Scientific Program

Keynote Talks

Abstract

4’-C-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2’-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) has attracted much attention due to its extremely excellent anti-HIV activity, for example, EFdA prevents the emergence of resistant HIV mutants, and is over 400 times more active than AZT and several orders of magnitude more active than the other clinical reverse-transcriptase inhibitory 2’, 3’-dideoxy-nucleoside drugs, very low toxic, very long acting, very useful for the prevention of HIV-infection. EFdA is now under clinical investigation by Merck & Co. as MK-8591. In the beginning, the general idea for the development of anti-viral modified nucleosides will be presented, and then the development of EFdA will be discussed and the clinical results by Merck will be also presented. For the design of the modified nucleoside which could solve the problems that the clinical drugs have (1. emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants, 2. adverse effect by drugs, 3. necessity to take quite a few amount of drugs), the following working hypotheses were proposed . They are (1) the way to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants, (2) the way to decrease the toxicity of modified nucleosides, (3) the way to provide the modified nucleoside with stability to both enzymatic and acidic glycolysis for long acting. 4’-C-substituted-2’-deoxynucleoside (4’SdN) was designed to meet the hypotheses (1), (3), and the additional modification of 4’SdN was performed to meet the hypothesis (2). The details of the hypotheses and the reasons for the design of 4’SdN will be discussed. To prevent the deamination of adenine base by adenosine deaminase, fluorine atom was introduced at the 2-position of adenine base. Finally, EFdA , modified at the two position (2 and 4’) of the physiologic 2’-deoxyadenosine and has extremely excellent anti-HIV activity, was successfully developed.

Biography

Dr. Hiroshi Ohrui is currently a professor at Yokohama College of Pharmacy,Japan . His research interests cover Organic Synthesis, Chemical Biology and Chiral Discrimination.He received Ph. D. degree (1971) from The University of Tokyo.He Joined RIKEN (1966) and moved to Tohoku University (1981). He moved to Yokohama University of Pharmacy (2006). He worked for Dr. J. J. Fox at Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research (1972-1973) and for Dr. J. G. Moffatt at Syntex Research (1973-1974). Dr.Hiroshi received several awards including Inoue Prize for Science (1991), Japan Prize for Agricultural Sciences (2004), The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry Award (2004), and Japan Academy Prize (2001).

Speaker
Hiroshi Ohrui / Professor, Yokohama College of Pharmacy Japan

Abstract

Disclosing HIV status to partners, family and friends is important as it is an important determinant of risky sexual behavior, mental health status and receiving social support. We present the perceived experiences on disclosure analyzed using theory of competing consequences A longitudinal qualitative study with three points of data collection through in-depth, semi structured interviews. Thirty five participants (17 males and 18 females) purposively recruited from one government and one private clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. A qualitative, interpretive analysis was conducted of the first round of interviews. Interviews were translated and transcribed, and analyzed by our international team of researchers and community activists using the collaborative “DEPICT” analysis (Flicker & Nixon, 2013). The most common reason for disclosure was to obtain social support. More than half of the participants had disclosed their status to family members and perceived it led to positive consequences such as being looked after, being accompanied to the hospital, help with household chores. Some participants reported disclosing to their employers as they perceived it would lead the employers understanding their condition but were frustrated that it made no difference to them. It was also reported by some that they expected disclosure to community organizations such as Church would lead to social support but were disappointed that they were instead stigmatized. Disclosure had taken place with the hope of receiving social support but at times it instead led to negative consequences. Negative consequences may therefore pose challenge to further disclosure.

Biography

Prof. Anitha Menon is a faculty member in the Department of Psychology, University of Zambia and the Chairperson for University of Zambia Committee on HIV and AIDS. She is also the President of the Psychology Association of Zambia. Prof. Menon holds PhD in Health Psychology from University of Nottingham, UK. For more than 20 years Prof. Menon has been actively involved in various researches and service related projects pertaining to areas on public interest, her major research interest pertains to the issue of HIV and well-being and psychological well-being of adolescents, Neuropsychological Challenges of HIV, Sexual Harassment and Communication Skills of Health Practitioners. She has several publications on various national and international journals and has been featured in various media reports. She was the recipient of the award for the Best Professor in Psychology from World Education Congress (2012) and the Change Fellowship (2012), received the ‘Women Leadership Achievement Award’ from Women’s Leadership Congress (2014), the Labour Day Award from University of Zambia for Innovation and Excellence in May 2014, Most Influential Woman in Education and Training sector from CEO global -Country and Regional Awards (September 2017), Continental Award (November 2017).

Speaker
Anitha Menon / Professor,University of Zambia, Zambia

Abstract

The church is the rightful place to organise effective HIV interventions because it is the place where majority of the people in our community congregate on Sunday mornings to worship and to be empowered by the sermons preached by their local pastors and leaders. It is also the place where people go to find love and comfort however the lack of understanding about sexual health issues such as HIV due to the negative traditional religious interpretations of the HIV condition has given room for stigma and discrimination to operate in the church therefore making it impossible for the church to entertain HIV interventions and to give support to people who are living with HIV and their families.Take Action Now is is a modul developed to challenge the unfortunate attitude of stigma and discrimination being practiced in the church against people who are living with HIV. Stigma is rooted in people’s minds because of ignorance and misinformation. Those who are ignorant about the truths about HIV uses the scriptures to create the impression that HIV is a curse from God and it is due to the promiscuous lifestyles of those who are infected that the so called curse has come upon them. However the Bible says in Hosea 4:6 “My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge” Creating models such as Take Action Now, which has now become an international model has also become the cutting edge of HIV intervention around the world. Take Action Now is developed to correct all the negative errors and myths created through ignorance in the church and give the church the true knowledge and understanding about HIV. The bible says again in John 8:32 “Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free. Methodology: Q – How do you get faith leaders to implement regular sexual health messages? Changing the mind set of people who have already decided which paths they are taking for their lives is the most difficult thing to do, However this module was developed by a Pastor who is also part of the church hierarchy and knows how to address sensitive issues in the church makes the module credible when used to address the issue. We use the ABC method to make it simple. A= Action (The preparation). B= Be friendly (Meeting Faith leaders, identifying the protocols withing the faith sectors). C= The church (The target area where most people are at risk of HIV) D= The “D” day (Time for testing in collaboration with all stakeholders) E= Emergency (Using all available support services provided in case there is any positive reactions during the diagnosis) OPERATION.The lead person on the project should be one who is connected to the church community and has good communication skills and knowledge about the scriptures. First of all Pastors and leaders should be consulted because they hold the keys of the doors to the church and also they are the champions in that arena. Without their endorsement there can be no engagement and so the approach must be done in a respectful manner. This enables discussions about HIV and sexual health issues in the church to flow positively without much difficulty. After they have bought into the importance of addressing HIV intervention in the church, then direct training for leaders in the church can then be organized. This training is necessary because it enables the leadership of the church to acquire the knowledge about HIV in it’s rightful context and helps them to also acquire the skills to counsel members of their congregation. The training enables the leaders to handle confidentiality issues with care. Secondly, Pastors and church leaders are taught how to use key bits of scriptures that demonstrate compassion as an alternative to those that are used against people who are HIV positive. They are informed about the need to source and develop a guide on how to put together sermons that address health, sexual health and HIV. They are also provided with referral routes where they can gain more support when needed. They are also provided with models to run workshops on health, sexual health issues and HIV in the church especially with women, men and youth groups. Faith leaders and Pastors are provided with a structured approach when preparing for their regular sermons for them to deliver once a while topics related to HIV and sexual health. TESTING IN CHURCHES Through the “Take Action Now module” free and Confidential HIV testing centers are being opened in churches for the first time in Africa and across the UK with thousands of those diagnosed of having HIV receiving treatment, care and support..

Biography

Fred Osei Annin is the founder and CEO of Actionplus Foundation (UK) has been working in the Pastoral ministry full time since 1982. Fred single handedly founded Actionplus Foundation (UK) in 1997 to combat the unfortunate attitude of stigma and prejudice which prevents HIV intervention. His Action was to reduce the spread of HIV infection within the African communities. Fred has developed many successful HIV prevention models such as Take Action Now. His Action was to reduce the spread of HIV infection within the African communities. Actionplus Foundation provides support to empower people living with HIV/AIDS so that they can play a central role to improve their own lives.

Speaker
Mr. Apostle Fred Osei Annin / Rev Fred Annin: CEO Actionplus Foundation, London

Sessions:

HIV Testing

Abstract

to increase and the number living with undiagnosed HIV remains high. It was estimated that 103700 people were living with HIV in UK in 2015, of which about 17% were undiagnosed and did not know about their HIV status. The report also showed that about 40% of people diagnosed with HIV in 2015 were diagnosed late. The number of people living with HIV aged over 50 has been increasing and there has been a 2% decrease in testing at sexual health clinics over the past year. The report indicated that 54,100 people had acquired HIV through heterosexual sex. More than one in five was unaware of their HIV infection. A higher proportion of those diagnosed with HIV were living outside London. It is a fact that if someone has late diagnosis, it is more likely that the virus will have already seriously damaged his or her immune system. 51% black African suffered in this way according to PHE 2014 statistics. Across Luton, HIV rates among men who have sex with other men (MSM) as well as heterosexual black African men and women continue to go up. In Luton there is 622 Luton residents that are HIV positive accessing care, of which 470 are seen and treated in Luton, 409 are of Black African origin (PHE, 2016). I am an enthusiastic and a staunched member of a black African and Caribbean Church as are many of my fellow countrymen. The leading Pastor is a very influential figure within these communities. His role is pivotal in encouraging HIV/AIDS patients to take prescribed medicine as well as participating in prayer. Sadly, recent investigation by health agencies and the media exposed major concerns that some Pastors are advising their church members not to take a HIV test and to refrain from taking anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Some Pastors prefer to teach that prayer alone will provide a cure. Those who adhered to this ignorant approach were not well served by their Pastors. In 2011, the BBC reported that Evangelical Christians Pastors claims that prayer alone could cure HIV/AIDS caused three deaths. To make matters worse, a significant number of infections remain undiagnosed, which once again underlines the importance of testing. Black African men and women are advised to have an HIV test and a regular HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) screen if having unprotected sex with new or casual partners. However, the uptake in HIV testing remains relatively low, partly because of complacency about HIV/AIDS as a major global health concern, but also because of the age-old stigma around the virus that we haven’t yet managed to completely shake. While diseases like cancer are addressed and discussed openly, HIV is often a topic that people avoid talking about it*956, which leads to a culture of shame and misinformation. Many are so afraid of contracting HIV that they avoid testing, choosing not to know their status. Many are too afraid to tell their partners that they are HIV positive, in case they are rejected and shamed. HIV is a virus. It doesn’t define anyone, and doesn’t contribute or take away anything from an individual’s worth. It is a health problem that we all need to discuss and tackle together. Research evidence suggested that the stigma and the discrimination associated with HIV are serious burdens for many black African people living with HIV in UK. A national strategy is needed to address HIV- related stigma, including within the NHS, and this should also be reflected in local initiatives, especially in areas of high HIV prevalence. It is really important to adopt effective anti-stigma approaches to include improved information on HIV treatment and prognosis, engagement with faith communities in anti-stigma and anti - discrimination work, as well as addressing wider racism associated with HIV. In fact, there is a need for an expanded and a scaled up HIV testing programmes across the target communities to reduce undiagnosed infection and late diagnosis. It is very important that HIV is diagnosed early, so that people can start treatment, look after their own health and take steps to ensure that they don’t pass the virus on. Delay in diagnosis increases risk of complications and death. Most people living with HIV infection if diagnosed early can be well managed and lead full and healthy lives. Early testing and diagnosis of HIV reduces treatment costs: £12,600 per annum per patient, compared with £23,442 with a later diagnosis (PHE, 2015). Take Action Now and U Test 4 Life project was designed to aim at reducing new infection rate of HIV and promoting early diagnosis through setting up testing clinic in the high risk communities, promoting and creating awareness of HIV /AIDS, challenging the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV /AIDS in churches and communities through mass campaign and education, signposting people to various GUM Clinics and other HIV Support services in the community for effective treatment and medication, increasing capacity building of services and treatment to people living with HIV and their families in the high risk communities in Luton. It took place in the high risk communities in Luton -Bedfordshire in the East of England where the majority of the black African people are populated especially in the High Town ward of Luton. The High Town community is considered as red light zones because the HIV infection is high due to women indulge in sex trade, men have sex with men, people engage in drugs due to poverty. Also, people do have promiscuous sex without protection (unsafe sex practices). The project started from 1st April to 19th December, 2016. Some of the activities were used to mark the commemoration of UK’s National HIV/AIDS Testing Week (NHTW) and the World’s AIDS Day events 2016. We had reactive results and those who had reactive results were referred to our partner HIV specialist at GUM clinics for further investigation and confirmation. All those people who confirmed positive HIV after further investigation is now on medication and receiving support from our partner GUM clinics staff and our trained volunteers and staff in Luton.

Biography

Nelson Anti is the Programme manager & Public Health Lead for Actionplus Foundation – UK since 2012. He is also the project coordinator for Inspirational Charismatic Church Luton Education Centre since 2014. He is a qualified teacher and he teaches at Brooke House College, UK as an academic tutor. Mr Anti is a postgraduate degree holder in Public Health (MPH), which was awarded to him by the School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) at the University of Sheffield, UK. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree, Teachers' Certificate ‘A’ (Maths and Agriculture Sciences) and DBS Computer Literacy pursued at the University of Cape Coast and African Virtual University, Cape Coast, Ghana respectively. He is a qualified and an accredited member of Community Safety Scheme in Hertfordshire Borough, UK and a member of British HIV Association, UK.

Speaker
Nelson Anti / Programme Manager& Public Health Lead, Actionplus Foundation – UK.

Abstract

We have designed and developed an HIV system that could be used for testing patients with HIV (figure 1). Our objectives in this research work is to discuss the new device that we developing for HIV testing and monitoring HIV patients. The device will be small, low-cost, and portable. We will avoid using larger components in developing the proposed device in order to achieve our previously mentioned objectives. Typically, the HIV patients can use the rapid HIV kits , similar to that shown in (Figure 2) to perform their HIV testing with the help of a medical technician. However, the FDA has approved recently the use a rapid HIV testing kits at home. The existing of large number of these rapid HIV testing kits, where each type of these kits use different image to indicate the result of the test. Therefore, HIV patients could get confused in reading the test results produced by these kits, due to using many of different types of these kits and each kit use a different image. When a mistake happen by reading the test result, patients could continue to infect other unwittingly. Therefore, the development of the proposed device will be very useful to patients to know their health status and report new HIV cases to the health centers and could get some advice for their health monitoring. To design and develop the proposed device, the following components will be required: the first component will be the pixels sensor to capture the image produced by the rapid HIV kits. The second component is the OLED to be used as a display unit to help patients to evaluate the quality of the image that captured by the pixels sensor component. To process the captured image of the rapid HIV kit a processing core will be developed using System-On-Chip (SOC) technology. This technology can be implemented using different type of chips such as Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) or Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), etc. However, we will use the FPGA due to the flexibility of this technology and low cost. The last component is the communication unit to help the patient obtain monitoring advice from their doctors or health authorities. We expect the device cost will be around $200 and the low cost of the device will make it affordable and will be used by patients; doctors; clinics; etc.

Biography

Dr. Elkateeb has a Ph.D in Computer Engineering from Concordia University (Montreal). He is an associate professor of Computer Engineering, University of Michigan. He worked with Medmira Inc. (Halifax) for developing his first HIV testing system. He has more than 60 research paper.

Speaker
Ali Elkateeb / Associate Professor,University of Michigan – Dearborn – Michigan - USA

Sessions:

Prevention Research and Interventions for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

Abstract

HIV is the leading cause of death among adolescents aged 10–19 in sub-Saharan Africa and the second most common cause of death among adolescents globally, yet this population is not significantly targeted for HIV research. Consequently, there is a dearth of appropriate evidence-based interventions that expressly focus on their HIV needs and the stages of their development (early adolescence, middle adolescence, and late adolescence). Despite the advances made in HIV prevention, care, and treatment worldwide, adolescents are the only population whose death rates from AIDS are not declining in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of these deaths occur among adolescents who were infected at birth and infancy. Access to and uptake of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is significantly lower compared to adults, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage rates for adolescents living with HIV are also significantly lower compared to other populations living with HIV. This signals the need for deliberate, appropriate, and targeted adolescent HIV programs if the tide of adolescent deaths from AIDS is to be stemmed. Many of the previously implemented HIV prevention interventions for adolescents failed. This is because they did not focus on the factors critical to adolescent development. Integrating developmental factors into the overall context in which HIV transmission occurs is critical to building strong and appropriate HIV prevention interventions that work for adolescents.

Biography

Elizabeth Armstrong-Mensah is a Clinical Assistant Professor at the Georgia State University School of Public Health. She has a Doctoral and Master’s degree in International Affairs and Development, a Bachelor’s degree in Sociology, and Certificates in Training and Personnel Development and Monitoring and Evaluation. Dr. Armstrong-Mensah has held appointments as Health Scientist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Program Officer with the United Nations World Food Program. She has extensive experience in HIV/AIDS, gender issues, program evaluation, and capacity building, and is the author of a just published global health text book by Wiley & Sons.

Speaker
Elizabeth Armstrong-Mensah / Clinical Assistant Professor Undergraduate Program in Public Health Georgia State University USA

Abstract

Current treatment for HIV/AIDS with highly active anti-retroviral therapy can be effective but often associated with numerous side effects yet still without a cure. Extensive efforts have been poured into clearance of the hidden viral reservoir and eliciting immune resistance to HIV. Lentiviral anti-HIV hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy offers a potential final solution to this endeavor. We have developed an anti-HIV stem cell gene therapy strategy based on the combination of an advanced lentivector system and multiple anti-HIV genes. A novel lentivector has been established that can simultaneously express a microRNA to block endogenous CCR5 expression, a sequence-modified CCR5Δ32 gene to interfere with the function of native CCR5, and multiple selected anti-HIV shRNAs to target viral RNAs. In vitro assays demonstrated that ectopic expression of CCR5Δ32 protected against R5-HIV-1 infection. In addition, the expression of a CCR5 miRNA effectively blocked R5-HIV-1 infection. The further addition of an intronic cassette (miR155-19a-30a) incorporating miRNAs targeting three viral RNA sites including HIV-1 pol, int and vpu, had shown marked anti-HIV effects. Evidence supports that transduction of adult CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with this anti-HIV multi-gene vector does not impair hemopoiesis of the HSCs. Thus, autologous HSC transplantation to ectopically express CCR5Δ32 and multiple miRNAs targeting endogenous CCR5 and three highly conserved HIV-1 genomic sites may provide an ultimate cure to end HIV-1/AIDS.

Biography

Dr. Chang obtained a doctorate (Ph.D.) in Microbiology from the University of Iowa, Iowa City. Currently Dr. Chang is a tenured Full Professor in University of Florida College of Medicine, and serves as President of Shenzhen Geno-immune Medical Institute (GIMI), Shenzhen, China. He has published more than 130 scientific publications and filed more than 30 US patents. Dr. Chang develops novel molecular biology and gene therapy tools and participates in individualized medical treatments in multiple clinical trials applying gene and cell based therapeutics.

Speaker
Lung-Ji Chang / Professor, University of Florida, USA

Abstract

HIV-infected smokers lost more years due to cigarette smoking than to HIV infection. Over the past 10 years, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with HIV-infection. Cigarette smoking, a traditional risk factor for CVD, is more prevalent in this population and contributes to the elevated rate of risk. In addition, smoking has been associated with increased rates of pulmonary diseases and infections, including bacterial pneumonias, lung cancers, and other malignancies. Of important clinical relevance is that 40% of HIV-infected smokers express a willingness to attempt smoking cessation when asked. The study aims to investigate efficacy of group therapy on smoking cessation among tobacco dependence people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevalence of cigarette smoking was ascertained. Influence of age, education and gender on smoking was also established. The intervention study adopted pre-post experimental design. At the baseline, a total of 22-item standardized self report tobacco use questionnaire (α=0.75) was administered to 211 purposively selected HIV smokers in HIV care centres at Maiduguri. Out of these, 50 chronic smokers were randomly assigned into treatment or control group. Treatment condition consisted of one 30 minute session intervention (group therapy) per week for a 5 week period .The control group received health education on cigarette smoking. At the post intervention, the two groups were administered the 25-item self report smoking cessation scale (α=0.89) and follow up with smoking behaviour checklist for two months consecutively. Age was categorized into old and young using mean age of the participants (x= 30.4(SD±2.7) while educational status was categorized into no formal education, basic and tertiary. Paired t-test was used for pre-post intervention while t-test of independent was used for gender (on baseline data). It was found that 117(55%) of people living with HIV/AIDS were chronic smokers. A 2x2x3 factorial combination of gender, age and educational status revealed that old, male HIV smokers with no formal education were more likely to smoke (n=95, X=10.2).The mean change for pre-post score was 7.2 in the treatment group (p=.000) and 0.11 in the control group (p=0.523). Male HIV smokers were more on smoking than female (t(209)=5.2;P<.05). There is high prevalence of chronic tobacco smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS. Group therapy was effective for smoking cessation among HIV smokers. Policy and action based palliative measure should be directed towards smoking cessation in HIV population. Index terms: Smoking cessation, HIV infected smokers, group therapy, smoking behaviour checklist

Biography

Olalekan Taoreed Kazeem was born in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. He received BSc degree in Psychology from University of Ibadan in 2009. He returned to the same University for his Masters’ degree in Clinical Psychology from 2012 to 2014. He is currently a Doctoral researcher at the University. His researcher interest includes cognitive neuroscience, violence prevention, childhood adversity, climate change, trauma care, substance abuse, HIV/AIDS and psychological testing. He is actively involved in counseling, testing and development of cultural relevant psychotherapy on trauma care, substance abuse and HIV/AIDS. He is a member of European Public Health Association (EUPHA) and Society for AIDS in Africa (SAA). He is also a member of panel of expert, World Health Organization Injury and violence prevention. He works briefly with Nigerian Army Medical Corps, Lagos as a Psychologist between 2010 to May, 2017. As a scholar practitioner with passion for prosocial behaviour, he is the Project Coordinator of Holistic Empowerment Project (HEP) of the Integrity Organization (theintegrity.org) in collaboration with International Peace Organization (hwpl.kr), South Korea where over ninety secondary school students in Ibadan were empowered and signed declaration to be peace ambassador in August, 2017. He reviews manuscripts for World Health Organization Bulletin and abstract reviewer for 19th International Conference on AIDS and Sexual Transmitted Infection in Africa (ICASA) held at Ivory Coast

Speaker
Olalekan Taoreed Kazeem / Researcher at the University of Ibadan

Abstract

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the major challenges to the effectiveness of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in rural areas in South Africa. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal intimate partner violence, and its time-invariant and time-varying predictors among HIV positive women in primary care facilities in rural South Africa. Methods In a randomized-controlled trial, with an intervention and control group, intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past month was assessed at four time-points using an adapted version the Conflict Tactics Scale. Data collection occurred over 12 months from April 2014 to March 2016. Findings The prevalence of physical IPV experienced at baseline was 20.0%, 13.0% at 32 weeks, 20.3% at 6 months, and 21.2% at 12 months postnatal. For psychological IPV, the prevalence at baseline was 55.5%, 49.9% at 32 weeks, 51.1% at 6 months, and 46.6% at 12 months postnatal. Time-invariant predictors of physical IPV were cohabiting, having an HIV positive partner, and decreased stigma. Being in the intervention group and using alcohol were time-invariant predictors of psychological IPV. Generalized linear mixed models indicated that time-varying predictors of physical IPV were decreased male involvement, higher levels of depression, non-adherence to ARVs, and consistent condom use. Time-varying predictors of psychological IPV were decreased male involvement, higher levels of depression, consistent condom use in the past week, and non-condom use at last sex. While there were no intervention effects for the physical IPV categories, the intervention effect was significant for the psychological IPV categories. Conclusions Evidence-based interventions are needed to deal with the high levels of prenatal and postnatal intimate partner violence experienced by HIV infected women in rural South Africa. Interventions should promote IPV screening among HIV positive women at all prenatal and postnatal clinic visits and access to appropriate interventions. Additional components of the intervention should pay special attention to improving male partner support, reducing depression and alcohol use, and promoting antiretroviral adherence. Intimate partner violence resulting from condom use negotiation needs special attention if condom use is to be improved.

Biography

Speaker
Motlagabo G. Matseke / Research & Innovation Chief Directorate, The National School of Government, Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract

This paper describes the Psychological effects of anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs among men who have sex with men (MSM). Antiretroviral drugs inhibit the reproduction of retroviruses—viruses composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA) rather than deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The best known of this group is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Thanker et al. 2003). Antiretroviral agents are virustatic agents which block steps in the replication of the virus. The drugs are not curative; however continued use of drugs, particularly in multi-drug regimens, significantly slows disease progression. Key informant interview method to collect information from community leaders who have first hand knowledge about the community, at least 5-10 key affected clients in their designated treatment facility, a courtesy call sent to the Treatment hub physician via email for permission. Results shows, surveillance, prevention, and treatment are impeded by the stigma and secrecy that surround same-sex behavior, further fueling the epidemic and creating additional barriers to care. Some men have sex with other men without self-identifying as gay or bi-sexual, so they disregard prevention messages directed at the gay community. The researcher can foster non-judgmental prevention (with a wide range of safer sex options according to the specific person's needs and lifestyle), monitor psychological sequelae, adherence, and quality of life issues (e.g., sleep, sexual functioning), and assist in managing the psychosocial impact of the disease on infected people and their relatives. Keywords: anti-retroviral drugs, men who have sex with men, human immunodeficiency virus

Biography

The researcher is a student of Bachelor is Science in Nursing in San Beda University, an HIV and AIDS advocate since 2016 and Licensed HIV screening practitioner by the Department of Health Region III, Philippines, Community Based HIV screening Trainer in Manila, was an HIV and AIDS area coordinator of Save the Children Philippines.

Speaker
Daryl Simon E. Pecson / Researcher, San Beda University, Philippines

Sessions:

HIV Community Planning & Participatory Approaches to HIV Prevention

Abstract

The church is the rightful place to organise effective HIV interventions because it is the place where majority of the people in our community congregate on Sunday mornings to worship and to be empowered by the sermons preached by their local pastors and leaders. It is also the place where people go to find love and comfort however the lack of understanding about sexual health issues such as HIV due to the negative traditional religious interpretations of the HIV condition has given room for stigma and discrimination to operate in the church therefore making it impossible for the church to entertain HIV interventions and to give support to people who are living with HIV and their families.Take Action Now is is a modul developed to challenge the unfortunate attitude of stigma and discrimination being practiced in the church against people who are living with HIV. Stigma is rooted in people’s minds because of ignorance and misinformation. Those who are ignorant about the truths about HIV uses the scriptures to create the impression that HIV is a curse from God and it is due to the promiscuous lifestyles of those who are infected that the so called curse has come upon them. However the Bible says in Hosea 4:6 “My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge” Creating models such as Take Action Now, which has now become an international model has also become the cutting edge of HIV intervention around the world. Take Action Now is developed to correct all the negative errors and myths created through ignorance in the church and give the church the true knowledge and understanding about HIV. The bible says again in John 8:32 “Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free. Methodology: Q – How do you get faith leaders to implement regular sexual health messages? Changing the mind set of people who have already decided which paths they are taking for their lives is the most difficult thing to do, However this module was developed by a Pastor who is also part of the church hierarchy and knows how to address sensitive issues in the church makes the module credible when used to address the issue. We use the ABC method to make it simple. A= Action (The preparation). B= Be friendly (Meeting Faith leaders, identifying the protocols withing the faith sectors). C= The church (The target area where most people are at risk of HIV) D= The “D” day (Time for testing in collaboration with all stakeholders) E= Emergency (Using all available support services provided in case there is any positive reactions during the diagnosis) OPERATION.The lead person on the project should be one who is connected to the church community and has good communication skills and knowledge about the scriptures. First of all Pastors and leaders should be consulted because they hold the keys of the doors to the church and also they are the champions in that arena. Without their endorsement there can be no engagement and so the approach must be done in a respectful manner. This enables discussions about HIV and sexual health issues in the church to flow positively without much difficulty. After they have bought into the importance of addressing HIV intervention in the church, then direct training for leaders in the church can then be organized. This training is necessary because it enables the leadership of the church to acquire the knowledge about HIV in it’s rightful context and helps them to also acquire the skills to counsel members of their congregation. The training enables the leaders to handle confidentiality issues with care. Secondly, Pastors and church leaders are taught how to use key bits of scriptures that demonstrate compassion as an alternative to those that are used against people who are HIV positive. They are informed about the need to source and develop a guide on how to put together sermons that address health, sexual health and HIV. They are also provided with referral routes where they can gain more support when needed. They are also provided with models to run workshops on health, sexual health issues and HIV in the church especially with women, men and youth groups. Faith leaders and Pastors are provided with a structured approach when preparing for their regular sermons for them to deliver once a while topics related to HIV and sexual health. TESTING IN CHURCHES Through the “Take Action Now module” free and Confidential HIV testing centers are being opened in churches for the first time in Africa and across the UK with thousands of those diagnosed of having HIV receiving treatment, care and support..

Biography

Fred Osei Annin is the founder and CEO of Actionplus Foundation (UK) has been working in the Pastoral ministry full time since 1982. Fred single handedly founded Actionplus Foundation (UK) in 1997 to combat the unfortunate attitude of stigma and prejudice which prevents HIV intervention. His Action was to reduce the spread of HIV infection within the African communities. Fred has developed many successful HIV prevention models such as Take Action Now. His Action was to reduce the spread of HIV infection within the African communities. Actionplus Foundation provides support to empower people living with HIV/AIDS so that they can play a central role to improve their own lives.

Speaker
Apostle Fred Osei Annin / CEO Actionplus Foundation, London

Abstract

Campaign 9:30 is a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration evidence-informed program; because every 9 minutes and 30 seconds someone is infected with HIV. According to the Annual Epidemiology and Surveillance Report 2016, The District of Columbia has an infection rate of just over 2% which exceeds epidemic rates according to the CDC. Campaign 9:30 has four main goals; 1) increase awareness and education of the risk and protective factors of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, 2) Increase HIV/HCV testing on campus 3) address stigma related to cultural and social barriers that prevent substance abuse and HIV/AID, 4) and increase use of social networking and marketing to spread relevant messages to young adults. Findings from a series of focus groups yield data with implications for how UDC Campaign 930 provides impactful messages to fellow UDC students. Student Peer Educators (SPEs) conducted five focus groups during three events with student leaders on and off campus to determine which method they preferred to receive messages about (Substance Abuse/HIV/AIDS/ Hepatitis/Mental Health. The top two preferred methods of communications by the participants were, social media and texts. Additional findings suggest engagement patterns are key to increased student reception.

Biography

Ledbetter, Sislena is a Professor of Psychology and Associate VP of Student Development at the University of the District of Columbia where she has been since 2010. She served as the Director of Counseling and Student Development from 2010-1014. She also serves on the Mayor's Youth Bullying Task Force and the School Climate Certification Advisory Board for the District of Columbia. She is the host of a cable TV program called A Healthy Mind, dedicated to educating community members about behavioral health. She has also written and attracted more than 5 million dollars in grant funding for behavioral health since 2011. She received a B.S. from North Carolina Central University in 1991, and an M.S. and Ph.D. from Howard University in Washington, DC in 2001. She worked as a senior researcher at the American Psychological Association, AARP, and the National Education Association in the member benefits corporation.

Speaker
Sislena Ledbetter / Professor University of District of Columbia, USA

Abstract

Recent biomedical advances in HIV prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and achieving an undetectable viral load (UVL) support evidence-based scientific studies indicating HIV transmission rates can continue to be reduced through campaigns such as “Getting to Zero.” Despite the new evidence there continue to be disparities in risk and in access to prevention strategies based on a number of social, cultural, and economic factors collectively noted here as Sydemic Impact (the co-constitutive epidemiological factors in large urban areas where the social and biological intersect). Sydemic Impact when coupled with Internal Traumatic Gay Men’s Syndrome (the inter-generational, socially-isolating and traumatic [life changing] experiences that shape risk for HIV and overall long term health outcomes for gay HIV positive men) can help to explain the on-going social and cultural impact of trauma on health outcomes for both negative and positive self-identified gay men. Previous studies (Diaz, 1997; Cohen, 1999; Vernon, 2001; Jolivette, 2016) have shown the socio-cultural and socio-psychological impact of identity factors such as race, religion, economic status etc. on the mental health of gay men of color. Among American Indians, First Nations, and Alaskan Native gay men we must also incorporate an analysis of (ITGMS) to explore how social and cultural interactions influence HIV prevention, treatment, and long-term care.

Biography

Andrew J. Jolivette is Professor and former Chair of the Department of American Indian Studies at San Francisco State University, where he has been since 2001. He also currently serves as the Interim Executive Director of the San Francisco American Indian Community Cultural Center for the Arts. Dr. Jolivette is the author of five books: Cultural Representation in Native America (AltaMira Press, 2006); Louisiana Creoles: Cultural Recovery and Mixed-Race Native American Identity (Lexington Books, 2007); Obama and the Biracial Factor: The Battle for a New American Majority (Policy Press, 2012); Research Justice: Methodologies for Social Change (Policy Press July 2015); Indian Blood: HIV and Colonial Trauma in San Francisco’s Two-Spirit Community (Indigenous Confluences Series, University of Washington Press, May 2016).

Speaker
Andrew Jolivette / Professor, San Francisco State University, United States

Abstract

Purpose: Health disparities research has indicated that urban, low-income African-American families and adolescents experience ecological and environmental hardships that result in higher rates of engagement in risk behaviors. Contextual factors like community violence, socioeconomic status, family processes, and limited sexual health knowledge also contribute to high rates of sexual risk among urban African American adolescents. However, protective factors like parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex may decrease sexual risk among this urban teen population. Therefore, the current study hypothesized that: (1) parent-adolescent communication about sex would be positively associated with adolescent sexual health knowledge, (2) parent-adolescent communication about sex would be positively associated with parental monitoring, (3) both parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex would be negatively associated with adolescent sexual risk and (4) there would be gender differences in parent-adolescent communication about sex, (5) and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of approximately 1,102 African American adolescents aged 13-17 from urban Midwestern high schools were included in this study. Results: There was no significant association found between sexual health knowledge and parent communication about sex or parental monitoring. Female adolescents reported higher levels of communication about sex than males. Findings indicated a significant negative association between parental monitoring and adolescent sexual risk, with the association being stronger for males than females. There was a significant negative association found between sexual health knowledge and adolescent sexual risk. Additionally, findings indicated a significant negative association between parental monitoring and adolescent sexual risk. Conclusions: Parental monitoring is a significant protective factor in decreasing sexual risk among at-risk African American adolescents. There are significant differences in frequency of parent-adolescent communication about sex influenced by the gender of the adolescent.

Biography

General Psychology, Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology for majors and non-majors (undergraduate). Plans, evaluates, and revises curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction. Maintains student attendance records, grades, and other required records. Supervises undergraduate research work. Maintains regularly scheduled office hours in order to advise and assist students. Selects and obtain materials and supplies such as textbooks. Collaborates with colleagues and doctoral cohorts to address teaching and research issues. Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate students on topics such as abnormal psychology, cognitive processes, and general psychology. Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers. Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions. Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others. Keep abreast of developments in field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences. Prepare course materials such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.

Speaker
Shakiera Causey / Adjunct Professor, University of North Carolina

Abstract

In spite of the huge conventional mass media campaign on HIV prevention in Ghana and its attendant high public awareness, there is low level adoption of some preventive measures by the public due to their limited involvement in the communication process as well as a knowledge gap about the disease as confirmed by Ghana Demography and Health Survey (GDHS) of 2014. This questioned the impact of conventional communication channels and shifted focus to community radio, regarded as a grassroots medium that accentuates the voices and participation of people in addressing issues that affect them. This study, therefore, is aimed at understanding the role of community radio as a health communication mechanism in preventing the spread of HIV/ AIDS among the rural and semi-urban population in Ghana. The study specifically examined the current state of community radio HIV/AIDS programming in Pokuase and Winneba communities in Ghana; the extent to which knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to HIV/AIDS are influenced by community radio as well as identified how community radio can be deployed to strengthen communication and improve HIV preventive measures uptake by the community members. Based on a sample size of 824 respondents and 12 Key Informant Interviewees, the study confirmed a high-level awareness of HIV epidemic in the sampled communities due to the participatory programming of Radio Emashie, Pokuase and Radio Peace, Winneba. The findings further revealed that community members have adopted certain behaviours such as the use of condoms, faithfulness to partners and limited number of sexual partners in order to prevent HIV infection. Therefore, the study recommended increased funding to strengthen participatory approach to radio programming and increased frequency of HIV-related youth-focused programmes to prevent new infections.

Biography

Oluseyi Soremekun has completed his PhD in Development Communication from the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria. He is the National Information Officer of the United Nations Information Centre (UNIC) in Nigeria, a field office of the Department of Public Information (DPI), UN Secretariat New York. He has over 29 years of uninterrupted communication practice and has published five papers in reputed journals/ academic books and over 15 communication-related articles in professional magazines.

Speaker
Oluseyi Soremekun / National Information Officer of the United Nations Information Centre

Sessions:

HIV Revolution

Abstract

4’-C-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2’-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) has attracted much attention due to its extremely excellent anti-HIV activity, for example, EFdA prevents the emergence of resistant HIV mutants, and is over 400 times more active than AZT and several orders of magnitude more active than the other clinical reverse-transcriptase inhibitory 2’, 3’-dideoxy-nucleoside drugs, very low toxic, very long acting, very useful for the prevention of HIV-infection. EFdA is now under clinical investigation by Merck & Co. as MK-8591. In the beginning, the general idea for the development of anti-viral modified nucleosides will be presented, and then the development of EFdA will be discussed and the clinical results by Merck will be also presented. For the design of the modified nucleoside which could solve the problems that the clinical drugs have (1. emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants, 2. adverse effect by drugs, 3. necessity to take quite a few amount of drugs), the following working hypotheses were proposed . They are (1) the way to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants, (2) the way to decrease the toxicity of modified nucleosides, (3) the way to provide the modified nucleoside with stability to both enzymatic and acidic glycolysis for long acting. 4’-C-substituted-2’-deoxynucleoside (4’SdN) was designed to meet the hypotheses (1), (3), and the additional modification of 4’SdN was performed to meet the hypothesis (2). The details of the hypotheses and the reasons for the design of 4’SdN will be discussed. To prevent the deamination of adenine base by adenosine deaminase, fluorine atom was introduced at the 2-position of adenine base. Finally, EFdA , modified at the two position (2 and 4’) of the physiologic 2’-deoxyadenosine and has extremely excellent anti-HIV activity, was successfully developed.

Biography

Hiroshi Ohrui received Ph.D. degree (1971) from The University of Tokyo. He Joined RIKEN (1966) and moved to Tokyo University (1981). He moved to Yokohama University of Pharmacy (2006). He worked for Dr. J. J. Fox at Sloan- Kettering Institute for Cancer Research (1972-1973) and Dr. J. G. Moffatt at Syntex Research (1973-1974). He received several awards including Inoue Prize for Science (2001), Japan Prize for Agricultural Sciences (2004), The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry Award (2004), and Japan Academy Prize (2010). His research interests cover organic synthesis, chemical biology and chiral discrimination

Speaker
Hiroshi Ohrui / Professor, Yokohama University of Pharmacy

Sessions:

Epidemiology and prevention Research

Abstract

Aim: Partner notification (PN) is a key public health intervention aimed at preventing re-infection and controlling the spread of STIs. However, only limited research has been conducted to investigate factors associated with PN in Ethiopia. Subject and Methods: A nested case-control study was undertaken within a cohort of individuals being treated for STIs in public health facilities in Ethiopia. Hierarchical binary logistic regression was used to identify socio-demographic, behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with PN. Results: A total of 250 patients on STI treatment who notified their partners (cases) were compared with 185 patients who did not notify their partners (controls). STI patients were less likely to notify their partner if they were single [AOR= 0.33, 95% CI: (0.15-0.73)], in a casual partnership [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.33, 95% CI:(0.15-73)], not knowledgeable about a partner’s sexual behavior [AOR=0.43, 95% CI: (0.24-0.77)], had poor knowledge of risky sexual behavior [AOR=0.23, 95% CI: (0.12-0.43)] and if they had no intention of notifying partners [AOR=0.19, 95% CI: (0.10-0.36)]. The odds of PN were higher among highly educated respondents [AOR=5.16; 95%CI: (1.83-14.54)]. Conclusion: Capturing STI cases through patient referral partner notification is less likely to be successful among patients who are single and in casual relationship.

Biography

Dr. Mache Tsadik is currently working as assistant professor at the University of Mekelle. Dr Mache Tsadik received his Doctoral degree or PhD on June, 2017 from the University of Mekelle. Dr Mache Tsadik completed his Masters in Reproductive health from the University of Addis Ababa. He then worked at the Institute of public health, served as Assistant Professor at the University of Mekelle. Dr. Mache Tsadik has authored several publications in various journals. His publications reflect his research interests in the area of STIs and HIV. Dr. Mache Tsadik is also an Editor of the Journal of East African Medical journal and Journal of public health. Dr. Mache Tsadik is serving as a member of Ethiopian Public Health Association.

Speaker
Mache Tsadik Adhana / School of public health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Abstract

ABSTRACT ; Introduction: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the main co-factor for heterosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, and could be involved in the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in Senegal. Methodology: Genital shedding of HSV was evaluated in adult females who had visited the provincial healthcare centres in Diass, Louga, and Kebemer in Senegal. Study subjects were interviewed by a healthcare worker for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior, and HIV serology was offered. In addition, cervical secretion lavage samples were evaluated for HSV DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the melting curve analysis of which permitted distinction between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). Results: Among 302 women (mean age, 40 years) enrolled, none were infected by HIV. The mean age at first sexual intercourse was 20 years, and the mean number of sexual partners in the previous year was 1.3 (range, 1–7). Only 6 of 302 (1.9%) women had cervico-vaginal secretions positive for HSV DNA. No association between HSV DNA shedding and any sociodemographic or biological variables was found. Surprisingly, genital shedding of HSV-1 was found in two (0.7%) women, representing 33% of herpes-shedding women, and HSV-2 in four (1.5%) women. Conclusions: Taken together, our observations indicate a low prevalence of HSV DNA genital shedding in adult Senegalese women.

Biography

PhD in Biology and Human Pathologies with the collaboration of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) /WHO, Lyon (France); 2006-2007 : Master of Life and Health, Speciality Biology of microorganismes, Virology in Louis Pasteur University of Strasbourg (France); 2005-2006 : Master of Life and Health, option of Immunophysiopathology in Louis Pasteur University of Strasbourg (France), 2004-2005 : License of Biochemistry in Louis Pasteur University of Strasbourg (France), 2002-2004 : Sciences et Technologies in University of METZ (France); 11/01/2012 : Cervical Cancer Prevention Course, offered by the Federation International of Gynecology Obstetrique (FIGO) and the Accreditation Council of Oncology in Europe(ACOE, www.acoe.be); 17/09/2010: United Nations « Basic Notion of Security on the Ground-Protection, Health and behavior

Speaker
El Hadji Seydou Mbaye / Centre hospitalo-universitaire Aristide Le Dantec, Institut Juliot Curie, Dakar, Senegal

Abstract

Background: Sex workers have been among the populations most affected by HIV since the beginning of the epidemic more than 30 years ago. In both concentrated and generalized epidemics, HIV prevalence is considerably higher among sex workers than in the general population. There for information about the current level of knowledge and preventive practices of female sex worker is needed to set out preventive efforts. This study will identify gaps and provides clues for programmatic intervention. Objective: To assess comprehensive knowledge and preventive practice of HIV /AIDS among female sex workers in Bahir Dar City, North west Ethiopia, 2015. Method: A quantitative community based cross sectional study triangulated with qualitative methods was employed among female sex workers from December 05 to 25, 2015 in Bahir Dar City. The data were collected by face to face interview from 584 female sex workers, in-depth interview and observation among 5 different female sex workers who were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Bivarate and multi variable logistic regression was employed to identify the association between dependent and explanatory variables. The association was considered statistically significant when P value was < 0.05. Result: A total of 584 female sex workers were studied with response rate of 97.3%.The comprehensive knowledge of FSWs on HIV/AIDS was 34.1%. The overall preventive practice of the female sex workers was 58.2% in which 65.6% used condom always and consistently. Age (AOR= 1.71,95%CI= 1.05-2.79), educational level (AOR= 2.27,95%CI= 1.37-3.78) and working as peer promoter for organization (AOR= 1.51, 95%CI=1.02-2.23) were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge. Substance use for alcohol users (AOR= 2.25,95%CI= 1.21- 4.19) and for khat users (AOR=4.80 ,95%CI= 2.50- 9.20) membership with organization working on HIV/AIDS (AOR=2.55,95% CI=1.52-4.27) were identified as significant predictor variables for HIV preventive practice of FSWs. Conclusion & Recommendation: Among female sex workers, comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low while their preventive practice is 58.2%. Therefore, we recommend stakeholders to intervening on this high risk population group focusing on the raising comprehensive knowledge and preventive practice of HIV/AIDS.

Biography

Speaker
Dessie Kassa Simegn / Bahir Dar University College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Public Health

Sessions:

Prevention Research and Interventions for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

Sessions:

Biomedical and Behavior Prevention Programs

Will be updated soon...


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