Earthly magnetism seemed to be an accident of nature until recently, it was necessary to correctly fix many factors such as the fluid center of the Earth, its electrical conductivity and its movements, and everything had to meet the strict requirements of theory. This happened before other planets of the solar system were visited and examined, but now we know that among these planets only Venus is devoid of magnetism. Planets differ greatly in size and properties, and their fields also differ, but all appear to have fields of dynamo or (in the case of Mars and the Moon) have had them in the past.
Dr.Roberto Oscar Aquilano currently working as a researcher at the National Scientific and Technical Research Board (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, CONICET) and Professor at the School of Exact Science, Engineering and Surveying at Universidad Nacional de Rosario.He has an extensive background as a scientist, acted as Director of the Astronomical Observatory, Planetarium and Experimental Science Museum Complex of Rosario, Argentina.Roberto was a member of Executive Board of the Agency of Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation of Santa Fe, Argentina.He has published over 100 scientific papers in national and international journals of his specialty.
Ba2CoO4 crystallizes in a monoclinic structure with cobalt in the tetrahedral environment, in contrast to the octahedral coordination of cobalt in most of other cobaltites. One expects the spin correlation in Ba2CoO4 should be weak, as each CoO4 tetrahedron is totally isolated without any oxygen, edge or face sharing. However, single-crystal neutron diffraction revealed a noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure with propagation vector (1/2 0 1/2) below TN = 27 K. The moment is found to be 2.71(4) uB, mainly pointing to a axis with a weak canting to b and c axes. An anomaly in temperature dependence of the lattice constant a was observed when the system undergoes the antiferromagnetic transition at TN, suggesting a spin-lattice correlation. Inelastic neutron scattering studies show an energy gap ≈ 2.4(3) meV, and approaches zero as temperature increases to TN, indicating a magnetic origin. The spin wave spectra show distinct dispersion along the H and K directions without dispersion along the L direction in the reciprocal lattice unit, evidencing a low dimensional magnetism in Ba2CoO4. Fits to the spin waves dispersion also unveiled a strong spin frustration existing in Ba2CoO4. The mechanism of the reduced dimensional magnetism in Ba2CoO4 involving isolated CoO4 tetrahedra is discussed.
Dr.Qiang Zhang is a Research associate at Louisiana state univesity.USA.His research intrestTopological semimetals,heavy Fermion metals.He has publishes more articles.
Artificially grown thin film heterostructures of transition metal oxides by far exceed the capabilities of current semiconducting technology as they offer additional functionalities such as metal-insulator transitions, magnetism, superconductivity, or multiferroicity. Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is the rare case of a room temperature multiferroic material and offers as such the most promising pathway for spintronics applications. The existence of a spin cycloid, which is mandatory for magneto-electric switching, is hindered in thinnest films due to the large epitaxial strain. Our neutron diffraction experiments have demonstrated that we were able to realize a spin cycloid in thinnest films through improved electrostatic and epitaxial constraints  and the use of Co-doping. This cycloid, despite its out-of-plane propagation vector, can be stabilized in films as thin as 50 nm, a length smaller than the cycloid period itself. The cycloid expands significantly for thinnest films and as a function of temperature close to TN. Our theoretical ab-initio calculations confirm a unique [11-2] cycloid propagation direction, which is different to the [1-10] propagation direction in bulk BiFeO3. Further fascinating examples are SrCoO3 thin films. Theoretical calculations have predicted ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transitions induced by epitaxial strain. With the proper choice of substrate material we were able to confirm the FM-AFM transition by neutron diffraction . As such, SrCoO3 would constitute a new class of multiferroic material where magnetic and electric transitions can be driven through external strain. This opens new avenues for fundamental research and technical applications in spintronic or magnonic devices.
Dr.Clemens Ulrich is associate professor at university of New South Wales,Australia.Ulrich started his carrier as PhD student in 1994 in the group of Prof. Manuel Cardona at the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany. After being a postdoctoral research associate at the Bell Laboratories, Lucent technologies and at NIST in USA, he returned to the Max-Planck Institute in Stuttgart in 2000, where he became the group leader of the optical spectroscopy laboratories in the group of Prof. B. Keimer.where he has established laboratories for crystal growth and optical spectroscopy.
The Earth is a spherical ball with radius of 6370 km. At the center there is a solid core with a radius of 1220 km, with very high temperature of 6000 k. From radius of 3400 km to outer boundary is solid with the temperature at the inner wall about 3800 k. In the region between inner core and outer boundary is filled with liquid iron alloy. Because of the temperature difference there is convective current in the liquid iron alloy. And because of the rotation of the Earth, there is Coriolis Effect on the fluid, making the fluid rotating clockwise as looking down from the North Pole. Because of this rotation of fluid the magnetic field is created with North Pole of the magnetic field near the South Pole of the Earth and South Pole of the magnetic field near the north pole of the Earth. The explanation of the magnetic axis will be given in the presentation. Also the explanation of the shift of magnetic field from regular position to reversed position will be discussed. There are two possibilities: change of temperatures or change of fluid properties.
Dr.SHUH-JING (BEN) YING is a professor at University of South Florida,USA.YING is a fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers and also Member of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Society of Automotive Engineers,American Geophysical Unio and Society of Sigma Xi.ying did research work in fluids, combustion, vibration, electro-mechanical design and numerical method, five different fields.
Magnetic losses are the most important characteristic feature of soft magnetic materials powered by alternating current. To make good use of the materials in power electronics, the operating conditions of the maximum high magnetic induction value Bm are typically used. For this reason, the dependence of magnetic losses P upon the induction Bm is normally studied in the range of more than 0.1 T. In the weak fields, the stepwise movement of the domain walls, attributed to the movement retardation on the surface and bulky defects, prevails. The movement of the domain walls becomes smoother as the rate of magnetic flux reversal increases. The paper is aimed at investigating magnetic losses in the Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 nanocrystalline alloy in a wide region of changes in the amplitude of magnetic induction Bm from 0.003 up to 1.0 Т under static conditions and in the alternating magnetic field of the 50 Hz – 100 kHz frequency range. The studies of magnetic loss have shown that at low frequencies, dependences P(Bm) in the logarithmic scale have two linear sections with curves of different slope, while starting at 20 kHz, the curves degenerate into a straight line. In the region of the initial permeability, the exponent in the Steinmetz formula for hysteresis loss is the largest one, approaching the value of 3 which corresponds to the Rayleigh formula. This exponent is gradually decreasing up to 1.5 in the region of maximal magnetic permeability. This regular decrease of the exponent is related to changing the shape of the static hysteresis loop.
Prof. Tsepelev Vladimir has received Doctor Degree in Metallurgy of Ferrous and non-ferrousmetals from Boris Yeltzin Ural Federal University on 1998, with major field of study was Material Engineering, Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Materials. In 1998, as director Tsepelev Vladimir headed Research Center of Liquid Metal Physics. In 2000 he was Full Professor of Chair Health and Safety Department of Fundamental Education Boris Yeltzin Ural Federal University. In In 2002 he was elected an Academician of the Engineering Academy named after A.M. Prokhorov. His research interests cover subjects such as, waste recycle, metallurgy, composite, renewable energy, environmental friendly manufacturing, study the physical properties of liquid metal at high temperatures, the development of technologies for the production of amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials with unique magnetic properties, the preparation of amorphous high-entropy solders. He published more than 650 articles, including 5 books and 86 patents.Â Tsepelev Vladimir has a Diploms of the winner of the international exhibitions and scientific competitions, the title of the Veteran of Labour, Diploma of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, Honorary Worker of higher school Russian Federation. Winner of the prize-medals named after Professor A.S. Popov, for his contribution to the development of engineeringsciences, 100th Anniversary of the Birth of A.M. Prokhorov and 25 years of the AES RF namedA.M. Prokhorov.
Magnetic anisotropy is not only the origin of long-range-magnetic-order in low dimensional system, but also plays a vital role in determining the magnetic properties for magnetically hard, high-frequency magnetic materials, ultrahigh density magnetic recording media and spintronic materials. The atomically flat terraces separated by steps are generally used as templates for preparing various self-organized nanostructures, including regular arrays of nanodots, nanostripes, atomic wires and ultrathin films. We adopted a novel method to tune the terrace width of Si(111) substrate by varying the direction of heating current, and consequently manipulate the magnetic anisotropy of magnetic structures on the stepped substrate by the decoration of its atomic steps. Laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunneling junction is exploited by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TRMOKE) for both the parallel state (P state) and the antiparallel state (AP state) of the magnetizations between two magnetic layers. It was observed that the demagnetization time is shorter and the magnitude of demagnetization is larger in the AP state than those in the P state. These behaviors are attributed to the ultrafast spin transfer between two CoFeB layers via the tunneling of hot electrons through the MgO barrier. Our observation indicates that ultrafast demagnetization can be engineered by the hot electrons tunneling current. It opens the door to manipulate the ultrafast spin current in magnetic tunneling junctions. Furthermore, all-optical TR-MOKE technique provide the flexibility for exploring the nonlinear magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials, especially with metallic materials. Keywords: Magnetic anisotropy, ultrafast spin dynamics, magnetic nanostructures
Dr.Zhao-hua Cheng is a professor at Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Session china.Dr.Cheng research interests Magnetic Nanostructures and Spintronics, Rare-earth Permanent Magnets, Magnetotransport properties of Magnetic Oxides, Hyperfine Interactions of Magnetic Materials, Application of SPM(SP-STM, AFM/MFM) on Magnetic Nanostructures.
Demand of Nd-Fe-B magnets has recently increased due to their multiple applications in wind power, hybrid-electric vehicles, transducers, magnetic fluids, magnetic elastomers, sensors, magnetic separators, magnetic levitation systems and so on. Several kinds of methods have been tried to fabricate Nd-Fe-B magnets such as powder metallurgy, rapid quenching and bulk alloys by casting and melt-spinning. These methodsrequire high purity of rare earth element as raw material, high manufacturing costs and energy consumption. On the other hand, reduction-diffusion (R-D) process has advantages in the use of a relatively inexpensive Nd oxide as raw material and direct production of a few micron-sized powders suitable for further procedures. In this work, we present R-D process for the synthesis of magnetic particles using leached product with Nd and Pr from monazite in the type of liquid and oxalate powders respectively. The precursors from separate purification liquid with NdCl3•6H2O, PrCl3•xH2O could be obtained by co-precipitation controlling pH with NaOH solutions.After heat treatment of precursors in air, Nd and Fe oxides were formed.Then, R-D was performed with CaH2 as reducing agent and solid state diffusion between Nd and Fe occurred to form Nd2Fe14B. In order to remove CaO and residual Ca, the particles after R-D were washed with de-ionized water and ball milling was done in ethanol. In addition, substitution of Nd for rare-earth (RE) element such as Dy, Tb, Gd in Nd-Fe-B systemwas carried out and magneto-crystalline anisotropy effect was investigated consideringspin-orbital coupling and overall magnetic moment.
Dr.Dongsoo Kim is a principal researcher at Korea Institute of Materials Science,korea.He is interested in design, synthesis and characterization of new functional materials and compounds.Dr. Kim has extensive experiences in research on the synthesis of functional powder materials and surface modifications over 20 years.Hehas published over 100 articles and conference proceedings and holds more than 20 patents.Dongsoo is a regular member of Korea Nano Technology Research Society, Korean Society for Metals and Materials, Powder Metallurgy, Magnetics, Hydrogen and New Energy.
The high temperature superconductor of CuBa2Ca2Cu3O8+(Cu-1223)synthesized experimentally by solid-state reaction. There were many parameters affected the preparation technique such as oxygen flow,sintering temperature, sintering time, and compacted pressure.The XRD-pattern exhibited a tetragonal phase for both Cu-1223, and Cu-1212. The resistivity measurement was considered the important experiment to showedpredominate phase of superconductor if it was a high phase or low phase. The critical temperature (Tc) was about (128 K) for the high phase of Cu-1223, whereas the low phase of (Cu-1212) appeared at (Tc=64 K). The correlation between the Miller indices and resistivity measurements was a good tool to predicate the expected mechanism of conductivity within the unit cell. It was clear the arrangement of these planes were aligned in the a-c direction. That should make the motion of the charge is more simple by a stepping planes toward c-axis. Keywords:solid-state reaction, high-Tc superconductor, resistivity measurement, XRD-pattern, SEM analysis
Dr.Emad K. Al-Shakarchi is a Professor in Solid State Physics,Nahrain University,Iraq.He was a member of Nanotechnology society in Iraq and also member of American association for science and technology,USA. Shakarchi was as an OCM in some international conferences on physics. He was a member of editorial board in many international journals.
The photo-spin-voltaic effect is a recently-discovered quantum phenomenon in which light is converted into an electric voltage . Upon exposure to infrared, non-polarized light, photons can excite electrons near the interface between a thin, metallic film and a magnetic insulator. The excited electrons are spin-polarized because of ferromagnetic proximity effect. If the metallic film has a strong spin orbit coupling, a transverse electromotive force is generated because of inverse spin-Hall effect . We experimentally prove that photo-spin voltaic effect is due to photo-excitation of carriers in the proximized layer and can exist for light in the visible range. The system we studied was a yittrium ion garnet Y3Fe5O12/platinum (YIG/Pt) bilayer. If the YIG is magnetized along the y-axis, an open-circuit voltage of the order of ∼ μV is detected along the x-axis when light is shed along the z-axis. The voltage magnitude is a linear function of the light intensity and flips sign if the magnetization is reversed. While carrying out the experiment, we discovered that, in closed-circuit conditions, the magnetoresistance of the proximized metal is a function of the light intensity. We name this effect photo-magnetoresistance. A magneto-transport model is presented that describes the change of magnetoresistance as a function of the light intensity.
Dr.Antonio Ruotolo is an Associate Professor at City University of Hong Kong,china.He has published more than 50 papers in prestigious journals, including Nature Physics, Nature Nanotechnology and Scientific Reports.In 2003 he joined the Dept. of Materials Science of the University of Cambridge (UK), supported by a European exchange grant. He completed his PhD in 2006 in Naples with a thesis on spintronics, in collaboration with the Fiat research center of Turin.He become a Research Associate of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University before receiving a Marie Curie post-doctoral fellowship in the group of the future Nobel Laureate Prof. A. Fert in the CNRS/Thales joined laboratory in Paris (FR).He has joined the City University of Hong Kong in October 2009.
Observation of strong magnetic field close to the superconductivity and super fluidity is a clear evidence for disorder to order transition, predicted by Confined Quantum Field Theory. In Confined Quantum Field Theory, electrons and other elementary particles are represented by bounded connected manifold. With the topology represented the type of particle and metric as function of its energy. Therefore the radius of confinement is function of the particles energy. Photons are sub manifolds of charged particles. Exchange of energy in Confined Quantum Field Theory is not point wise but via a connected manifold. Therefore conservation of energy is fully respected. If an electron is in a periodic potential and the radius of confinement of electron is a number of period. The force over the connected manifold integrated to zero. And the electron moves without resistance. Disturbing a pre-superconductive electron results in emission of a photon which is a sub manifold, if during the short time of separation of the two manifold the electron receive a de-acceleration the same photon absorbs by the electron and no energy exchange takes place.
Dr.Mohammad Fassihi is a retaired professor at Chalmers University of technology,Sweden.Mohammad Fassihi is both a Nobelist and Physicist.Fassihi reaearch intrest kinetics reactions on the Platinum surface.fassihi is an author of the roman "Confined Quantum Field Theory”.
A novel exploratory technique for real time controlling of compressive and flexural behavior of concrete structures through interactions between alternating magnetic field (AMF) and alternating current (AC) intensity.The investigation was conducted doing some small-scale experiments on fine-aggregate concrete specimens. Throughout the investigation an AMF with a density of 0.5 Tesla (T) and frequency of 50 Hz and an AC of different intensities up to 36 Ampere (A) were utilized. The procedure falls into two steps. The first concerns the effect of AMF on compressive strength of cube specimens and the second deals with the effect of AMF and AC on flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Regarding AMF, it was applied to either fresh or hardened concrete. To perform the experiments a specialized test setup comprising magnetic and electric circuit was designed such that it was capable of, simultaneously, applying AMF, AC, and pressure.As to the compressive cube specimens, exposing fresh concrete to AMF was found to have a negligible effect on compressive strength. While, applying AMF to hardened concrete increased it by 7.78%. Then, the associated advantages were, theoretically, discussed. Concerning flexural behavior of the RC beams, it was observed that exposing the specimen to AMF while concrete placing facilitated placing process with having no effect of flexural behavior. But, exposing hardened RC beams affected their flexural properties such as deflection, load bearing capacity, ductility, and bending stiffness. Moreover, applying AC to RC beams revealed that the ductility increases with increase in current intensity, according to a cubic function.Comparing the effects of AMF and AC on RC beams showed that AMF makes the element stronger while more brittle, but AC makes it more ductile. It was found that interaction between AMF and AC can be a useful technique for behavior controlling of smart concrete structures.As observed earlier, applying AMF to RC specimen, when it was in pasty phase, induced vibration in the reinforcing system, yielding better concrete compaction. It seems developing this technique may be useful for applications where concrete placing is confronted with dense reinforcement webs that make using massive equipment like vibrating rods impossible.In the previous section it was concluded that applying AMF to hardened concrete enhances its compressive strength while causing more brittle behavior, and applying AC makes the element more ductile. Imagine that a compressive element in a smart structure is designed, as shown in Fig. 10, so that a smart system is capable of applying AMF and/or AC to it. In this system some longitudinal bars form gapped magnetic circuits, carrying AMF to the locations of interest, and a spiral bar forms an electric circuit.If AMF and AC are applied simultaneously, the compressive strength of the element increases while ductile behavior caused by applying AC compensates for the increase in brittleness resulted from AMF.In addition, by developing this technique displacement and failure mode of structures can be controlled. E.g. when the element in Fig 10 is under cyclic loads, the control system can switch AMF on and switch AC off when load is applied to the structure in one direction which makes the element stronger and stiffer in this direction, and conversely switch AMF off and switch AC on while loading is in the opposite one that leads the element to be more ductile. So stiffness of the structure becomes different in different loading directions
Dr.Omid Rezaifar is Associate Professor at Department of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran. He received his BS from Semnan University; MS and PhD from Amirkabir University of technology (Tehran polytechnic) completed at the age 27 years.Omid research interest includes structural analysis using FEM, experimental methods in structural eng., composite structures, structural optimization, damage detection stability analysis and rehabilitation of structures and bridges. He published more than 38 papers in reputed journal and 100 papers in conferences.
We applied 13C and 205Tl nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for studying alignment of nanoparticles of graphene and high temperature superconductor (Tl0.5Pb0.5)(Ba0.2Sr0.8)2Ca2Cu3Oy caused by magnetic field. Both these compounds reveal layered crystal structure and are highly anisotropic. We found that the field of 8 T yields minor alignment of powder graphene and somewhat better alignment of fluffy graphene nanoparticles. Herewith the effect of alignment is well pronounced in 205Tl spectra of the superconducting particles fixed in epoxy in the field of 8 T. This effect is reflected in the 205Tl line shape measured in a magnetic field of 1.17 T and becomes much more pronounced in the measurements made in high magnetic field of 8 T. Detailed analysis of the 13C and 205Tl NMR spectral lineshapes has been done using our computer program specially developed for the case. Spectra simulations allow determining degree of the particles’ alignment and chemical shielding anisotropy parameters in the studied compounds.
Dr. Alexander M. Panich is a Senior Research Scientist at the Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. He has published 140 papers in peer-reviewed journals, one monograph, 4 book chapters, and presented 146 papers at international conferences. His current research is mainly focuses on investigation of nanomaterials and low-dimensional compounds using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, also involving EPR, XPS, XRD and magnetic measurements. He is a member of editorial board of two scientific journals and a reviewer of a number of the leading physical and materials science journals.
We study nonlinear aspects of the deterministic spin dynamics of an anisotropic single-domain magnetic particle in the presence of a time-dependent magnetic field.At zero temperature the system is modeled by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The dynamical behavior of the system is characterized with the Lyapunov exponents and by means of bifurcation diagrams and Fourier spectra. We focus on two cases of the magnetic field: firstly when it has a harmonic modulation [1–3] and later when it has a quasi-periodic one .When the time dependence is periodic on time,we explore the effects of the magnitude and frequency of the applied magnetic field, finding that the system presents multiple transitions between regular and chaotic states when varying the control parameters [1,2]. Furthermore,we find an intricate distribution of shrimp-shaped regular island embedded in wide chaotic phases .In the case of quasi-periodic modulation, we show that the system also exhibits strange nonchaotic attractors .Moreover, we study the case of finite temperature. In such situation, the system is modeled by the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation.We evidence that the temperature dependence plays an essential role in transitions from regular to chaotic states. In fact, the chaotic behavior is almost suppressing the close to the Curie temperature . Finally, we find that the system has hyperchaotic states for specific values of field and temperature.
Dr.David Laroze is Full Professor and Director of the Mathematical Modeling Laboratory at the University of Tarapacá. Also, he holds an Occasional professorship at Yachay Tech University.He has published more than 100 manuscripts in journals and conference proceedings, including 88 papers in journals indexed in the Web of Science – Journal Citation Reports. Dr. David has participated in the scientific and in the organized committee of conferences and serves as a reviewer in many international journals.He is interested on nonlinear phenomena, magnetism, radiation problems, hydrodynamic instabilities, and thermal and electronic transport in quantum systems.
Understanding and development of novel magnetic materials is very important for many modern technologies such as hybrid vehicles, power electronics, wind energy, magnetic read head devices, and may soon become a foundation for energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly magnetic cooling for consumer use. Research interest lies primarily in magnetism, and magnetic materials that exhibit an extraordinarily strong responsiveness to external stimuli, such as magnetic field, pressure, or temperature thereby materials exhibit interesting magnetostrictive, magnetoresistive, and magnetocaloric behavior. Traditional magnetic properties have been obtained by using spins in ground states through molecular, morphological, and dimensional controls. However, integrating magnetic properties with optics and electronics have become an emerging area necessary for developing spin-controllable optics and electronics to advance sensing, detection, and renewable-energy applications. The possibility of synergistic interactions between magnetic, electronic, and optic effects may provide new properties and application potential. The approach for developing novel nano-magnetic materials will use significant spin coupling in nanomaterials or in molecular excited states under optical or electrical excitation to generate strong magnetic properties and magnetically controllable multiple functions. A new energy paradigm, consisting of greater reliance on renewable energy sources and increased concern for energy efficiency in the total energy lifecycle, has accelerated research into energy-related technologies. Due to their ubiquity, magnetic materials play an important role in improving the efficiency and performance of devices in electric power generation, conditioning, conversion, transportation, and other energy-use sectors of the economy.
Dr. Chintakindi Sanjay is currently Dean and Principal at GITAM university, India. He is a certified Corporate Director of World Council for Corporate Governance, UK and visited most of the South Asian Countries for Research and presenting papers.He has more than 24 years of experience in Industry, Research and Teaching and had worked four years as a Associate Professor of Manufacturing Engineering and Management at Government Universities in Malaysia and Singapore. He was a key note speaker for more than 40 international conferences and a member of advisory and technical committee for 60 international conferences and organized 65 international conferences. He is member, Editorial Board and Reviewer for more than 20 international journals. He has to his credit 4 books published by reputed publishers and authored more than 60 research papers and published in peer reviewed and indexed journals and conference proceedings. He is recipient of many International and National awards such as Academic Excellence, Research Excellence,Best Engineer, Best Principal award, Best Academic Administrator, Education leadership and Engineers Educator award.
This paper presents a thermal and flow analysis of an unsteady squeezing nanofluid flow and heat transfer using nanofluid based on Brinkman model in presence of variable magnetic field. Galerkin Method (GM) is used to solve the nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. Squeezing flow between parallel plates are very applicable in many industries and it means that one or both of the parallel plates have vacillation. The effects of active parameters such as the Hartman number, squeeze number and heat source parameter are discussed. Results for temperature distribution and velocity profile, Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient by Galerkin Method (GM) are presented. As can be seen in results, the values of Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient for CuO is better than Al2O3’s. Also, according to figures, as nanofluid volume fraction increases, Nusselt number increases and skin friction coefficient decreases, increase in the Hartman number results in an increase in velocity and temperature profiles and an increase in squeeze number can be associated with the decrease in the velocity.
Will be updated soon.
In Power Electronics, Predictive Current control (PCC) and Predictive Torque control (PTC) methods are advanced control strategy. To control a Permanent Magnet Synchronous motor machine (PMSM), the predictive torque control (PTC) method evaluates the stator flux and electromagnetic torque in the cost function and Predictive Current control (PCC) considers the errors between the current reference and the measured current in the cost function. The switching vector selected for the use in IGBTs minimizes the error between the references and the predicted values. Both the PTC and PCC methods are most useful direct control methods with PMSM method gives 10% to 30% more torque than an induction motor. Induction motor work on only lagging power factor means it can produce only 70-90% of torque produced by PMSM with same current. The PCC method with 15-level H-bridge multilevel inverter using PMSM reduces 66% more THD in torque and 27% more THD in stator current compared to the PCC method with 2-level VSI using induction motor similarly also 58% more THD in torque and 60% more THD in stator current with PTC method compare to the 2-level VSI using induction motor. Switching losses are minimized because the transistors are only switched when it is needed to keep torque and flux within their bounds. The switching pattern of semiconductor switches used to get better performance of multilevel inverter. In this paper, the PTC and PCC methods with 15-level H-bridge multilevel inverter are carried out experimentally for an IM; gives excellent torque and flux responses, robust, and stable operation achieved compared to the PTC and PCC methods with 2-level voltage source inverter. This novel method increases the efficiency of a PMSM by 34% than conventional, attracted the researchers very quickly due to its straightforward algorithm and good performances both in steady and transient states.
Mr.Suraj Rajesh Karpe received his BE degree in Electrical Engineering from PDVVP College of Engineering, Ahmednagar, Pune University. He has completed his Masters in Electrical Machines and Drives from Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, India in 2013. Currently he is working as a Research Scholar, PhD pursuing from Department of Technology, SPPU, Pune, Maharashtra state, India
Nanopowder of substituted manganitessamples was prepared by the sol gel method. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction result shows that the samplesare single-phase with space groupPnma. The result of Hight resolution scanning electron microscopy shows that the grains are homogenous and most of their sizes are lower than 30nm. Magnetic measurements showed that the sample exhibits a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at a Curie temperature. The magnetic entropy change |〖ΔS〗_M^Max |has been deduced by the Maxwell relation method. The maximum value of the magnetic entropy change |〖ΔS〗_M^Max |obtained from the M (H) plot data is found to be considerable for an applied magnetic field of 2 T. At this value of magnetic field the relative cooling power (RCP) is more than 50 J/kg. At low temperature, large change in magnetic entropy has been observed in the sample. The nanopowder can be used for magnetic refrigeration and the composites of such samples should be investigated to increase the RCP of magnetocaloric effect in the industry. Key words:Manganites, X-ray diffraction, Infra red, Isothermal magnetization, Magnetocaloric study
Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ellouze (1968) is full professor in physics at university of sfax,tunia,south afric.And he is specialized in magnetic as well crystallographic field. His also member of the International Center of Diffraction Data (ICCD) USA in metallic and alloys. His is also President of the Maghreb Alexander Von Humboldt Alumni. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ellouze works in department of physics in Sfax University Tunisia. Reviewer in some international journals with impact factor. He has more than 100 papers and 2-chapter book and Chairman of 3 international conferences.
The spin crossover phenomenon in inorganic materials is one of the most spectacular examples of molecular bistability, which means that these molecules may exist in two different electronic states within a certain range of external perturbations. Most notably, the existence of a thermal hysteresis in certain complexes (in the solid state) confers a memory effect on these systems.1-4 we are particularly interested in the synthetic elaboration of nanometric thin films5 and nano-sized patterns6 that we obtain by electron beam lithography and in the application of an external perturbation in the hysteresis loop of spin crossover materials leading to an irreversible switching of their physical properties.4 Besides generating new fundamental knowledge on size-reduction effects and the dynamics of the spin crossover phenomenon, this research aims also at the development of practical applications such as sensors, nano-electronic, photonic, motion and nano-mechanical devices,1-12 In this talk, I will discuss recent work in the field of molecule-based spin crossover materials with a special focus on these emerging issues, including nano-mechanical and spintronic properties.
Will be updated soon
Magnetism applications make important contribution on coastal environment studies. This study proves that field magnetic measurement provides a rapidly and effectively way for deducing the sediment transport on the beach. The sediment transport pathway on the beach could be obtained by analyzing the changes of high resolution magnetic values (κ) with different seasons. This method has been verified by the laboratory magnetic measurements and the Gao-Collins model. Factors that influence the field magnetic measurement results have been analyzed. Keywords—Natural magnetic tracers; Field magnetic measurement; Sediment transport pathway; Beach equilibrium..
Dr.Yonghong Wang is a professor at OCean univeristy of chaina.Wang research intrestes Beach evolution and dynamics. We are interested in equilibrium reestablishment, beach zonation, and hydrodynamic influence before and after beach nourishment using the field measurement regularly and sediment magnetic properties and marine sedimentary environment and environmental magnetism: We focus on the study of magnetic properties to indicate climate change and iron bio-mineralization because sediments with ironmineral are sensitive to many environmental processes.
Stern-Gerlach experiment by free electron is very important experiment in Quantum Physics field because it answered some questions that remain unanswered for almost a century. Some notes in this experiment is the base in physics field. Bohr and Pauli considered its objective observation as impossible while some other scientists considered such observation as possible. The experiment by free electrons has not been conducted so far because the high magnetic field gradient predicted there was thought as impossible to generate, According to historical note. This invention discloses that it is not only possible but also observable using a high vacuum lamp which is deionized well. This invention shows that it is possible to observe the phenomenon using a very sharp pointed magnet and adjusting the voltage in a certain distance from free electron beams. That objective observation requires your consideration of some technical points simultaneously.In this experiment, no electric field and no magnetic field does not change with time. This invention isolated the free electrons on free space and with no any atomic constraint or material bands of energy. Electron Intrinsic Spin Analyzer is designed only for observing the spinning of free electrons. This analyzer comprises a high vacuumed lamp and an electron Gun and a Parallel suppliers for free electrons. It is not such as monitoring systems. Free electron strips shoot to phosphorescent plate regarding some methods in this patent effects of negative ions and neutral atoms will be omitted. When free electron strips goes through magnets which create inhomogeneous (not changing with time) electromagnetic field, electrons with different spins will be separated so the free electron strip converts to two strips which are visible. All voltages and currents are constant (DC).
Hosein Majlesi is a independent physics researcher at Qom University,Iran.He recived honors & awards of Sabalan festival of invention Honorary researcher in Young Researchers And Elite Club (My Old university) Honorary researcher in Azad University (My Old university).
Transition metal based oxides are an evergreen filed of research in the condensed matter physics field. From magnetism point of view these class also exhibits most variety; such as FM, AFM, Ferri, canted AFM, spin glass, spin liquid, spin gap phase, spin state transitions, quantum phase transition etc. 5d based transition metal oxides where both correlation and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and crystal filed splitting are competing, forms a new emerging field of research with huge promise for realizing different novel phase of matter such as Spin liquid, topological phases, quenched magnetism, frustrated ground state etc. These various novel phenomena arise due to interplay of charge, lattice, orbital and spin degrees of freedom, which are governed by the “electrons”. Therefore, understanding of underlying electronic structure behaviour from ab-initio perspective is indispensable for understand the mechanism of the properties and engineering the properties to achieve desired goal in the known materials as well as for the search of new potential candidates. This presentation is devoted to the study of microscopic origin of exciting and intriguing magnetic behaviour complex and novel 3d-5d double perovskite materials, employing density functional theory (DFT) based first principles (ab-initio) electronic structure calculations. We have studied the complex low temperature magnetism of recently synthesized Os based double-perovskite coupled with different 3d elements such as Fe, Co, Sc etc. We found that at low temperature Sr2FeOsO6 and Sr2CoOsO6 show unconventional magnetic phase transitions. Our calculated magnetic exchange interactions [1,2] revealed that strong magnetic frustration due competition among the week short range and strong long range super-exchange interactions causes lattice instability driven two step magnetic phase transition and site specific exotic spin dynamics similar to glassy phase at low temperature. Using first principles calculations, we demonstrate the active role of the nonmagnetic transition metal on dictating magnetic transition temperatures of the recently synthesized Sr2BOsO6 (B=Y, In, Sc) double-perovskite  in terms strong hybridization between nonmagnetic (B) site with the magnetic Os site.
Dr.Sudipta Kanungo is an assistant Professor at Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology,Shibpur,India.Dr.sudipatha research intrestes Spin Orbit Coupling driven Magnetic and Topological phases in 5d transition metal oxides,Spin State Transition and Spin Cross Over phenomena in Organo-metallic framework.
Drug delivery technologies are an important area within biomedicine. Targeted drug delivery aims to reduce the undesired side effects of drug usage by directing or capturing the active agents near a desired site within the body. Herein, a numerical investigation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using aerosol drugs named polystyrene particle (PMS40) in human lung is presented considering one-way coupling on the transport and capture of the magnetic particle. A realistic 3D geometry based on CT scan images is provided for CFD simulation. An external non-uniform magnetic field is applied. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, and magnetic number (Mn) on the deposition efficiency and particle behavior is reported. According to the results, the magnetic field increased deposition efficiency of particles in a target region, the efficiency of deposition and MDT technique has a direct relation with increasing the particle diameter for magnetic number of 1 Tesla (T) and lower (Mn≤1(T)). Also it can be seen that there is an inverse relation between the particle diameter and deposition efficiency when Mn is more than 1 (T).
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Dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) has recently been a major focus of magnetic semiconductor; Nano-semiconductors provide potential advantages than the bulk material. ZnO is one of the important II-VI group semiconductors, intense research is being targeted towards spintronics material such as, including solar cell, room-temperature UV lasers, ceramics and field effect transistors. Transparent conducting DMS materials such as Mn doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by SILAR method. The deposition conditions have been optimized based on their structure and on the formation of smoothness, adherence and stoichiometry. The results of studies by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), EDAX, UV-Visible, Raman and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are reported. The XRD pattern confirms that the ZnO : Mn has wurtzite structure. The interesting morphological variations with dopant concentration are observed and discussed. The Raman spectra recorded for a typical Mn doped ZnO films revealed the characteristic Raman lines with lesser intensities and in conformity with literature. The VSM studies revealed the room temperature Ferromagnetic properties associated with the films. The films quality is comparable with those grown with physical methods and is suitable for spintronic applications. Few DMS materials magnetic properties are also discussed. Keywords: SILAR Method, Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor, Oxide thin films.
Dr.Rathinam Chandramohan is a associate professor at Sree Sevugan Annamalai College,India.His research intrests Noano material synthesis for low cost energy production and material processing and nano struched ceramic coating for high tempreture production.Chandramohan organised many conferecnes.
A research initiative being undertaken to take control of reinforced concrete (RC) columns compressive behavior under the effect of magnetic fields and/or electric currents, in laboratory conditions. Although there have been several research studies dealing with improving concrete properties through using magnetism and electricity, these methods are mainly restricted to utilizing magnetic fields and electric currents in actuators and sensors systems or magnetic treatment of mixed water in concrete. So, the present investigation is to employ these two phenomena, in a different way, to improve properties of concrete structures and to manage their behavior in real time. For this purpose, some small-scale samples of RC columns were prepared and tested under the effect of magnetic field and electric current. All throughout the investigation an alternating magnetic field of 0.5 Tesla (T) of frequency 50 (Hz) was used. As to electricity, specimens were subjected to main electricity with intensities 0, 12, 24, and 36 Ampere (A). Magnetic field was applied to RC columns externally, but electric current was run through reinforcing system of the specimen during compression test. As to the specimens to be exposed to magnetic field, some of them were exposed upon casting concrete into mold, during compaction process, whereas the other group were subjected to magnetic field during compression test. It was observed that magnetizing ready mixed concrete facilitated concrete placing and compaction process due to vibration of the reinforcing bars induced by external alternating magnetic field. But this operation did affect load bearing capacity or other compressive behavior of the columns. Whereas, applying magnetic field to hardened columns led to an increase of 11% in their load bearing capacity, but made them more brittle. On the other hand, subjecting columns to electric current showed that load capacity of column decreases as current intensity is increased, but the column becomes more ductile. Moreover, strength degradation rate of the stress-strain curve as well as column load capacity were derived as functions of current intensity. Finally, it was found that developing this technique can be used in real-time controlling behavior of smart concrete structure, using magnetism and electricity.
Dr.Ali Kheyroddin is an invited Visiting Scholar in the University of Texas at Arlington, USA and Professor of Civil Engineering at Semnan University, Iran.He was the Chancellor of Semnan University for eight years. Ali research interests include analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures, concrete properties, tall buildings, rehabilitation of existing buildings and design of earthquake resistant buildings. He is author of eight books, more than 80 ISI and ISC journal papers and more than 300 conference papers
Nikola Tesla claimed that he could generate power from Earth’s magnetic field. The power of the Tesla coil lies in a process called electromagnetic induction, i.e., a changing magnetic field creates an electric potential that compels current to flow. Earth's magnetic field, extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun. Its magnitude at the Earth's surface ranges is from 25 to 65 Microteslas (0.25 to 0.65 gauss). As we know the magnetic field alone doesn’t create electricity, but a changing in magnetic field does. This energy can be distribute freely and wireless to anyone and even create death rays. Although the static magnetic field can’t transfer energy but in fact the magnetic field of Earth is not static and it changes from day to day and from year to year and even second to second. The changes are small over timescales, but magnetic poles do drift around and the solar wind does perturbed the field and so forth. Here we consider electric power generating from Earth’s rotation through its own non-rotating magnetic field and in the final we run our mini homemade Tesla Coil for a wireless electric potential.
Dr. Bijan Nikouravan is currently as Associate professor of Islamic Azad University (IAU) of Varamin Pishva and also Associate professor of Islamic Azad University (IAU) of Semnan University, Iran.Bijan research activities are in Astronomy, Astrophysics, Earth’s Atmospheric, and Earthquake by Remote Sensing. He has published several papers in conferences, and books on the Astronomy physics, Tensors and its applications in various subjects. He is also Editor and Fellow Member of Journals.
Magnetic properties of ultrathin films are inherently related to the structure and morphology of the films. From the application viewpoint magnetic anisotropy is one of the most important properties of the magnetic materials. Depending on the type of application, e.g., permanent magnets, information storage media or magnetic cores in transformers and magnetic recording heads, material with high, medium or low magnetic anisotropy are required. Therefore, the control of magnetic anisotropy in low dimensional system has emerged as an important topic in the modern magnetism research. Magnetic anisotropy contribution from surface, which is related to the atom coordination at the interface, become more and more important in low dimensional magnetic systems. In this presentation, ion induced nanostructuring will be demonstrated as a powerful method to induce self-organized nanoscale patterns on Si (100) substrate, where nanorippled pattern with controllable length scale varying from a few tens to a few hundreds of nanometer have been produced by controlling the ion energy. These nanopatterned substrates were used asa template for growing magnetic thin film in order to elucidate the anisotropy in the growth process and the subsequent anisotropy in the film morphology so as to induce magnetic anisotropy in the thin film. In-situ magneto-optical Kerr effect and four probe resistivity measurements have been used to study the evolution of the hysteresis loop with film thickness. A clear anisotropy in the growth behavior along and normal to the ripples has been observed, resulting in preferential coalescence of islands normal to the ripple wave vector. A preferential orientation of c-axis along the ripple wave vector was observed, which will found be a result of minimization of magnetoelastic and anisotropic energies in the presence of internal stresses. Magnetic properties of ultrathin films are inherently related to the structure and morphology of the films. From the application viewpoint magnetic anisotropy is one of the most important properties of the magnetic materials. Depending on the type of application, e.g., permanent magnets, information storage media or magnetic cores in transformers and magnetic recording heads, material with high, medium or low magnetic anisotropy are required. Therefore, the control of magnetic anisotropy in low dimensional system has emerged as an important topic in the modern magnetism research. Magnetic anisotropy contribution from surface, which is related to the atom coordination at the interface, become more and more important in low dimensional magnetic systems. In this presentation, ion induced nanostructuring will be demonstrated as a powerful method to induce self-organized nanoscale patterns on Si (100) substrate, where nanorippled pattern with controllable length scale varying from a few tens to a few hundreds of nanometer have been produced by controlling the ion energy. These nanopatterned substrates were used asa template for growing magnetic thin film in order to elucidate the anisotropy in the growth process and the subsequent anisotropy in the film morphology so as to induce magnetic anisotropy in the thin film. In-situ magneto-optical Kerr effect and four probe resistivity measurements have been used to study the evolution of the hysteresis loop with film thickness. A clear anisotropy in the growth behavior along and normal to the ripples has been observed, resulting in preferential coalescence of islands normal to the ripple wave vector. A preferential orientation of c-axis along the ripple wave vector was observed, which will found be a result of minimization of magnetoelastic and anisotropic energies in the presence of internal stresses.
Dr.Dileep K. Gupta is a scientist at In-situ thin film Lab,India.Dileep research intrestes Magneto optical Kerr effect,Magnetoresistance,Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED).
Germanene, two-dimensional (2D) germanium (Ge) counterpart of hexagonal graphene, has been synthesized recently in 2014 . Although germanene exhibits Dirac cone features just like graphene, but in contrast to graphene, this new 2D material favours a buckled conformation rather than a planar one . Fascinating and unconventional electronic and optical properties of germanene manifests its potential device applications in nano-industry. So, germanene demands a major research concern in recent time after graphene and silicene. In this present investigation, we have expolred about induction of magnetism in non-magnetic free standing (FS) germanene involving density functional theory (DFT) . Foreign elements like arsenic (As), gallium (Ga), beryllium (Be), carbon (C) and silicon (Si) are added in bare germanene at same or different sub-lattice sites and doping concentrations are increased upto 18.75%. Moreover, voids are also introduced along with doping in pristine layer. Our results have revealed that, due to incorporation of As at same sub-lattice positions with 6.25% doping concentration tranforms semimetallic germanene as a semiconducting one and induces a small magnetic moment ~ 0.23 μB in germanene . It has also been showed that, germanene acquires a magnetic moment ~ 0.39 μB due to incorporation of Be with 18.75% concentration . However, 18.75% C doped germanene exhibits a significant magnetism with magnetic moment ~ 4.04 μB . Magnetism in defected FS germanene has been explained by projected density of states (PDOS) analysis of these configuratios. We expect our present work will motivate researchers to investigate more about germanene and may help to design nano-devices based on graphene beyond elements in upcoming future.
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