Allicin (3-prop-2-enylsulﬁnylsulfanylprop-1-ene) is a thioester of sulphonic acid, or allyl-thiosulﬁnate. Allicin is the most important and the most active compound present in garlic. It can be synthesized or obtained by extraction of fresh garlic. Because of its instability, the isolation of allicin from garlic has a very complex and difﬁcult process. Generally, allicin and garlic products, although chemically allicin is an oxidizing substance and the thiosulfinate group oxidizes thiols, or more specifically thiolate ions are regarded as having antioxidant properties in nutritional physiology. Allicin has powerful antioxidant activity and cytostatic activity in vitro. Allicin completely shows physiological antioxidant by inducing the cellular phase II detoxification system. The activation of the detoxification pathways by the induction of phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase, epoxide hydrolase, quinone reductase, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, which accelerate the clearance rate of toxic agents. The stabilization and induction of these enzymes may inhibit the metabolic activation of procarcinogens, increase the clearance rate of toxic materials, and become relevant in the anticarcinogenic properties associated with garlic and allyl sulfur components. The use of these natural agents, mainly of dietary origin, early in the many diseases process may retard or prevent the appearance of resistant proliferation process. Keywords: Allicin, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity, Detoxification
Zeliha Selamoglu is a Professor in Medical Biology department of Nigde Ömer Halisdemir University, Turkey. She earned her PhD in Biology from Inonu University, She has published over 90 peerreviewed journal articles with over 760 citations and many technical reports. She is a member of Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine: Associate Membership and European association for cancer research. She has served as Editorial Board member for many Journals. h-index: 14, citations: 760 Research Interest: Antioxidants, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cancer, Molecular Biology, Oxidative stress.
The number of people aged 60 or older is estimated to be 5.6% among Jordanian population, which is lower than the world (12%) elderly population . However, those elderly people need special medical care; since they have a greater prevalence of chronic diseases and therefore subjected to high number of drugs [2, 3]. There are many physiological alterations induced by aging which may have an effect on patient’s response to the drugs. For example, the hepatic metabolism and renal elimination are reduced and the adipose tissue content is increased in elderly people which can influence the pharmacokinetics of the drugs and hence the efficacy and toxicity . It is estimated that more than 40% of adults aged 65 or older use 5 or more medications . As number of medications increase, the potential for drug interactions increases . In addition, some foods and nutrition which elderly people take can alter the response of the drugs. It is reported that grapefruit juice is the most noted of the foods that may interfere drugs response through inhibition of drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 . There is no data about the DDI in elderly patients among Jordanian population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find the prevalence of drug-drug interaction among elderly patients and factors associated with these major drug-drug interactions. Methods: Post graduate students in pharmaceutical science in AlZaytonah University examined prescriptions for patients aged 60 or older and interviewed these patients in several pharmacies and hospitals. The interviews covered factors that may affect the possibility of drug/drug or drug/food interactions including patient’s education level, how many doctors does the patient see, how many drugs does the patient take, does the patient live alone and does the patient take the medication by him self Results: 292 (159 males and 133 females) patients were interviewed and their prescriptions examined, of those 62 (21%) had at least one major drug-drug interaction and 211 (72%) had at least one moderate drug-drug interaction. Factors that were correlated with incidence of major drug-drug interaction include number of physician seen and number of diseases. Conclusion: High incidence of major and moderate drug-drug interaction was found. The odds of finding a major drug-drug interaction was associated with number of physician seen. This study emphasizes the need for a better control over elderly prescription in Jordan and the need to increase the role of family doctors to form a link between different physicians seen by the patient References: 1. World Health Organization. Mental health and older adults.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs381/en/. Accessed 12 Jan 2015. 2. da Silva AF, de Oliveira Abreu CR, Barbosa EMS, RaposoNRB,Chicourel EL. Problemasrelacionadosaosmedicamentosemidososfragilizados da Zona da Mata Mineira. Brasil. Rev bras geriatrgerontol. 2013;16(4):691–704. 3. Rozenfeld S. Prevaleˆncia, fatoresassociados e mauuso de medicamentos entre osidosos: umarevisa˜o Prevalence, associated factors, and misuse of medication in the elderly: a review.Cad Sau´dePu´blica. 2003;19(3):717–24. 4. Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Harrold LR, Rothschild J, Debellis K, Seger AC, et al. Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events among older persons in the ambulatory setting. JAMA. [Internet]. 2003 [Acesso 28 jul 2015]; 289(9):1107-16. Disponívelem: http://jama. jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=196099 5. Louise Mallet, Anne Spinewine, Allen Huang.The challenge of managing drug interactions in elderlyPeople. Lancet 2007; 370: 185–91. 6. Fulton MM, Allen ER. Polypharmacy in the elderly: A literature review. J Am Acad Nurse Pract2005;17:123‑32 7. Judy K. Anderson, PhD, RN, CNE; and Jodie R. Fox, BSN, RN-BC. Potential food-drug interactions in long-term care. Journal of Gerontological Nursing • Vol. 38, No. 4, 2012
It is possible to classify mushrooms spreading in many parts of the world and in habitat as edible, non-edible and poisonous mushrooms. In this study, it was aimed to determine total antioxidant level (TAS), total oxidant level (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. mushroom which is from toxic mushrooms. In this context, samples of mushrooms collected and diagnosed were dried under suitable conditions. Dried mushroom samples were pulverized and extracted with ethanol in a soxhlet apparatus. TAS, TOS and OSI values were determined using Rel Assay kits. As a result of these studies, TAS value of ethanol extract of G. esculenta mushroom was determined as 2.378 ± 0.099, TOS value of 18.391 ± 0.089 and OSI value of 0.776 ± 0.032. As a result, G. esculenta mushroom can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, even coma and death when consumed by humans. In our study, it was determined that antioxidant potential of G. esculenta mushroom. However, it has been determined that this mushroom also has high levels of oxidant compounds resulting from environmental and inherent effects. In this context, it is considered that the samples collected from appropriate regions of the G. esculenta mushroom in terms of oxidative stress can be used as a potential antioxidant source. Keywords: Gyromitra esculenta, Poisonous mushroom, Antioxidant, Oxidant
Zeliha Selamoglu is a Professor in Medical Biology department of Nigde Ömer Halisdemir University, Turkey. She earned her PhD in Biology from Inonu University, She has published over 90 peerreviewed journal articles with over 760 citations and many technical reports. She is a member of Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine: Associate Membership and European association for cancer research. She has served as Editorial Board member for many Journals. Research Interest: Antioxidants, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cancer, Molecular Biology, Oxidative stress.
Strong evidence supports a role of the AHR in regulating the ovarian follicle growth in the late stages of folliculogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate mechanism of PAH mixture action on granulosa cells proliferation and apoptosis of growing follicles. As a model we used HGrC1cells possess the characteristics of granulosa cells in early stage follicles. Two mixtures have been used: M1composed of 16 priority PAHs, and M2 composed of five PAHs, not classified as human carcinogens, noted in the highest amounts in maternal and cord blood. Activation of AhR, ARNT and AhRR, CYP1A1 and COMTgene and protein expression has been evaluated. As an endpoint metabolic mitochondrial activity of cells (AlamarBlue test), lysosomal activity (acid phosphatase. AP), apoptosis (caspase-3) was evaluated. Both mixture increased AHR and ARNT,decreased AHRR expression, parallel withincreased CYP1A1 and COMT expression. Both mixture increased cell proliferation, had no effect on caspase-3 activity and had stimulatory effect on AP. We hypothesis that both PAH mixture by activation of canonical mechanism of action AhR, may regulate pre-antral/antral follicle growth by promoting granulosa cell proliferation, but not play a role in regulating atresia. Supported by the National Sciences Center, Poland, project 2015/17/B/NZ7/02954. Abstract includes data presented in Karolina Zajda PhD dissertation.
Many different types of fungi have been used from past to present day as food or in alternative medicine. It is possible to classify fungi as edible, non-edible and poisonous mushrooms. In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant potential and the phenolic compounds in the body of Hebeloma sinapizans (Paulet) Gillet fungus which is from poisonous mushroom. In this context, samples of mushrooms collected and diagnosed were dried under suitable conditions. Dried mushroom samples were pulverized and extracted with ethanol in a soxhlet apparatus. The phenolic content of the mushroom was determined using an HPLC device. Also, Total antioxidant levels (TAS), total oxidant levels (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also determined using Rel Assay kits. As a result of the work done, 1.71 ppm Gallic acid, 40.01 ppm Chlorogenic acid and 1.32 ppm cinnamic acid were found in the H. sinapizans mushroom. The TAS value of the ethanol extracts of the mushroom of H. sinapizans was 4.540 ± 0.113, the TOS value was 10.303 ± 0.050 and the OSI value was 0.227 ± 0.006. As a result, it is known that H. sinapizans have a toxic effect when consumed by humans. However, in this study it was determined that the antioxidant potential as well as the toxic effect of the fungus. It is also thought to be a source for the compounds identified in the mushroom. In this context, it is thought that this study could be the source for the determination of other compounds in H. sinapizans mushroom and other pharmacological effects. Keywords: Hebeloma sinapizans, Poisonous mushroom, Antioxidant, Phenolic compound
Zeliha Selamoglu is a Professor in Medical Biology department of Nigde Ömer Halisdemir University, Turkey. She earned her PhD in Biology from Inonu University, She has published over 90 peerreviewed journal articles with over 720 citations and many technical reports. She is a member of Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine: Associate Membership and European association for cancer research. She has served as Editorial Board member for many Journals. h-index: 14, citations: 760 Research Interest: Antioxidants, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cancer, Molecular Biology, Oxidative stress.
Introduction: Methadone is an opioid agent, has used in maintenance therapy in opium addicts. As it is reachable it may use accidentally or in suicidal attempt. Delay in hospital admission may cause to complications such as ischemic brain, kidney and liver damage which may be irreversible. Case: A 21 years old woman admitted in a local hospital after ingestion of 30 ml methadone in suicidal attempt, complaining nausea and vomiting. She observed for 6 hours and after that left the hospital by satisfaction. During 3 days she went to worsening of nausea and vomiting, she has got icteric and complains right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain. She admitted in Afzalipour hospital, the main toxicology center in Kerman province, 5days after methadone consumption, while she was awake. On physical exam, the initial vital sign was normal but she was icteric and had RUQ tenderness. Laboratory data on admission was as follow: blood sugar 108 mg/dl , urea 356 mg/dl , creatinin 8.7 mg/dl , AST 2058 U/L , ALT 2669 U/L, total Bilirubin 36.2 mg/dl , direct Bilirubin 18 mg/dl ,WBC 27,000 /ml ,hemoglobin 9.2 mg/dl , platelet 422000 /ml , serum lipase 358 U/L , serum amylase 409 U/L, CPK 419 . Abdominal sonography reviled acute pancreatitis and echocardiography was normal. During hospitalization she had 2 generalized conic-colonic seizure, complaining head ache and bleared vision. Brain CT scan showed bilateral hypo density in occipital region. Brain MRI and MRV were normal. The patient underwent conservative treatment such as IV fluid therapy, hemodialysis, phenytoin and N- acetyl cystein (NAC) in dose of 150mg/kg in 200ml D5W during 1 hour, then 50 mg/kg in 500ml D5W during 4 hours and finally 100mg/kg in 1000ml D5W during 16 hours. NAC continued in dose of 150mg/kg /24h continuous IV infusion for one week. The patient discharged from hospital after 11 days, in good general condition. the last laboratory data was as follow: lipase : 66 U/L , amylase 23 U/L , AST :88 U/L , ALT:129 U/L , total billirubin 6.2 mg/dl , direct billirubin 3.5 mg/dl , creatinin:1.8mg/dl , urea: 31mg/dl. Discussion: N-acetylcusteine is an anti oxidant agent which use in acetaminophen poisoning as specific antidote, but it has been used in many other poisoning such as amanita falloides, aluminium phosphide, zinc phosphide and paraquat poisoning. Methadone is an opioid agonist that may use in suicidal attempt. The major complication following acute methadone poisoning is hypoxic damage in vital organs. In present article multi organ damage occurred due to methadone poisoning which has recovered by N-acetylcusteine in addition other conservative treatment.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one anticancer drug against for solid cancer such as breast cancer, lymphoma. Although it is really a good chemotherapy, it has unfortunately some side effect on noncancerous tissue, including heart, liver, kidney, pancreas. The molecular mechanism of it has been not clearly understood. However, some mechanism of it has been proposed, including production of reactive oxygen species, inhibition of topoisomerase-II activity, induction of apoptotic cell death. Also, DOX tends to accumulate in mitochondria. Therefore, side effect of DOX has been suggested to relate to mitochondrial dysfunction. There is no strategy development to diminishto DOX’s toxicity on noncancerous tissue due to unclear mechanism of the drug. DOX might trigger some intracellular cascade to amplify of its toxic effect on tissue. One of these cascade is probably mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways activated many stress stimuli, such as reactive oxygen species, activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). MAPK has a critical role in regulation of both cell survival and death pathways and NF-кB activation as well.Melatonin is well known to have antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects on some pathologies. Melatonin is one of small lipophilic molecule. It can, therefore, easily cross cell membrane and mitochondrial membranes as well. Moreover, melatonin suppresses TLR4, resulting in inhibition of MAPK and NF-кB. So, melatonin might modulate DOX’s toxicity on mitochondria. As a results, melatonin therapy might be a good candidate for plumed side effect of DOX. Alternatively, DOX can be administrated on patients when melatonin reaches at its peak plasma level of endogenous hormone in the early hours of the morning. Keywords: Anticancer, doxorubicin,melatonin, mitogen activated protein kinase,NF-кB, oxidative stress,
Dr. EylemTaskin obtained her MSc and Ph.D., from Department of Physiology, Cukurova and Erciyes University, Turkey, respectively. She is also a Ph.D. student at Department of Biophysics, Cukurova University, Turkey. Dr. Taskin worked as a Postdoc at New York University, the USA between January 2011-November 2012. She worked as an Assistant Professor September 2013-April 2015, then as an Associate Professor at T.C. Istanbul Bilim University. Dr. Taskin is a member of international journal board member. She has more than 20 scientific papers and three international book chapters and book editors as well. Her articles have cited more than 300 times, and her h index is 12. She is a member of some national and international societies. Her primary research interests are in vitro and in vivo toxicology especially cancer drug's toxicity, cardiovascular pathologies including heart failure, hypertension, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage, diabetes, kidney and liver failures.
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an important constituent of poplar propolis. It is more effective as an antioxidant than caffeic acid, which is related to the higher lipophilicity, but this limitswide in vivo applications of CAPE since the low water solubility hinders both the formulation of stable drug dosage form and theabsorption of CAPE. Aiming to improve CAPE solubility and stability, we developed a new CAPE-loaded delivery system based on immobilization in poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PCL-PEO) copolymer micelles. The drug loaded nanomicelles were characterized with a mean diameter of 39 nm, narrow size distribution and slightly positive zeta-potential. The safety of the resulted nanomicellar drug delivery system was evaluated in vitro in hepatoma HepG2 cells and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Blank micelles were practically devoid of cytotoxic effects suggesting a good safety profile of the co polymeric carrier. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of free and micellar CAPE (0.1 - 71 µg/ml) on both cell lines was performed to assure the safety of CAPE-loaded micelles. Micellar CAPE possessed lower cytotoxicity, especially in the higher concentrations (24 and 71 µg/ml). The study on a model of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells showed that the loading of CAPE in PEO-PCL-PEO micelles preserved its antioxidant activity with reduced cytotoxicity. Thus, a novel CAPE micellar delivery system might be further studied as a stable and potentially effective hepatoprotective agent against oxidative stress injury. Keywords: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, copolymer micelles, cytotoxicity, HepG2, SH-SY5Y,in vitroantioxidant activity
Cottonseed and cottonseed by-products are frequently used in the feeding of livestock. However, these foods contain gossypol, a yellow, polyphenolic glycoside known to have cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic effects. Also, it has been reported that gossypol interferes with fertility of male in various animal species and human. The infertility effect of gossypol was discovered first in China, where cotton cake and fibber from the plant had been consumed by animals and by man. Gossypol is known to cause testicular dysfunction and infertility. So it has been proposed to use it as a contraceptive in men. The mechanism of action of the gossypol in testis has yet to be fully understood. Therefore in this study was investigated the effect of the consumption of cottonseed flour (CSF) on immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptors (AR) in rat testes. For that, 50 male rats were divided into 5 equal groups according to the CSF content (0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%) added to the standard ration for 20 and 60 days. The corresponding gossypol doses measured by spectrophotometry were 0.641, 1.282, 2.654 and 5.128 g/kg of food respectively. The AR localization in Leydig, Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells was determined by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry after fixation of testes in 10% neutral buffered formalin and staining with the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. All dietary CSF treatments significantly decreased the AR nuclear expression in the 3 cell types except for 5% CSF in the Leydig cells. These effects were dose and time dependent and the variations coefficients varied from -1.8% to -84.9% in the Leydig cells, from -22.5% to -99.3% in the Sertoli cells and from -35.5% to -88.9% in the myoid cells. These results clearly demonstrated the negative effects of the CSF and gossypol on the AR expression in rat testes, particularly in the Leydig and Sertoli cells which can lead to infertility.
Fatih Mehmet GÜR is an associated Professor in Histology department of Nigde Ömer Halisdemir University, Turkey. He earned her PhD in Veterinary Faculty from Firat University, He has published 16 peerreviewed journal articles with over 30 citations. He is particularly specialized on male, female genital systems and assisted reproductive techniques. Research Interest: Androgen Receptor, Estrogen Receptors, Male and Famel Genital Systems, Histopatalogy, İmmunohistochemistry, Assisted Reproductive Techniques
Quercetin possesses a favourable potential as a therapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, some pharmacokinetic limitations like poor bioavailability are major concern of its use in a clinical practice. In attempt to overcome this problem, we developed a drug-delivery platform for quercetin (QR), based on natural polysaccharides chitosan (C) and sodium alginate (A). The in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity of quercetin - loaded chitosan/alginate nanoparticles(QR-CA NPs) in human hepatoma cells HepG2 revealed a good safety profile of the system, as measured by MTT-assay and LDH leakage. For comparison, freshly isolated primary rat hepatocytes were used as a reliable model in in vitro toxicity testing, confirming the lack of cytotoxicity of the C/A - delivery system. The antioxidant activity of QR-CA nanoparticles (NPs) was explored in different models of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster. In vitro, significant protective effects of QR-CA NPs (quercetin, corresponding to 30 µM)were detected in a model of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells (54% increases in cell viability vs H2O2) and in a model of tert-butyl induced cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes (128 % vstert-butyl). Significant antioxidant protection by QR-CA NPs was also confirmed in vivo, in a model H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. The protective effects were proved by an increase of the levels of reduced glutathione and by reduction up to 3 times of the level of oxidized glutathione compared to the H2O2-treatment group. In conclusion, the loading of hydrophobic quercetin in chitosan/alginate nanoparticles is a prerequisite for stronger antioxidant effect, probably due to the increased cellular permeability. Keywords: quercetin, oxidative stress, chitosan/alginate nanoparticles, Drosophila melanogaster Acknowledgements.This work was supported by a GRANT D-92/2017 from theMedical ScienceCouncil of the Medical University-Sofia, Bulgaria.
Diabetes is widespread metabolic disease related to developing some complications including cardiovascular and circulatory disorder, cancer, and similar diseases and affects human life negatively. There is two primary type of diabetes. One of these is called type-I and second is named as type-II. Type-I associates with a defect of insulin secretion by loosing of the pancreatic beta cell. However, type-II relates with the decreasing of the affinity of insulin to its receptor.Leptin is produced from fatty tissue and has some similarity with insulin, including antiapoptotic or proliferative effects. Furthermore, it is suggested that the combination therapy with low leptin and insulin has more curative effect against diabetes. The molecular basis of this combination therapy is still a mystery. Leptin probably led to attenuate oxidative stress, resulting in a decline in apoptotic beta cell loss. Attenuation of beta cell loss is given rise to elevate insulin secretion. The molecular basis of the combination therapy will be discussed. Keywords: Apoptosis, Diabetes, Insulin,Leptin,Oxidative stress
Dr.Celal Guven graduated his MScandPh.D.,fromDepartment of Biophysics, IstanbulUniversity,Tu rkey. He worked as an Assistant Professor May 2013-April 2017 at T.C. Adiyaman University, then T.C. Nigde Omer Halisdemir University Medical Faculty Biophysics department. Dr. He has nearly tenscientific papers and three international book chapters and one international bookeditor. Moreover, he is one special issue editors at Frontiers in Bioscience. He is a member of some national and international societies. His primary research interests are in vitro and in vivo toxicology especially cancer drug'stoxicity, cardiovascular pathologies including heart failure, hypertension, myocardialischemia-reper fusion damage, diabetes, kidney and liver failures. He has been working on protein synthesis factors including elongation factor and cytoskeletal protein,e.g.,actin as well.
Epinephrine in fusionsareoftenused in intensive care and cardiacsurgical applications. Major hemodynamic responses to epinephrine have been described and include changes in vasculartone, heart rate and myocardial contractility.Arrhythmi as seen in acute coronary syndromes and my ocardial infarction cases are bradiar rhythmias and tachyar rhythmias. A 78-year-old woman was admitted toour hospital due to emergency chest pain on 10th of December 2017..The patient was hospitalized with coronary intensive care with myocardial infarction without ST elevation. The patient developed ventricular fibrillation (VF) in coronary intensive care units and under went coronary angiography in emergency conditions. Left main coronaryartery and left anteriordescend ingarterystent implantation was performed and full openness was achieved in the patient. The patient who entered VF three times during the procedure was defibrilated. In coronary intensive unit elots of VF occurred. It is defined electrical storm (ES). Arrhythmiacouln’t control with out inemedical treatment. It was seenthat the patient's VF initiation was after ventricularextrasystole (VES). RonT was evaluated as a phenomenon. Epinephrine 5mg was administered in travenously tothepatient who had under goneuncontrol ledarrhythmia. VF was controlled then. Beta blockers, amiodarone, andnifekalant (a pureIkrblocker) have been shown to be effective in suppressing ESsduring an acute my ocardial infarction. There have been several reports in which a satellite ganglionblockandrenals ympatheticnerveablationmay have been effective in suppressing the ES. When an ES could not be suppressed by drug therapy and cardiac support devices, catheterablation procedures have occasionally been applied torescue patients. A ventricular premature complex (VPC) trigger in gpolymorphic VT or VF is one of the targets of the ablation. We have not received any response to routine medical treatment in our own case. The adrenalin infusion was depressed ES by suppressing VES with tachycardia. The rate of mortality in patients with electricalstorms is very high.Keywords:Adrenaline,Arrhythmia, ElectricalStorm.
Dr. Betul Ozaltun graduated her M.D.,from, Ankara University, Turkey.Sheworked as an Assistant in Cardiology department between 2011-2015 at T.C. Adana Numune Hospital. Now she is working assistant professor T.C. Nigde Omer Halisdemir University Medical Faculty Cardiology department.