Nature used two processes, bottoms- up and top- down, to create starting from black hole to solar systems. Recently, by mimicking Nature, scientist created God Particles. Following Nature’s creations and using science of biomimitics many nanomaterials were designed. Perception of the forms and functions of cellulose architectures in biological systems, recently made multipotential nanocellulose aerogels used for cleaning up oil spills to helping create products such as sensors for detecting environmental pollution, miniaturized military robots, and even children's toys and super-buoyant beach floats. The architecture, dynamics and mechanics of cellulose inspired many nanotechnologist to use cellulose nanofibers and play with the properties to put it for various uses. Bacterial cellulose for skin tissue repair materials, for artificial blood vessel applications etc. Cellulose based scaffolds used for tissue engineering (cartilage) and organ regeneration and biomedical implants. Cellulose nanofibers from elephant and cow manure for sustainably making paper. Inspired by bones and bamboos, tougher metal materials were made. Polar bear hair inspired for enhanced thermal textile, fly's incredible hearing for developing better hearing aids, jellyfish-inspired electronic skin glows when it gets hart. A nano-engineered texture based on the fuzzy leaves to devise self-cleaning glass and a mesh that separates oil from water was designed. Nature’s wonders were translated by nanotechnologists in many ways for use for mankind,
Gupta P D was associated with many prestigious institutions in India (AIIMS, New Delhi, CCMB, Hyderabad) and abroad (Canada, USA, Thailand, England, Japan, France, Czech, Germany, Bulgaria) in various capacities. He is fellow of many Indian and foreign academies and learned societies. He has delivered guest lectures and public lectures in 60 countries. He has established 2 research institutions; on Cataract (Ahmadabad) and Aging Research (Rajkot) in India. Three foreign Post-Doctoral fellows worked along with him in India. He has guided PhD students in seven different subjects including Mechanical Engineering. He has also developed many new techniques and got 4 patents to his credit. He has published more than 250 papers and 22 books and many popular science articles; many of which were translated into Indian and foreign languages. He has received Best Invention and Lifetime Achievement Awards. His life sketch is published in “Marquis Who’s Who” in the world.
“Nanosheets (NS)” are plate-like particles with thickness of a few nanometers, and are prepared by delamination of layer-structured compounds. They are restacked to particles by an addition of appropriate interlayer cations or to thin films by several deposition methods. Microstructures of NS-restacked particles/films are controllable in a wide range from very porous particles to sheet-oriented dense films, depending on the restacking method and their conditions. NS-restacked particles/films exhibit ionic or ionic/electronic-mixed conduction properties as in the original layer-structured materials. Accordingly, NS-derived materials are promising candidates for applications into energy-related devices. In the talk, several examples of NS-derived materials / devices are introduced. Proton-conducting polymer / nanosheet composite membranes, consisting of sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and layered tin phosphate hydrate, showed high proton conductivities in intermediate-temperature range up to 160ºC, which is applicable for the electrolyte of intermediate-temperature fuel cells. Most of NS-restacked particles have high specific surface area up to 60 m2/g. This leads to high rate properties of electrochemical capacitors and batteries with electrodes using NS-restacked particles. All-solid electrochemical capacitors and batteries can be fabricated by using NS-restacked thin films. Stable charge/discharge properties were confirmed in the cell with RuO2 and/or Hx(Ni1/2Co1/4Mn1/4)O2 (NCM) for electrodes, and Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) for a solid electrolyte. Interestingly, their capacities were maintained almost unchanged even under bent state with a bending radius of 3 mm. This flexible property is very important for the use in portable/wearable devices.
Dr. Masaru Miyayama is a professor of Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. He got his B. Eng. in 1977 and M. Eng. in 1979 and Doctor’s degree in 1987 on functional ceramic materials, all from The University of Tokyo. He was promoted to a full professor of The University of Tokyo in 2001. His research interests include ferroelectric, conducting and electrochemical properties of oxide-based materials, and materials design through nanostructure control and defect engineering. He is a fellow of The Ceramic Society of Japan.
To get homogeneous nanoparticles (NPs), the protein (apoferritin) cavity has been utilized as a reaction chamber. Protein shells served as a template to restrain particle growth and as a coating to prevent coagulation between NPs. Apoferritin is an iron storage protein found in many biological species, known to mineralize several metal ions in vitro. It is a hollow, spherical protein composed of 24 subunits (L-chain and H-chain), with outer and inner diameters of 13 nm and 7.4 nm, respectively. Here we report synthesis of magnetite crystal (Fe3O4) nanoparticle in the apoferritin cavity. Magnetite consititing apoferritin is known as magnetoferritin , and its magnetic properties and apprications were reported many times [2, 3]. However, crystalitiy of these nanoparticles were not exactry controlled. Native horse spleen ferritin (containds about 15% of H-chain) or recombinat human H-ferritin were used for these experiments. H-chain has Fe(II) oxidation site and thus oxidation occurs very quickly at each oxidation site in the cavity. In this reason, synthesized nanoparticles were amorphous or polycrystalline. We have used recombinant L-chain apoferritin which lacked Fe(II) oxidation site and oxidation proceeds slowly. Utilizing slow oxidation process and magnetic-column chromatography purification process, we succeeded to obtain magnetite NPs with nearly single crystal domain which expected to have high T2 relaxivity in MRI and high efficiency for hyperthermia therapy.  Sience, F. C. Meldrum et. al., 257, 522-523 (1992).  Science, S. Gider et. al., 268, 77-80 (1995).  J. Am.Chem. Soc., M. Uchida et.al., 128, 16626-16633 (2006).
Dr. Yoshimura has completed his Ph.D in 1982 from Nagoya University and postdoctoral studies in Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). He moved to Biometrology Lab. in JEOL Ltd., as a Research staff in 1984. He was also joining JRDC, ERATO NAGAYAMA Protein Array Project from 1990 to 1995, as a manager of Array Characterization Group. After 1995, he moved to Meiji University, Department of Physics, as an associate Professor. He promoted to Professor in 2000 at the same department. His current interests are development of an X-ray microscope for biology and synthesis of nanoparticles utilizing protein function.
Multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures have enormous potential in the treatment of solid tumors; however, tracking particles with drug cargo and triggering the release of the cargo in mapped tumors is still impossible. To overcome this challenge we have developed an MRI and fluorescent active nanostructure nanomatryoshka. This new nanostructure with IR plasmonic signatures is composed of a 50 nm Au core surrounded by dye molecules and Gd(III)-DOTA chelate doped SiO2 inner-shell and an outer Au shell. The experimental results demonstrates an enhanced T1 relaxation (r1 ~ 24 mM-1 s-1 at 4.7 T) compared to the clinical Gd(III)-DOTA chelating agents (r1 ~ 4 mM-1 s-1). Further, this design preserves the fluorescence signal (65%) after 24 hours of exposure, leading to enahanced fluorescence photostability (23x). This dual-imaging functionality nanosystem increases MRI sensitivity by concentrating Gd(III) ions into the Gd-NMs, reduces the potential toxicity of Gd(III) ions and dye molecules by preventing their release in vivo through the outer Au shell protection, and the terminal gold layer surface can then be functionalized to increase cellular uptake, circulation time, or thermal drug-release properties
Oara Neumann is the J. Evans Atwell-Welch Research Scientist at Rice University (a fully funded, endowed research scientist position at the university). She has completed her PhD and Postdoctoral study in Applied Physics at Rice University, an MSc in Chemical Physics from Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel and a MSc in Analytical Chemistry from Bucharest University, Romania. She is the pioneer of nanoparticle-based solar thermal applications. She holds 12 patents and she has published more than 24 refereed articles and has an h-index of 16.
Carbon nanodots (CNDs) are easy-to-prepare nanoparticles obtained from almost any carbon source, even food [ ]. These nanoparticles, with sizes less than 10 nm, show interesting tunable photoluminesce, resistence to photobleaching, easy functionalization and low toxicity, which make them an attractive green alternative in multiple applications to other luminescent nanoparticles such as semiconductor metal-based quantum dots [ ]. In this lecture we will survey an easy and efficient route to synthesize highly luminescent CNDs with different optical properties by hydrothermal treatment of gluthation. Their different surface functional groups, allowed facily engineering their surface [ ] for dedicated applications. Representative examples of functional gluthation-CNDs will be highlighted along with results from various sensing, tribological, drug-delivery and bioimaging applications. Finally, the ongoing trends in CNDs, opportunities and challenges, will be briefly outlined.
Rapid technological advances in the fabrication and exploitation of artiﬁcial materials with thin layers offers novel possibilities for controlling the behaviour of applied electromagnetic ﬁelds. An analytic mathematical formulation of such matter-ﬁeld systems becomes feasible if one treats such thin layers as 2-dimensional interfaces across which the bulk electromagnetic constitutive properties and the electromagnetic ﬁelds that enter into Maxwell’s macroscopic equations exhibit discontinuities. Within such a framework one may contemplate the properties of meta-surfaces with controllable constitutive properties as well as fabricated bulk meta-materials. In this talk I present work done in collaboration with D Christie on an analytic analysis of Maxwell’s macroscopic equations in media with a single interface using a complex plane-fronted ﬁeld representation pioneered by Clemmow in 1966. In particular I present solutions for a structure composed of distinct homogeneous (possibly dispersive) materials separated by a materially homogeneous planar interface that may possess a (possibly dispersive, anisotropic) interfacial admittance tensor. I present the results of computations involving plane-fronted surface Plasmon-Polariton modes and plane-fronted Brewster modes, some of which are based on recently measured properties of monolayer graphene to illustrate the signiﬁcant effects resulting from the presence of an interface with surface admittance. My summary will emphasize the utility of a geometric analytic approach to more general meta-material conﬁgurations that possess tunable surface admittance characteristics
Robin W Tucker is Emeritus Professor of Mathematical Physics at Lancaster University, UK, where he has been since 1972. He is a founder member of the Cockcroft Institute and Fellow of the UK Institute of Physics. He received his B.Sc, M.A. from Cambridge University in 1964, and his PhD from Cambridge University in 1968. He was an invited scientist at Ames Laboratory, Iowa 1978, University of Helsinki 1979 and the University of Newcastle, NSW Australia 1988. He has served as a member of the Physical Sciences Working group in ESA, is a member of the ESA Fundamental Science (ESF) Pool of reviewer and has collaborated with industrial research programs for Bae Systems, BP and Orcina UK.
Semiconductor superlattices (SLs) comprise multiple alternating layers of different semiconductor materials, which produces a periodic modulation of the conduction band. This creates a tunable, quantum mechanical environment suitable for the realization of the so-called Bloch gain, which can be used for the generation of THz waves. However, the same quantum mechanisms that induce the Bloch gain result in electric instability leading to the formation of moving high-field charge domains. The talk will review some of our recent theoretical and experimental results on utilization of the moving charge domains for the generation of high-frequency current oscillations and amplification of sub-THz/THz signals. In particular, we will discuss the enhancement of high-frequency generation in the presence of a tilted magnetic field , generation of microwave chaos in a SL coupled to a resonator , microwave output from electromagnetically coupled SLs , and amplification of sub-THz/THz signals on the moving charge domains .  N. Alexeeva et al, PRL 109, 024102 (2012).  A. E. Hramov et al, PRL 112, 116603 (2014).  M. B. Gaifullin et al, Phys. Rev App. 7, 044024 (2017).  V. V. Makarov et al, App. Phys. Lett. 106, 043503 (2015
Alexander Balanov is Senior Lecturer and Research Coordinator (Physics) at Loughborough University, UK. He also currently has a position of Senior Invited Researcher in Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, Russia. He has more than 100 research publications in areas of nonlinear dynamics of classical and quantum systems, control theory, stochastic phenomena and time series analysis. His recent research is mostly focused on nonlinear phenomena in solid state physics.
Evaporation of droplet is a very common phenomenon in nature. The earliest study can be traced back to 1890, where Maxwell investigated the evaporating process of a mercury droplet and proposed a simplified analytical solution to predict the diffusion of mercury molecular in surrounding air. Up to today, numerous applications have been developed based on the transport from an evaporating sessile droplet, such as self-assembled deposition and surface coating, inkjet printing, phase change cooling, microfluidic control, to name a few. Proper design of droplet-based applications demands in-depth understanding of the underlying transport mechanisms to accurately predict the global and local evaporation characteristics. However, evaporation of sessile droplet is a very complex problem. This review summarizes current state-of-the-art contributions in the fundamental of droplet evaporation, and reveals the important physical factors coupled in the evaporating process, e.g., diffusion of vapor in surrounding air, latent heat absorbed by the evaporation and temperature drop along the liquid-air interface, fluid flows induced by buoyancy or surface tension force, wettability of the solid substrate, and conjugated heat transfer of the droplet, solid substrate and surrounding air. Then, typical applications based on evaporation of sessile droplet are introduced and the key parameters that influence the effectiveness and efficiency of these applications are highlighted.
Zhenhai Pan is an Associate Professor of the School of Mechanical Engineering at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. from Peking University in 2007 and 2012 respectively. His research interests include interfacial phenomenon and multiphase flow, phase change heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. Dr. Pan was appointed as a Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning in 2017.
Detection and separation and of residual hazardous compound viz. organic dyes, pesticides, metal ions or small organic molecules in environmental or biological fluids has directly related to human health in term of their side effects. Biological fluid and environmental samples with complex matrix which containing mentioned compounds at trace level need efficient technique to be able for preconcentration and clean-up of real sample concurrently before their instrumental analysis. In this regard, technique based on nano structure materials due to higher available surface area and also larger member of reactive sites are good choice to improve characteristic performance of analytical method. Combination of such purpose with size of chemical reagent led to more progress in method performance. Therefore, molecularly/ion imprinted polymers (MIPs or IIPs) are promising sorbent materials for isolation various compounds because of their high capacity, low cost of preparation and high selectivity with target molecules/ions. On the other hand, nano-based photo photocatalysts are versatile materials which intelligently applied at the service of water treatment technique by using solar or light as power source while other class of nano-materials could efficiency adsorbed water pollutions owing to high binding capacity, fast binding kinetic, low cost, and high functionality. In addition, nano materials successfully applied in various filed including drug delivery, electrochemical sensors, and hydrogen storage, recently.
Mehrorang Ghaedi was born in Nourabad Mamassani, Iran, in March 1974. He received the B.Sc. degree in applied chemistry from the University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran, the M.Sc. degree in analytical chemistry from Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, and the Ph.D. degree in analytical chemistry from the University of Isfahan, in 1996, 1999, and 2003, respectively. He is currently a Professor of analytical chemistry with Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran. He is engaged in research on separation methods, potentiometric study on complexation, and sensor fabrication. He has authored or coauthored more than 350 scientific papers published in scientific journals. He has directed more than 200 M.Sc. theses in analytical chemistry. He is a referee of more than 200 scientific journals. His research activities are Solid Phase Extraction Method, Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Transport of ions thorough liquid membrane, Cloud Point extraction, Sensor Fabrication, Adsorptive Stripping Analysis, Cyclic Voltammetry, Spectrophotometry In Surfactant Media, water treatment. He has a membership in Iranian chemical society. His interest of research in various fields such as Experimental design , Dispersive based extraction , Solid Phase (micro) Extraction Method , Material synthesis , Material characterization , Carbon based material, Metal organic frameworks , Molecular and ion imprinted polymers , Liquid-Liquid Extraction , Transport of ions thorough liquid membrane, Cloud Point extraction, Electrochemical and optical Sensor Fabrication , Adsorptive Stripping Analysis , Cyclic Voltammetry , Spectrophotometry In Surfactant Media, Trace Analysis , Water Treatment , Photocatalytic decomposition , Low band gap materials, Nanostructures and porous materials , Green chemistry. He has been awarded as rank 5 best researches of iran in nanotechnology in the year 2016 and Best researcher of Yasouj university in the year of 2015. Selected as 1% of best researchers in Iran and word of ISI Thomson reterrs and selected as 1675 highly cited researches in world and 5 highly cited researches in Iran in the year of 2014.
Kenji Uchino, one of the pioneers in piezoelectric actuators, is Founding Director of International Center for Actuators and Transducers and Professor of EE and MatSE at Penn State University. He was Associate Director (Global Technology Awareness) at The US Office of Naval Research – Global Tokyo Office (2010-2014). He was also the Founder and Senior Vice President of Micromechatronics Inc., State College, PA (2004-20010). He became Research Associate/Assistant Professor (1976) in Physical Electronics Department at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, then, joined Sophia University, Japan as Associate Professor in Physics Department in 1985. He was recruited from The Penn State University in 1991. He was the Founding Chair of Smart Actuators/Sensors Committee, Japan Technology Transfer Association sponsored by Ministry of Economics, Trading and Industries, Japan (1987-2014), and is a long-term Chair of International Conference on New Actuators, Messe Bremen, Germany since 1997. His research interest is in solid state physics, especially in ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics, including basic research on theory, materials, device designing and fabrication processes, as well as application development of solid state actuators/sensors for precision positioners, micro-robotics, ultrasonic motors, smart structures, piezoelectric transformers and energy harvesting. K. Uchino is known as the discoverer/inventor of the following topics: (1) lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based electrostricive materials, (2) cofired multilayer piezoelectric actuators (MLA), (3) superior piezoelectricity in relaxor-lead titanate-based piezoelectric single crystals (PZN-PT), (4) photostrictive phenomenon, (5) shape memory ceramics, (6) magnetoelectric composite sensors, (7) transient response control scheme of piezoelectric actuators (Pulse-Drive technique), (8) micro ultrasonic motors, (9) multilayer disk piezoelectric transformers, and (10) piezoelectric loss characterization methodology. He has authored 570 papers, 75 books and 31 patents in the ceramic actuator area. He is a Fellow of American Ceramic Society since 1997, a Fellow of IEEE since 2012, and also is a recipient of 29 awards, including Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE UFFC Society (2018), International Ceramic Award from Global Academy of Ceramics (2016), IEEE-UFFC Ferroelectrics Recognition Award (2013), Inventor Award from Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems, Virginia Tech (2011), Premier Research Award from The Penn State Engineering Alumni Society (2011).
In situ observation of solid materials at high temperature over 1000 K is an important challenge because the structural changes and chemical reactions of various industrial ceramics occur in this temperature range. The physical and chemical properties of materials that are used at high temperature depend on the crystal structures caused by phase transitions and corrosions etc. However, the measurable region of temperature is limited in the conventional Stokes-Raman spectroscopy using visible (VIS) region excitation. A major difficulty in measuring Raman spectra at high temperatures is that relatively weak Raman scattering is faded in the intense, continuous background due to thermal emission, which rises steeply to longer wavelength. To diminish the strong thermal emission, which hampers experiment at high temperature, the Raman scattering should be shifted to lower wavelength position away from the intense peak by the thermal emission. For that purpose, we had already successfully demonstrated that (1) The effect of the thermal background can be eminently attenuated by using ultraviolet (UV) excitation plus (2) anti-Stokes Raman scattering, whose wavelength is shorter than that of Stokes, is even more suitable for high-temperature measurements. A UV Raman system had achieved the improvement high-temperature limit over 2000 K. In this study, I have designed a more handy ultraviolet Raman spectroscopic system for in situ measurements at high temperatures in the region of low frequency, in cooperation with Photon Design Corporation. The system includes the following components: (a) If using a laser with a frequency of not more than 350 nm, there is difficulty to adjust the focus in the UV region because focal points are different between UV and VIS regions. Thus, I use a laser with a frequency of 355 nm (3rd-YAG) for UV excitation. Another laser with 532 nm (2nd-YAG) is also equipped for VIS excitation. (b) The system equips two kinds of sample compartments with each laser spot size of 100 µm (macro) and 1 µm (micro) at each sample point. A spatial filter is placed between each sample compartment and the incident slit of a monochrometor (rigorously confocal optical system) to exclude the thermal emission from outside of the sample. (c) A triple spectrometer, not only a single monochrometor but also a pre-monochrometor, is equipped for measurement in the region of low frequency. When using a usual left/right symmetrical type intermediate slit in a pre-monochrometor, the incident angle to a grating has to be changed with an increase in Rayleigh scattered light, which leads to the variation in efficiency of the grating. Therefore, our pre-monochrometor has a right/left independently movable type intermediate slit so as to well compare Raman spectra among different temperatures. Moreover, a notch pin in the pre-monochrometor enables us to measure simultaneously both Stokes and anti-Stokes spectra.
Hirotaka Fujimori is an Associate Professor at Yamaguchi University, Japan since 2004. He earned his Dr. Sc. degree at Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1997. He was a research fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) in 1997 and was a postdoctoral fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology during 2001-2002. He received “Racquel LeGeros Award” from International Society for Ceramics in Medicine (ISCM) at France in 2013, “The MSL Director's Awards, Recognized Research Potential” from Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2007, "CerSJ Awards for advancements in ceramic science and technology" from The Ceramic Society of Japan (CerSJ) in 2004, and “Award for Encouragement of Research in Materials Science” from The Materials Research Society of Japan (MRS-J) in 1992. Moreover, he was awarded by ICDD in Pennsylvania in 2001 in recognition of a significant contribution of 3 patterns to ICDD-JCPDF.
The actual needs on analytical devices points towards small, portable and user-friendly devices. One of the most popular platforms is the pregnancy test, based on the detection of the hCG hormone by lateral flow immunoassays. Sensitivity requirements and the need for quantification limit at present the development of those tests to the determination of other proteins or analytes of interest in the biomedical field. Both aspects can be overcome by the use of different nanoparticles. The visual signal was improved one order of magnitude by means of silver or gold enhancement, and combination of those metallic nanoparticles. Very sensitive optical detectors, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Resonance Spectrometry allowed lowering the limit of detection down to 1pg/mL of a pneumonia biomarker when using core shell Au@Ag nanoparticles. Iron oxide nanoparticles with magnetic properties combine advantages such as preconcentration and transduction. This work will show examples of tests developed with those systems and applied to the quantification of biomarkers and allergenics
This research focuses on the environmentally safe approach of synthesizing binary metal oxide nanoparticles of ZnWO4 via green natural extracts of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis. The biosynthesis approach is easy and cost effective because bioactive compounds chelate and reduce metal oxides to form binary metal oxide nanoparticles. Photocatalysis has been regarded both as a green low-cost technology for degrading of organic pollutants by changing them into non-toxic chemicals and as a promising alternative process for photovoltaic cells. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy (EM) were used to characterize the phase, oxidation state, composites, and morphology. Direct energy gap ZnWO4 nanoparticles were determined by UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In this research ZnWO4 will evaluate photodegradation performance of methylene blue (MB) and methylene orange (MO) under UV light irradiation.The results indicated that as prepared ZnWO4 was highly effective for the degradation of methylene blue and methylene orange. The degradation rate of MB reached 98.03 % after 120 min and MO reached 96.07 % after 150 min of UV illumination. The properties of ZnWO4 nanoparticulate electrodes was interrogated electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electro analysis of nanoparticles was included in the determination of charge transfer characteristics, redox potentials, Randel Sevcik distribution, standard current densities and conductivity. Impedimetric studies that included nyquist modelling of cell responses to suitable equivalent circle and also the determination of the Bode electronic profile and frequency modulation of the reactivity of the electrode systems. References:  H. Kisch, Semiconductor photocatalysis-mechanistic and synthetic aspects, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52 (2013) 812–847.  M.R. Hoffmann, S.T. Martin, W. Choi, D.W. Bahnemann, Environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, Chem. Rev. 95 (1995) 69–96.
Novel Au-BINOL hybrid nanocomposites have been synthesized using a chemical approach via one pot strategical procedure. (±)-1, 1´-Bi (2-naphthol) (BINOL), the organic moiety of the hybrid structure acts as a reducing agent that converts Au (III) to Au (0). One of the key point of thisproject is the dual behavior of BINOL, where it is oxidized to form Naphthofuranoquinones that leads to simultaneous reduction of Au (III) to Au (0) and the BINOL dissolved in ethanol, water (1:1 ratio), exhibits solvent-antisolvent precipitation phenomenon, where it precipitates to participate in the formation of the hybrid with Au seed. By tuning the concentration of surfactants (CTA+) in the reaction process, the regio control of Au-BINOL hybrid nanocomposites have been achieved. Moreover, the study on reaction kinetics involved during the early reaction time and the critical micelle concentration of CTA+ ions over the BINOL absorption peaks is determined by Time dependent ICPOES and UV spectroscopy. Both the organic and the inorganic components of the hybrid nanomaterial were characterized by using SEM, TEM, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, and HR-MS (EI) analysis. Furthermore, the plausible mechanism of the oxidation process of BINOL to Naphthofuranoquinones is reported with water as an oxidizing agent.
The current research focuses on the green synthesis of magnetic zinc nanoparticles by Azadirachta Indica leaves extract. The techniques involved in extracting morphological and chemical information were Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). pHpzc of the nanocomposites was evaluated to be 6.00. The nanocomposites were employed as high performance adsorbent of an organic pollutant known as Gentian Violet (GV) dye which causes hypertension, queasiness, hemolysis and respiration suffering. The adsorption experiment was designed by Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to evaluate the optimal response which was predicted to be 80.39%. The method was experimentally validated by replicating 9 runs at the predicted Optimum Operating Parameters (OOP) and the results affirmed that the model was significant in predicting the decontamination of aqueous medium from GV dye as the %RSD and % Mean Error were observed to be 1.648% and 2.695% respectively. Normal probability plots affirmed the normal distribution of data around the central line at 95% confidence level. Pareto analysis showed that ultrasonication time (min) was the most significant factor. The ANOVA findings also affirmed the significance of the model. The adsorption equilibrium was studied by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Temkin models. Kinetics of the adsorption was studied by pseudo first order, pseudo second order, Intraparticle diffusion model, and Elovich models. Error analyses were also performed by Pearson regression, χ2, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Error analyses affirmed the appreciable fitting of Freundlich, D-R, and Temkin isotherm models. Also, pseudo second order kinetic model was observed to be followed by the system as indicated by the error analyses. Thermodynamic studies revealed spontaneous nature of adsorption because of positive entropy and negative enthalpy values for the adsorption process. To reuse the adsorbate from the exhausted adsorbent, desorption studies were performed in various media including NaOH, NaCl, and CH3COOH. It was observed that acidic medium was favorable for desorption. The applicability of the adsorption process was assessed in presence of several matrices like LiCl, MgCl2, NaCl, and KCl and it was observed that maximum adsorption took place in presence of low concentration of LiCl salt. Cost analysis was also performed for the adsorption process and the operational cost was observed to be only US$ 97.90 m-3. Hence, the proposed method is an ecofriendly and less expensive method for the environmental remediation purpose. Keywords: Adsorption; ANOVA; Central Composite Design (CCD); Desorption; Nanocomposites; Purification Cost Analysis; Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Salt Effect; Ultrasonication; Waste Water Treatment.
In the present studies, silver-lead-activated carbon (Ag-Pb-AC) nanocomposites were synthesized by Azadirachta Indica leaves extract by sol-gel method. The morphological, structural and spectroscopic studies were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. The Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) used to determine chemical composition. The Ag-Pb-AC nanocomposites were tested for their anticancer and antimicrobial activities and the results conferred that these nanocomposites have anticancer and slight antimicrobial activities. Moreover, they were efficiently utilized as adsorbent for the simultaneous removal of binary dye system of reactive red (RR) and crystal violet (CV) dyes by Ultrasonication assisted adsorption process. The Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed having 5 factors including Time, pH, Amount of Ag–Pb–AC nanocomposite, concentrations of RR and CV. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to study the Optimum Operating Parameters (OOP) for the adsorption process. The OOP for the simultaneous removal of dyes were observed to be 2 min, pH of 3.5, 0.013g of adsorbent, 16mgL-1 concentration of RR and 17mgL-1 concentration of CV dye. Moreover at OOP for RR, the removal of RR and CV were observed to be 75.69% and 66.00% respectively with R2 of the model of 0.8678 and 0.8496 respectively and with RSD of 2.24% and 1.39%. The R2 values of 86.78% and 84.96% for RR and CV adsorption respectively affirmed the fitting of the model. ANOVA also revealed that for both models, P<0.05, which affirmed the significance of the model. The adsorption equilibrium was studied by Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Harkins-Jura Models. The Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models were observed to be followed by the RR-Ag-Pb-AC system while CV-Ag-Pb-AC followed Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Harkins-Jura Isotherm models. For the binary system of dyes, Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were followed by RR-Ag-Pb-AC system while Freundlich, Temkin and Harkins-Jura models were followed by CV-Ag-Pb-AC system. Kinetic studies were performed by pseudo first and second order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich models. The kinetics of adsorption revealed that the system followed pseudo second order kinetics. Thermodynamic studies were performed which affirmed the spontaneity of the process. The mechanism of adsorption was also elucidated. The pHpzc was observed to be 7.23. Cost analysis was performed which revealed that the purification cost was about 48.87US$ m-3. The proposed research can be employed industrially to eradicate the hazards arising due to the presence of dyes in aqueous system. Therefore it will be helpful in minimizing environmentally hazardous contaminants. Keywords: Adsorption; Central Composite Design (CCD); Nanocomposites; Purification Cost Analysis; Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Ultrasonication; Waste Water Treatment; Anticancer and antibacterial efficacy.
Theoretical expressions for performance parameters of different electrochemical capacitors (ECs) were optimized by writing MATLAB scripts to solve them and also via MATLAB R2014a optimization tool box. Performance of different kind of ECs at given circumstances were compared through theoretical equations and simulation of various models subject to conditions of device components, using optimal coefficient associated to battery-kind material and constant associated to electrolyte material and as well as our symmetric electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) experimental data. Estimations of performance parameters were feasible and achievable once details of electrodes mass ratio, operating potential range ratio and specific capacitance of electrolyte are known. Performances of asymmetric EC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using aqueous electrolytes, and that with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using organic electrolyte with appropriate operating potential range and specific capacitance were factors of 2.2 and 5.56, respectively, greater than those of symmetric EDLC and asymmetric EC using the same aqueous electrolyte, respectively. This enhancement came along with reduction in cell mass and volume. Also, storable and deliverable energies of asymmetric EC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using proper organic electrolyte were factor of 12.9 greater than those of symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, with reduction in cell mass and volume. Storable energy, energy density and power density of asymmetric EDLC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using proper organic electrolyte were factor of 5.56 higher than those of similar symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte with reduction in cell mass and volume by a factor 1.77. Also, introduction of asymmetric EDLC with the same type of electrode, and suitable electrodes mass ratio, working potential range ratios and proper organic electrolyte enhanced performance of conventional symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte with reduction in cell mass and volume. These results can obviously reduce number of experiments to determine optimum manufacturing state of EC, and also demonstrated that institution of asymmetric electrode and organic electrolyte was very successful in improving performance of EC with reduction in cell mass and volume. These results can as well be a guideline for design, fabrication and operation of electrochemical capacitor with outstanding storable energy, energy and power densities. Key words: Electrodes symmetry; Modelling and simulation; Performance parameters; Electrolytes type; Working potential range; Asymmetric capacitors.
Addressing the energy shortage in human life, we demonstrate the green and highly efficient synthesis process of advanced nanoparticles. We have developed an environmental friendly, simple, cost effective route toward the synthesis of NPs with enhanced photoelectorcatalysis (water splitting, hydrogen production from renewable resource) performance. The physicochemical features of the as prepared NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen absorption–desorption. The photoelectorcatalysis performance of final NPs was characterized with electrochemical techniques like cyclic volammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Moreover, this simple, low cost, reproducible and environmental friendly synthesis process, reported herein, could be extended to the controlled synthesis of other functional oxide NPs with well-defined morphologies. The ease of the production of these NPs could be scaled up to industrial-scale manufacture for the aforementioned real-world commercial applications. Most importantly we have compared our NPs with commercially available NPs. The prepared NPs possessed superior photoelectrocatalytic water splitting performance (hydrogen production form renewable resource).
Masih Darbandi received his PhD in 2007 from Freiburg University, Germany, where he worked on semiconductor nanoparticles (QDs). Thereafter, he spent several years as a postdoctoral scientist in Bochum, Duisburg-Essen and Uppsala (Sweden) universities working on different topics from MOF to magnetic nanoparticles. In 2012 he moved to USA as senior scientist (staff) working at Vanderbilt and Brown Universities. His research area was ceramic nanoparticles, fabrication and the characterization of freestanding films of ceramic nanoparticles via electrophoretic deposition. During his career he received multiple grants from national and international funding agencies (like NSF, DFG, STINT). Then he joined as faculty member in University of Tabriz, Iran. He is a member of ACS (American chemical society) and RCS (Royal society of chemistry).
With the discovery of new wonder material, graphene, people have been making great effort in measuring its material properties and developing new graphene functional devices, such as actuator, wearable electronic devices, photodetectors, etc. However, little attention has been paid to the application of graphene in thermal sciences. In fact, graphene has ultrahigh thermal conductivity over 3000 Wm-1K-1, one of the highest records up to date. The superior thermal properties of graphene make it a promising potential material in many thermal applications, such as efficient heat spreader, energy harvester, thermal rectifier and smart thermal management. Thermal rectification is a phenomenon that the rate of heat transfer changes when reversing the direction of heat flow. Thermal rectifier is also referred as “thermal diode”, which is the foundation for the future thermally driven computers. Here, the key challenge is how to increase the rectification factor. For carbon nanotube based thermal rectifiers, the rectification factor is only 7%. In this plenary talk, I would like to introduce our new achievements in fabricating high-quality suspended graphene devices and developing efficient graphene thermal rectifiers. To our best knowledge, it is the first experimental demonstration of graphene thermal rectifiers, the highest rectification factor reaches 28%. My talk will be arranged as following: 1. Introduction of graphene and the related graphene functional devices. 2. New method for fabricating suspended graphene devices. 3. Fabrication and property characterization of graphene thermal rectifiers. 4. Discussion and Conclusions. Keywords: Graphene, functional devices, thermal conductivity, thermal rectification.
CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOPARTICLES (CNPs) FORMED IN DILUATED ENVIRONMENTS
New nanomaterials have been synthesized continuously due to the development of nanotechnology, which show a series of greatly different physical properties from their bulk counterparts, making so them to have a great potential application in the physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and life science, nanoelectronics and nanotechnology etc.. For example, tubular metal nanomaterials have their unique optical and electronic properties, making them to have extensive and potential applications in large scale integrate circuit, nanoelectronics, fiber optics and sensor areas. In addition, the new graphene-like materials, e.g., the single layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten disulfide (WS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) etc, have the intrinsic direct band gap, overcoming the basic limitation of the semimetal graphene with a zero band gap, which makes them have promising applications in the nanoelectronic and nano-optoelectronic devices. Therefore, the nanomaterials have attracted so many experimental and theoretical researchers working in different scientific fields, becoming a very hot research topic in the related fields. This talk mainly focuses on the confined growth of tubular metal nanostructures, and the electronic, magnetic and thermal transport properties of the two dimensional (2D) graphene-like materials, such as the h-BN, MoS2, embedded with the line defects and two dimensional silica etc.
Yang has completed his PhD from Nanjing University, China and postdoctoral studies from RWTH Aachen University, Germany and University of Lorraine, France. He is an associate professor in HEU since 2016. He has published 18 papers in reputed journals, with two of them highlighted by editor.
Photoinduced charge transfer (PCT) is largely a ubiquitous event associated with many natural and artificial systems, which is of essential importance in some crucial physical, chemical and biological processes. In particular, PCT plays a vital role in photosynthesis in nature, photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices. In this communication, I should introduce some general issues of the PCT processes. I will then highlight a number of nanostructured material systems that have recently been studied in our group. These systems include graphene-QD hybrid composites , flexible and ultralight metal oxide (MO) papers , photoresponsive core-shell fibers or few-atom-thick MO nanosheets , halide perovskite nanowires , and nanocarbon-thylakoid membrane bioelectrochemical systems . I will finally address current challenges and future perspective regarding possible solutions and new directions.  (a) S. Gan et al. Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 3958-3964; (b) Nan Zhu et al. Sci. Rep. 2015, 5, 09860.  M. Zhang et al. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 3922-3930.  (a) C. Hou et al. Adv. Mater. 2016, 28, 4097-4104; (b) C. Hou et al. Chem. Mater. 2017, 29, 1439-1446.  Y. Tang et al. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2018, in revision.  (a) D. Pankratov et al. ACS Energy Lett. 2017, 2, 2635-2639; (b) G. Pankratova et al. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2018, 1, 319-323.
Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have demonstrated potential for the low cost photovoltaic technology with a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) soaring up to as high as 22.7% of late. The reported high efficiency PSCs are needed high temperature processes because of electron transport layer (ETL) TiO2. The low temperature processed PSCs are needed for the mass commercial production in a roll-toroll process on flexible substrates. Low temperature solution process zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the suitable materials and the solution of low temperature processing of PSCs. However, due to a relatively open, hexagonal close-packed lattice structure of ZnO, its (ZnO’s) unoccupied octahedral sites act as defect states within its bandgap, which act as recombination centres for the photo-generated electrons from the perovskite conduction band and affects the device performance. Low temperature (140 C) spin-coating deposition processes was developed for ETL and optimize the sol-gel ZnO thin-film thickness to improve the device performance. To solve the energetic-disorder induced trap-states in lowtemperature processed ZnO film, both bulk and surface modification of sol-gel ZnO ETL were improved. The bulk modification of ZnO film via metal (Cs, Li) doping passivates the interstitial vacancies in host ZnO lattice matrix. As a form of surface modification, ultraviolet ozone treatment was applied on ZnO surface, which simultaneously passivated the interstitial as well as oxygen vacancy mediated vacancies in ZnO for enhanced device performance. Overall, the fabricated PSCs demonstrate a maximum PCE of 18% and retain about 90% normalized efficiency even after a month of degradation study. Detailed optical, structural and electro-chemical characterizations were conducted to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the enhancement in PCE, stability and photo-current hysteresis in sol-gel ZnO ETL based perovskite devices.
Ashraf Uddin obtained his PhD degree in March 1991 in Semiconductor Physics from the Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. After his PhD he joined at the R&D centre of Toshiba Corporation, Japan and worked on opto-electronic devices and on poly-Si thin film transistor to develop a process technology on glass substrate for the fabrication of flat panel display (LCD type). He worked at the School of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. In NTU we worked on organic light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaics as well as on nano-photonic devices. He has been working in the School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales (UNSW) as an Associate Professor since January 2009. In UNSW he is working on organic and perovskite solar cells. He has published over 200 journal papers and has several patents on semiconductor devices.
The concrete construction industry around the world is heavily depend on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a cementitious material. The current ordinary Portland cement production process comprises crushing and heating limestone or chalk with small amounts of other natural materials, such as clay or shale, in a rotating kiln to a temperature of 1450°C. This process chemically combines the materials into a hard substance called clinker, essentially changing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into calcium oxide (CaO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The carbon dioxide generated by cement production including producing large amount of fine ‘Nano’ particle size amounts to about 0.9 tonnes for every tonne of Portland cement produced. This carbon dioxide output from the cement manufacturing process makes this industry one of the top sources of greenhouse gases in comparison with other manufacturing industries. The study falls into two parts, part one: introduces a ‘Nanotechnology’ for producing a new cementatious materials from waste fly ash by activating various mixtures of industrial waste streams including reducing the particle size to ‘Nano’ size has been developed. The characterization of candidate waste materials and improvement in terms of particle size reduction, higher reactivity through mechano-chemical activation process has been confirmed by analysing particle size distribution (PSD), powder diffraction pattern and compressive strength development. The PSD, chemical composition, colour, strength development profile and failure under load of the composite blend according to the new products show very similar characteristics with conventional cement. The low energy intensive grinding operation (mortar grinder) and optimized blending matrix between selected waste streams enable provision of new secondary cementitious materials [SCM], which can produce 86% - 103% cube compressive strength of an OPC control mix with versatility in terms of its constituents. Part two: covers the development of a novel new cold mix asphalt (CMA] by incorporating the new SCM developed in part one. The ‘nanotechnology’ behind the new SCM, characterization and improvement achieved in the new CMA in terms of reducing the voids content and improving; indirect tensile stiffness, resistance to permanent deformation, fatigue resistance, and durability, make the new CMA materials satisfied the BS and EU practical codes of practices requirements and provided road engineers with confident on the performance of the new materials. When widely adopted, the new SCM and new CMA will not only reduce the utilization of natural minerals and fossil fuel, but also eliminate the burning process in producing conventional cement and the high temperature heating plant normally used by industry to produced conventional hot mix asphalt. This of course will drastically reduce CO2 emission. Cement and pavement mixtures manufacturing costs will be very significantly reduced too. Keywords: nanotechnology in cement production, secondary cementatious materials, Fast curing cold mix asphalt.
Hassan K. Al Nageim is Professor of Structural Engineering and Head of Liverpool Centre for Materials Technology at Liverpool John Moores University, UK, since 2001. During 2014-2015 He was the Dean of Agriculture College, University of Kerbala, Iraq. In 2006-2011 Hassan was Adjunct Dean of the Engineering College, Ghana Polytechnic, Ghana. Professor Al Nageim is a regular speaker and keynote speakers at different national and international conferences and a consultant to companies worldwide in the field of structural design, materials innovations and developments. He has published more than 140 scientific journal and conference papers and two books entitled: Structural Mechanics published by Pearson Education; Steel Structures: Practical Studies published by Taylor and Francis. Professor Al Nageim is also: A Chartered Engineer and a member of the British Engineering Council, the Founder and Chief Editor of the International Journal of Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology, established in 2001, ISSN 1464-8164, the Founder and Chairman of the international annual conference on Pavement Engineering, Asphalt Technology, Sustainable Materials, and Infrastructures, A Fellow of the British Institution of Non-Destructive Testing, UK and a Fellow of the Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation UK. Professor Al Nageim also supervised over 16 successful UK PhD students as a director of studies and external examiners for more than 25 successful PhD students from; Anna University, India,Visvesvaraya Technological University, India, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Italia, Universities of; Nottingham, Greenwich, Portsmouth, Coventry, Salford, Liverpool and Ulster of the UK and University College Dublin. External examiners and advisor for two academic degree courses in Wolverhampton University and the University of Ulster of the UK. Professor Al Nageim has also extensive experience in managing and development of undergraduate and postgraduate courses in; civil engineering, building maintenance management and building surveying at Liverpool John Moores University, UK. Professors Al Nageim also playing a major roles as a member of the strategic planning educational and council memberships committees for two Engineering and Materials Institutions in the UK.
Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD),Singapore