 – 33.9oC), salinity gradients (3.1 – 34.8) and chlorophyll a concentrations (1.6 – 19.4 ”g l-l). The overall mean abundance of phytoplankton 3.9 fold and zooplankton 3.2 fold were higher in summer than in monsoon. The low diversity and abundance of plankton during monsoon might be due un-favorable/unstable climatological conditions, disappearance of many species, scarcity of food and high turbidity condition of the water column. The cumulative data on plankton diversity and abundance showed interesting observations on species distribution and abundance pattern. Climate variability exerts major influence on tropical ecosystem and biodiversity resources. Key words: Global warming, Climate change, tropical ecosystems, plankton diversity, chlorophyll concentrations

Biography

Dr. Nallamuthu Godhantaraman has about twenty years of professional experience which includes teaching, research, administration, institution building and training. Currently he is serving as Director, UGC-Human Resources Development Centre and Head, Centre for Environmental, University of Madras and also Adjunct Faculty, Centre for Ocean and Coastal Studies, University of Madras, Chennai, India. He was a recipient of the prestigious JSPS Post-doctoral Researcher and STA Post-doctoral Researcher award. He was a Visiting Fellow at the Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India and served as a Senate Member - Middle East University, United Arab Emirates. Dr. Godhantaraman has participated in a large number of national and international seminars, conferences and workshops. He has attended many Training Programmes of the prestigious institutions. He has also conducted a large number of Academic Professional Development Programmes/Training Programmes for teachers of the higher educational institutions. His research interests includemarine biological oceanography, climate change /global warming and its impacts on marine ecosystem, marine microbial ecology and microbial food-web, Marine Coastal Pollution Monitoring & Ecosystem modeling, Coastal Zone Management, Environmental Sciences and Management. Dr. Godhantaramanhas visited Japan, USA, UK, Germany, France, Portugal, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Thailand, South Korea and Philippines in connection with his research/conference participation.He has successfully completed a number of major research projects and also serving as a member in various professional bodies/committees. He got Distinguished Scientist Award for the contribution in the field of marine sciences and also awarded as an Ambassador by the Asian Council of Science Editors for the year 2016. He has also served as an Editorial Board Member for the Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering and also referee/reviewer for many scientific journals including Elsevier, Springer publishers, Indian Publishers, UK Publishers and Indonesian Journals. He has also organized national and international conferences and seminars. In his administrative assignments, he has initiated a number of innovative practices and best teaching and learning techniques. He has also conducted a large number of Academic Professional Development Programmes/Training Programmes for teachers of the higher educational institutions.

Speaker
Nallamuthu Godhantaraman University of Madras & Centre for Ocean and Coastal Studies, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Climate change due to global warming has become a very serious worldwide concern because of its adverse effects in livelihood and environment. Glaciers are receding rapidly in the Himalayan region which has the major portion of glaciers that cover up almost 33,000 km2. This range constitutes a major source of water draining through nine largest rivers in Asia serving more than 1.3 billion people to find their livelihoods. Glaciers are also receding in Africa, South Pacific, Arctic, North America, South America, Europe and Antarctica. Glacial retreat is the most visually convincing evidence of climate change which is a scientific reality. On the other hand, it has been much exaggerated due to the argument between the developing and developed nations. THE PROBLEMS: Average global temperatures are expected to raise 1.4-5.8șC by the end of the 21st century. Greenhouse gases from human activities are among the major causes for the alarming situations of climate change and global warming. Weather patterns are becoming more unpredictable and extreme - dry seasons become dryer and wet seasons wetter. This phenomenon is causing fear over the long term reduction in total water supply, affecting lives and livelihoods of the people and long term food security. CONCLUSIONS: This is high time to negotiate toavoid misunderstanding among the developing and developed nations and develop necessary legal and scientific tools that create favorable market conditions, and strengthen scientific knowledge on Earth observation. Effective implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) provisions can help to minimize the current effects. In addition, all the countriesshould ensure and apply the Kyoto Protocol. Keywords: Warming, environment, livelihoods, emissions, Kyoto Protocol.

Biography

Speaker
Meen B. Poudyal Chhetri Nepal Centre for Disaster Management, Nepal

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