Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) collectively refer to the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions occurring in the temporomandibular joint region, masticatory musculature, and associated structures. Over 750,000 outpatients visited medical institutions in Korea for treatment of TMD in 2015 alone.
While Korean medicine treatment is commonly used for TMDs in clinical practice, and evidence supports that Korean medicine interventions such as acupuncture are effective for TMD treatment, the fact that Korean medicine clinics provide TMD treatment is not widely known in patient populations. Furthermore, Korean medicine clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on TMDs employing evidence-based medicine (EBM) methodology have not yet been established. The authors therefore aimed to develop an evidence-based Korean medicine CPG on TMDs through systematic literature review methodology and Delphi technique consensus.
The following databases were searched for comprehensive inclusion of relevant evidence: Ovid-Medline, Ovid-EMBASE, Ovid-AMED, and Cochrane Library in addition to Korean, Chinese, and Japanese language databases. The searched literatures were reviewed according to pre-defined selection/exclusion criteria for each key question, and the guideline draft was created in accordance with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) level of evidence and grade of recommendation.
A total of 13 clinical questions for 9 categories (1. acupuncture; 2. Laser acupuncture; 3 Pharmacopuncture; 4. Herbal medicine; 5. Chuna manual therapy; 6. Exercise therapy; 7. Intra-oral balancing device; 8. thread embedding acupuncture; 9. Korean medicine physiotherapy) were selected. Based on evidence and consensus opinion of Korean medicine treatment for TMD, recommendations have benn developed.
Jae-heung Cho has completed his PhD from KyungHee University School of Korean Medicine, South Korea and obtained Korean Board of Korean Rehabilitation Medicine Doctor. He is an associate professor at Department of Korean Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. He has published more than 22 papers in reputed SCI(E) journals.
Several polyphenols have shown interesting therapeutic activities both in animal models and in men. Grapes contain relevant amounts of polyphenols mainly, in the skin, and beverages obtained from these fruits, like wines, juices and infusion, contain consistent amount of polyphenols. Quite different production methods are employed to obtain these products and grape skin can be left to macerate inside or removed after a short time during production.
In the present work we have investigated by LC-MS/MS the content of a group of 15 polyphenols in several grape products, in particulat wines and juices, and compared the polyphenols content to the technique of production. As expected the preparation methods influenced the polyphenols content with higher levels in case of productions without elimination of the grape skin, an interesting case are the querry wines from Georgia.
The same products have been then administered to a group of healthy volunteers, kept to a polyphenols free diet for at least 4 days, and the absorption of the different poly phenols following a fixed amount administration of these products in a cross-over deign, has been investigated by LC-MS/MS.
Clearly differences of plasmatic levels were observed in function of the production method and differences of bioavailability were found depending from the polyphenol studied; these results will be discussed in comparison to the pharmacologic properties of the products.
Simona Rizea Savu graduated in Medicine in Bucharest (Romania) in 1991 and obtained a Doctorate in Pharmacology in 2004. From 1992 to 2002 she was researcher in Pharmacology at the ICCF institute of Bucharest; in 1994, during a fellowship in Germany, has acquired expertise in HPLC-MS for bioanalytical applications. In 1996 she co-founded 3S-Pharmacological Consultation & Research GmbH, a German consultation company and CRO, focused on innovative analytical methods. In this context she has been involved in the development of HPLC-ICP/MS analytical methods dedicated to pharmacology. In her scientific activity she contributed to several articles in international scientific journals.
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are commonly considered to be pacemaker cells in gastrointestinal tract. Based on our previous in vivo research findings, Magnolia officinalis var. biloba Rehder and E. H. Wilson (M. officinalis) could improve the gastric motility of mice by acting on ICCs. In the current study, the mechanism has been investigated on cellular and molecular level. M. officinalis and its total phenols (TPM), which is mainly including magnolol and honokiol, could increase cell viability and expression of c-kit (receptor of tyrosine kinase) of ICCs significantly. Secondly, M. officinalis and TPM could better regulate the Ca2+ concentrations of ICCs and maintain the cellular Ca2+ homeostasis of ICCs. TPM could significantly enhance the expression of L-type Ca2+ channel, neuronal nitric oxide synthase（nNOS）and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) in ICCs. More L-type Ca2+ channel expressed in cell membrane could bring the faster periodic depolarization of ICCs. The increased amount of synthesized NO and CO in ICCs which could contribute to better relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. Generally, M. officinalis and TPM could let ICCs better play the pacemaker function in the symphony of gut motility.
Yingting Cai was born in March 11th, 1991, Chengdu, China. She is a Ph.D. student in West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University since September, 2016. Yingting Cai have been awarded the Chinese governmenrt Scholarship to sponsor her study in College of Pharmay, University of Kentucky, USA from April, 2017. Her research project there is “Rational Design, Discovery, and Development of Novel Therapeutics”. Yingting Cai had published one referred journal articles and another one is in process.
The adipose tissue has been for a long time an inert and passive tissue with reserve and thermal insulation functions.
The discovery of the endocrine activity of fat has led to the recognition of the role of adipocytes in the active regulation of the energy of the human body, in fact the adipocytes secrete numerous growth factors, cytokines and other signal molecules that are able, not only, to influence combustion and energy homeostasis, but they are also involved in inflammatory and immunomodulatory processes.
It has also been discovered that endocrine activity also propagates to other tissues. Over time, efforts have been made to optimize the use of adipose tissue by concentrating ADSCs with digestion and centrifugation systems (SVF), but the results were modest and not standardizable so that the clinical results were also very variable.
This is because SVF is poor in ADSC to produce 10 million ADSC, at least 2 kg of pure fat is needed.
These difficulties have led to the development of an expansion system in the laboratory of ADSC The epochal turn took place with a publication on the 2013 Lancet, a work that described the substantial difference between the use of fatty tissue as it is and the stems expanded by fat. From 10 ml already fat with the expansion you get about 10 million ADSC, as many as 2 kg of fat with the old system of the SVF
This work has shown that through expansion the volume remains stable with a percentage of 80.9% when using ADSC expansion, while if they are used without expansion the percentage of volume that remains (in the same period) is 16.3 %
The result not only affects the volume but also the quality of the tissues, thanks to the paracrine effect of ADSC (greater connective tissue and less necrotic tissue) Current clinical applications are in cardiology, orthopedics, immunology, diabetology and aesthetic medicine.
Here the speech is a bit similar to that of the ADSC, but more 'simple and limited to the skin after a biopsy of a few millimeters of skin, it is sent to the laboratory that after extracting the fibroblasts, it expands them and then sends them to the doctor who injects them into the dermis of the patients The clinical applications in this case are skin rejuvenation and scars The results are very natural and lasting
Background: Anxiety can negatively affect individual’s performance in school. This can further influence physical and mental health of students in terms of concentration and memory retention. Several studies have shown that lavender aromatherapy was effective in reducing anxiety, improving concentration and increasing memory retention.
Methods: Pre-post intervention with a quasi-experimental design was used. A total of 55 participants completed the pre - test as well as the post – test tools. A pre-test of each tool (S-TAI (form Y-1), Stroop Effect Assessment Tool and Return Demonstration Checklist) was obtained as a baseline data for the study. Subsequently, lavender aromatherapy was diffused 30 minutes per session in an enclosed room. After the intervention, anxiety, concentration and memory retention were measured through a post-test of each tool.
Results: Paired t-test revealed in the three tests were considered to be significant (p<0.000), justifying the effectiveness of the use of lavender aromatherapy in curtailing the anxiety as well as improving the concentration and increasing memory retention of junior nursing students.
Conclusion: The use of lavender aromatherapy could be used to decrease anxiety, improve concentration and increase memory retention. Thus, lavender aromatherapy may be a substitute to promote cost effective and non-pharmacologic intervention that will be advantageous for nursing students
Human herpesviruses type 1 and type 2 are members of the genus Simplexvirus, of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. HHV-1 is traditionally associated with upper body infections (face, mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, etc.), and according to recent studies, HHV-1 is responsible for the first genital and neonatal herpes. HHV-2 is mainly associated with infections of the genital organs and anal mucosa. Until now there are about 11 licensed antiherpetic drugs (1). Unfortunately their frequent usage leads to the selection of resistance as well as double-resistance strains (2) and the patients often experience unwanted side effects. Natural products (for instance plant extracts), which have complex chemical content are good alternative for treating of herpes infections.
We are studied antiviral activity of some extracts obtained from Bulgarian endemic plants- two extracts derived from Haberlea rhodopensis (сем. Gesneriaceae), two from Achillea thracica Velen (сем. Asteraceae) and three extracts obtained from Stachys thracica Dav (сем. Lamiaceae). The cytotoxicity was tested on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line and Maximal Tolerated Concentration (MTC) and Cytotoxic Concentration (CC50) of the extracts was determined. We studied direct inactivating effect of the extracts against extracellular form of the HHV-1, strain F and HHV-2, strain BA. Our results indicate that the extracts obtained from Stachys thracica Dav. show the strongest virucidal effect. Extracts derived from Haberlea rhodopensis exibit the most potent inhibiting activity reaching ~60% protection against the two type of viruses.
Petya Angelova has completed her Bachelor's Degree in Molecular Biology and Master's Degree in Virology at Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski. Now she is a third year doctoral student at the Virology Laboratory at the Faculty of Biology of Sofia University. She is deals with the investigation of the anti-herpetic activity of new synthetic compounds and substances of natural origin as well as studying the molecular mechanism of the viral replication and isolating viruses and their identification.
Anti-diabetic activity of methanol extract from Bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP) in terms of its cellular antioxidant, free radical scavenging and also in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice was evaluated on liver transaminases; lipid peroxidation, total bilirubin, total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) glutathione peroxidase (CSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GSH). Results indicated that EP scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (.OH), nitric oxide radicals (NO.), superoxide anion radical (O2 .–), radical cation (ABTS•+), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical, and protects against H2O2 induced BSA damage was also observed. Furthermore, EP showed ability to decrease the oxidative stress in H9c2 cell. Diabetic mice present high levels of lipid peroxide, total protein, SGPT, SGOT, ALP and TB. However, treatment of STZ-induced diabetes in mice with EP reduced levels of these enzymes leading to protector effect of liver. In addition, treatment with EP , a increase in radical-scavenging enzymes of CSH-Px, SOD, GSH, and CAT have also been observed in diabetic mice. The antioxidant properties of compounds EP is a promising strategy for ameliorating therapeutic effects by avoiding disorders in the normal redox reactions in healthy cells consequently could alleviate complications of diabetes.
Rosa Martha Pérez Gutiérrez completed her PhD in Biological Sciences in 1997 from the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco. Her field of research is in the area of Natural Products and pharmacology, conducting studies on the isolation of bioactive compounds, their chemical characterization and their mechanisms of action. Throughout her career, Rosa Martha shown great interest not only in the study of the mechanisms of diabetes, but have also been particularly interested in finding strategies to prevent the development of diabetes and its complications. To date she has published 194 articles, six books published in the USA, and ten book chapters, many of their publications belong to the best Journals related to her area. Rosa Martha together with her students Presented about 206 works in national and international congresses or symposia. She is active in teaching courses in undergraduate and graduate in Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Directed and finished the thesis of 37 students at the undergraduate level, 18 at the master's level, 2 at the doctoral level. She has received 8 awards for various investigations.
The activity of the human cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are modulated by many of the small molecules in cannabis, particularly THC, CBD and many terpenes. The cannabis plant does not produce THC directly but instead synthesizes the watersoluble THC-A. THC-A produces many of the same physiological effects of THC; however, due to being acidic and watersoluble, does not cross the blood brain barrier and does not create psychological effects. Aegis Biotech is developing THC-A based products, supplemented with CBD and specific terpenes, to deliver medicinal cannabis products for cancer, inflammation and pain management.
Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. has a long history of medical uses in treatment of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in Iran. The fruits from Vaccinium arctostaphylos are highly rich in anthocyanins and polyphenols that can be responsible for the antidiabetic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficiary effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos ethanolic extract (VAE) on the expression of some genes associated with diabetes in pancreas and skeletal muscle of diabetic rats.
Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats by injection of Alloxan monohydrate. Rats with a blood glucose level of ≥300 mg/dl were considered to be diabetic. Rats were gavaged with VAE for a period of four weeks. At the end of this period, animals were sacrificed, and tissues were pooled. Pancreas tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin exhibited the slight improvement in pancreas architecture and also increased number of cells in the Langerhans islets of the treated diabetic rats compared to controls. Moreover, the expression of Ins, Bcl2 and Bax genes in pancreas tissues and insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs-1) and Glut4 genes in skeletal muscle were determined using real time PCR. There was a significate increase in the expression of Ins gene and survival gene Bcl2 in pancreas tissue of treated diabetic rats compared to controls while there was a significant downregulation in the expression of apoptotic gene Bax in the same condition. Additionally, the expression of Irs-1 and Glut4 genes increased in diabetic rats and supports the antihyperglycemic potential of Vaccinium arctostaphylos. The results from this study determined that Vaccinium arctostaphylos ethanolic fruits extract which is rich in antioxidants has potential to improve diabetic changes in diabetic Wistar rats.
Oral delivery design is one of the most difficult issues due to the gastrointestinal tract barrier and the sophistical delivery process. However, the advantages of oral drug delivery, such as taking medications by mouth is the most convenient method, safety and excellent adaptability, have increasingly attracted researchers to resolve the issues. In this project, we first designed albumin oral nanoparticles to load plant derived anti-breast cancer compound isoliquiritigenin (A-ISL NPs) by a simple one-step preparing process. A-NPs showed high loading efficiency, unusual stability and excellent efficacy in anti-triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). In In vitro study, the A-ISL NPs had a better performance on inhibiting TNBC cells growth, inducing TNBC cells apoptosis and inhibiting TNBC cells metastasis than the blank NPs or free ISL. Importantly, A-ISL NPs could inhibit the recognized metastasis-related pathway, VEGF pathway, in TNBC cell lines (MD-MBA-231 and BT-549) but no effects on the non-TNBC cell lines (MCF-7-10A), which indicated the specific cytotoxicity of A-ISL NPs in anti-TNBC. In vivo research, A-ISL NPs could significantly inhibit the tumor growth and prevent tumor progression, as well as inhibit TNBC metastasis via VEGF pathway and induce tumor cells apoptosis via bcl-2 pathway. In addition, we demonstrated a specific targeting ability of the A-ISL NPs by the in vivo real-time image system. This project contributes three research innovations: firstly, the one-step A-ISL NPs preparation method is a smart and advanced way to obtain highly stable and qualified A-ISL NPs. Secondly, the high loading efficiency of NPs can overcome the low bioavailability in drugs in anti-breast cancer therapy. Finally, A-ISL NPs loaded ISL can be a potential drug in anti-TNBC treatment with high specificity. All in all, this project offers a novel albumin-isoliquiritigenin nanodrugs targeting TNBC.
Background: Endo-derived nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). NO plays a fundamental role in the regulation of endothelial function and vascular tone. Since reduced NO synthesis in endothelial cells has been implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy, this study aimed to assess whether the endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS (G894T) gene variant was associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a preliminary sample of Egyptian diabetic patients.
Subjects and Methods: We studied the eNOS gene (G894T) polymorphism in 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 76 healthy controls with no documented history of diabetes. DNA was isolated, and eNOS (G894T) genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. For all of the subjects, fasting blood sugar (FBS), nitrate, lipid profile, insulin, and HOMA-IR were measured.
Results: The genotype distribution in patients and controls was compatible with the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The genotype distribution of Glu298Asp polymorphism for Glu/Glu, Glu/Asp, and Asp/Asp were (66%, 25%, and 9% respectively) in controls, and (52%, 29%, and 19% respectively) in T2DM patients, Odds ratio indicated that the occurrence of mutant genotype (GT/TT) was 1.7 times (0.9002 –3.3277) more frequent in the diabetic patients than in controls. Risk allele TT frequency was significantly higher in T2DM patients compared to controls (19% and 9% respectively, (P=0.05; odds ratio=2.5). Plasma lipids, except HDL-C, fasting blood sugar, HOMA-IR, and body mass index (BMI) were also significantly increased in the T2DM patients. Nitrate level was significantly decreased in DM patients compared to controls.
In conclusion: These preliminary results could have predictive value to be applied in refining a risk profile for our T2DM patients. The current study provided that the G894T polymorphism of (eNOS) gene may be associated with T2DM among Egyptians in Ismailia governorate. Furthermore, carriers of high-risk T allele have lower serum nitric oxide level may causing, in turn, an increased risk to develop T2DM and its complications. It also indicated that (TT) variant may be an independent risk factor for DM.
Nagwan A Sabek completed her Ph.D in 2003 from Faculty of medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt. Currently she is working as Associated professor of Biochemistry in department of medical biochemistry, faculty of medicine, Suez Canal University. Nagwan Sabek has Performed and interpreted multiple real-time PCR assays in order to detect and characterize potential pathogens and ensure assay quality. Her research interest also includes Tissue culture & Stem cell, Genetic & disease and DNA 7 polymorphism. She is the Member, Egyptian Medical society for Applied Genetic engineering & biotechnology. (2006) and The Egyptian Society of Biochemistry & molecular biology (2007).
Native to Southeast Asia, Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is heavily consumed in Tahiti and can also be found in Polynesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and some regions of Japan and China. Extract of several parts of this plant is used in the treatment of a great number of diseases. This paper aimed to evaluate the activity of hydroalcoholic extract of M. citrifolia in the treatment of Ehrlich tumor in murine model. Swiss mice were inoculated with Ehrlich Tumor ascetic and treated with M. citrifolia hydroalcoholic extract of fruit, cyclophosphamide and its association for 7 days. Ascites volume and amount of total and tumor cells of the ascitic content were quantified to evaluate antitumor activity. Cytokine quantification and apoptosis detection by Anexin V and PI were performed by flow cytometry, and hematological parameters performed in semi-automated hematology cell counter. The results showed that this extract did not present antitumor activity; on the other hand, it improves leukocytes count. No induction of apoptosis was observed in any of the treatments. Unexpectedly, cyclophosphamide induced cell death by necrosis while the association with M. citrifolia, 125mg led induction of late apoptosis. M. citrifolia hydroalcoholic extract did not present antitumoral activity but it led a discreet augment of leukocytes count when associated to cyclophosphamide.
Solange de Araujo Melo completed her PhD in Agricultural Biotechnology at the Northeast Network of Biotechnology (RENORBIO). She has experience in veterinary medicine, with emphasis in epidemiology, also working in the following subjects: molecular biology, pathology and animal production and she is currently a professor of veterinary medicine at the State University of Maranhão / Brazil (UEMA) and, together with her research group on immunopathology, has developed research on the use of plants and medicinal herbs as new pharmacological alternatives that allow the reduction of adverse effects of treatments with the reference medicines.
The Systemic Ozonetherapy - Haematic (SO-H) as elective bio-oxidative pre-conditioning is the procedure that could be part of an integrated therapeutical approach in association with specific Intravenous Therapy (IV) protocols more than with the classical nutraceuticals supplementation that necessarily should underly to a first clearance throughout the hepatic portal filter. The rationale consists in supporting the well-known upregulation of certain enzymatic pathways triggered by the SO-H with the not enzymatic substrates needed to optimize this adaptations in the human body. These are not only antioxidants such as vitamin C, NAC, Lipoic Acid but also other molecules like Arginine, Vitamin B group, Magnesium, Carnitine, that are involved on a wide spectrum of biological functions that goes beyond the only oxy-redox balance. These ones consist in the mithocondria activity, vascular endothelial tone, liver detoxification, cytoskeleton plasticity, long term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and many others. In these functions the molecules above mentioned are part of the larger pools of substrates and cofactors that feed the Kreb’s Cycle, the Carnitine mediated shuttle, Nitric Oxide synthase , Detox Phase II enzymes, NADH replenishment, Methyl donation etc. As rationale, the session with the SO-H, is definitively supposed to be improved in its therapeutical effectiveness by the contextual administration IV of not-enzymatic antioxidants in form of cocktails with the other compounds mentioned. That is justified by the evidence of the transitory decrease of the antioxidant capacity caused by the ROS released into the plasma during the reinfusion of the ozonated blood, ranging from 5% up to 25% of its steady state, returning to normal values within 15-20 minutes (average duration of the treatment), consequent to the efficient recycling of oxidized compounds such as dehydroascorbate to ascorbic acid. Moreover we could suppose that the vast expanse of the endothelial cells activated mainly by LOPs, through the production of S-Nitrosothiols, could exert a vasodilation in organs that would become therapeutical target of the compounds provided with the infusional treatment performed after the SO-H per se.
Claudio Tavera since he was completing his MD degree in Italy, started to focus his interest on topics of Applied Human Physiology such as neurophysiology, physical exercise and nutrition. In 2004 he got the post medical degree specialty in Sport Medicine. Furthermore he investigated the pillars of Antiaging and Regenerative Medicine throught the certification training attended in USA with the A4M (ABAARM). Since about ten years he is working in famous Wellness Clinics in Italy and abroad targeted on holistic approach for body detoxification, weight-loss and stress management. He is involved in the activity of Italian Scientific Associations of Ozonetherapy.
The most of phytotherapic products was developed from popular knowledge that uses plants to treat diseases. Thus, the scientific research is necessary to identify their bioactive substances, validate and use them in a rational and safe way. Carapa guianensis AUBLET (Meliaceae, andiroba) is a native largest leaf tree in the rainforest of South America (1). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of C. guianensis oil on RAW 264.7 macrophages on production of cytokines and nitric oxide. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of the oil (800 μg/mL to 2.5 μg/mL). Control wells (medium, LPS or dexamethasone) were used. The production of cytokines (IL-12, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-1β, IL-10, IFN-γ) by ELISA and nitrite by Griess method (5), as well as the cytotoxic activity by MTT colorimetric assay (6) were evaluated 24, 48 and 72 hours post. Oil concentrations above 100 μg/mL were cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 macrophages only after 48 hours of treatment. The CC50 values were reduced as the incubation time. According to the cytotoxicity results obtained, concentrations of 10, 05 and 2.5 μg/mL were chosen for subsequent in vitro studies because they did not provide toxicity to the cells. In our study, treatment with different concentrations of C. guianensis oil failed to significantly reduce nitrite production in LPS-stimulated groups. The cytokine dosage showed no change in TNF-α levels. A reduction in IFN-γ levels in the LPS-stimulated groups was observed after 48 hours of treatment in all concentrations used. On the other hand, there was an increase of this cytokine when the stimulated cells were treated with 5 μg/mL of the oil after 24 and 72 hours. A significant increase of IL-12 was observed after 72 h on LPS-stimulated cells and treated with 10 μg/mL of the oil. Production of IL-1β and IL-4 was inhibited by the treatment at all times and at the concentrations used. IL-10 production was inhibited in LPS-stimulated cells and treated for 24 and 72 hours, primarily at the concentration of 2.5 μg/mL. After 48 h, an increase of this cytokine production was observed in cells stimulated by LPS and treated with 5 μg/mL of the oil. In conclusion, the treatment with C. guianensis essential oil exerted anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting the production of IFN-γ and IL-1β in RAW-264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS. An inhibition on the release of IL-4 and IL-10 also indicates an inhibitory effect on the Th2 pathway.
Ana Lucia Abreu Silva is Veterinarian, pathologist, Adjunct Professor IV of the State University of Maranhão, PhD in Science. Professor of the graduate programs: Master in Animal Science and Renorbio. She develops research on the prospecting of natural products on the immunological, pathological and epidemiological aspects of diseases that affect man and animals. she coordinates research projects with support of the CNPq and FAPEMAl funding agencies and she receives a CNPq research productivity grant since 2011. She has orientated more than 100 final degree, including graduate and undergraduate level.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of L. sidoides essential oil in ovaries of R. microplus. The lethal concentrations 50 (LC50) and 75% (LC75) were determined. Groups of 10 engorged females were subjected to the immersion test in essential oil at different concentrations and DMSO 3% was used for the control. After seven days, the ticks were dissected in phosphate buffer solution and the ovaries were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde for a period of 24 hours. The tissues were dehydrated and embedded in Epon Araldite for 12 hours, embedded in pure Epon resin and polymerized at 60 °C for 72h for the ultrastructural analysis. The transmission electronic microscopy was performed to evaluate and characterize the different stages of ovary development. The results showed that in the control group treated with DMSO 3%, no changes were observed in the tissues. Groups treated with the L. sidoides essential oil presented vacuolation in oocytes II, III, IV and V; cell membrane disintegration was observed in oocytes II, III, IV and V, and complete morphological deformation of oocytes IV and V. In conclusion, L. sidoides essential oil impaired the oogenesis of the cattle ticks, thus the compound tested are promising for the development of acaricide products.
Tatiane Aranha da Penha Silva has completed his PhD from Federal University of Maranhão, Brazil and she is postdoctoral research from State University of Maranhão, Brazil. She has experience in veterinary medicine, with emphasis in biodiversity and biotechnology, also working in parasitology and immunopathology of domestic animals.
Trichosanthes dioica (R.) seeds and Prunus persica leaves are mentioned in various traditional texts as a drug used for anthelmintic, insecticidal, sedative, diuretic, demulcent, and expectorant purpose ethno pharmacologically. The objective of the present study was investigation of anthelmintic activity of different extracts of T. doica seeds & P. persica leaves along with optimization of dose. Nematodes, Ascaridia galli were used to carry out experiments for anthelmintic activity. Piperazine citrate was used as a standard. Time required for paralysis and death (lethal time) of worms were noted for each sample of extracts of both plants as well as standard. The results demonstrated that treatment with both of the plant extracts significantly (P<0.01) paralyzed and killed A. galli. The activity was found to be increased with dose. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts activity at 60 mg/ml concentration were comparable to the well known anthelmintic agent Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml). In conclusion, the use of the seeds of T. dioica and leaves of P. persica as an anthelmintic has been confirmed. Further studies were carried out by optimizing different ratio of ethanol extract of both plants in combination to get more prominent efficacy as an anthelmintic by using minimum concentration of extracts of plants.
Nitin Kumar has completed his PhD in Pharmacy at the age of 34 years from Bhagwant University, Ajmer, India. He is working as a Assistant Professor in Pharmacognosy department of I.T.S College of Pharmacy. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals.
Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.
The traditional Chinese medicine Niubeixiaohe (NBXH) is an effective anti-tuberculosis prescription, which is made up of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, Rhizoma Bletillae, Radix Platycodonis, Fructus Arctii, Herba Houttuyniae and Glutinous rice. In this study, 120 female BALB/c mice infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv, were treated with distilled water, M. vaccae vaccine, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH I, NBXH II, NBXH III and NBXH IV for 12 weeks, respectively. The body weights of mice in all NBXH groups were higher than that in the water group. The weight indexes of the spleens in M. vaccae group, the middle dose of NBXH II group, the low dose of NBXH IV group and in the high dose of NBXH IV group were significantly lower than that in the water group(P<0.05). Compared with the water group, the spleen colony counts in the low dose of NBXH I group, the high dose of NBXH II group, the low dose of NBXH III group and the high dose of NBXH IV group reduced by 0.43, 0.46, 0.73, 0.58 logs (P<0.05), respectively. Pulmonary general pathology and histopathology displayed that the lung lesions in treatment groups were improved at certain degree, especially in the low dose of NBXH III and IV groups, in which their areas of the lesions were less than50%, and the half normal lung structure in half of the mice could be observed. Powder and three extracts of traditional Chinese medicine NBXH all had anti-tuberculosis therapeutic effects on mouse tuberculosis model, and this study provided a base for the further development of Chinese patent medicine NBXH.
Yan Liang has completed her MD and PhD from Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research, China. She is a Professor of Army Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Key Laboratory, Beijing Key Laboratory of New Techniques of Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment, the Institute of Tuberculosis Research, the 309th Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100091, China. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals
Aims: The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity and the anti-inflammatory activity of the constituents from the roots of Pentas schimperi.
Methods: Chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques were used to isolate and identify ten compounds as 3-hydroxy-1-methoxy-2-methylanthraquinone (1), 2-hydroxymethyl anthraquinone (2), schimperiquinone B (3), cleomiscosin A (4), damnacanthal (5), 1,2-dihydroxy anthraquinone (6), damnacanthol (7), 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl anthraquinone (8) for the isolated compounds and as 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (9) and 2-hydroxymethyl-3-O-prenylanthraquinone (10) for the semisynthetic derivatives. The resazurin reduction assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of 3, 5, 7 and 8 whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect the activation of caspases enzymes by 3 and 5. The anti-15-lipoxygenase activity and on NO production in (LPS)-activated macrophages RAW 264.7 cells were determined as indicators of anti-inflammatory activity.
Results: Compounds 5 and 7 displayed cytotoxic effects with IC50 values below 81 µM on all the tested cancer cell lines whilst 3 and 8 displayed selective activities. The recorded IC50 values for 5 and 7 ranged from 3.12 µM and 12.18 µM and from 30.32 µM and 80.11 µM respectively and from 0.20 µM to 195.12 µM for doxorubicin. Compounds 5 and 7 induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compounds 8 and 10 were the more potent inhibitor both in NOx production with respective IC50 values of 1.56 µM and 6.80 µM. Compounds 2, 7 and 8 had good anti-15-lipoxygenase activity with respective IC50 values of 13.80 µM, 14.80 µM and 15.80 µM compared to quercetin, which was used as a standard LOX inhibitor (IC50 of 16.80 µM).
Conclusion: Anthraquinones and mostly 5 and 7 are potential cytotoxic natural products that deserve more investigations to develop novel antineoplastic drugs against multifactorial drug resistant cancers. Our study revealed also derivatives 7 and 8 as potent inhibitor of both anti-15- lipoxygenase activity and NO production.
Arno Rusel NANFACK DONFACK has completed his PhD at the age of 31 years from the University of Dschang (Cameroon). He is Research and Teaching Assistant at the same University, Department of Chemistry. He has published more than 5 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as Reviewer in BMC Alternative& Complementary Medicine.
Symptoms of diabetes are similar to that of a certain condition named thirstiness in traditional Mongolian medicine. Jur ur-4 is used for treatment of thirstiness in traditional medicine. It is composed of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis., Coriandrum sativum L., Gentiana barbata Froel., and Vitis vinifera L. In this study, effects of Jur ur-4 on alloxan-induced diabetic animal models were examined. Alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally to rats. Jur ur-4 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was given orally to rats 21 days after the alloxan administration. After 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of alloxan administration blood levels of glucose in measured. Pancreatic tissues were subjected to histopathological analysis. Results: After 7 to 21 days of alloxan administration, Jur ur-4 decreased blood glucose levels 2.1-2.3- and 1.7-2.4-fold at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively (p<0.05). Histopathological analysis revealed that Jur ur-4 (400 mg/kg) enhanced recovery of cells in the Langerhans islets of rats administered alloxan. Conclusions: Jur ur-4 is safe to animals. Jur ur-4 has an anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Moreover Jur ur-4 has protective effects against pancreatic damage in alloxan-induced diabetic model.
Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) is a holistic doctrine of medicine which is upon the temperament and Quadruple sputum. The main aim of this doctrine is to preserve health and of course to retain health if it has been lost by special kinds of treatments include: foods, medical herbs and special procedures like massage and cupping. In the point of view of TIM there are six essentials factors which affect health. Surprisingly these factors have not changed throughout the history. New researches not only affirm these factors, but also have not added any factors. These factors include: 1. Air 2. Food and drinks 3. Physical exercise and repose 4. Mental exertion and repose 5. Sleep and wake fullness 6. Retention and evacuation. In each factor there are special recommendations which should be considered to remain healthy. For example in the factor of air it believed that different seasons, different areas, different parts of a day cause their own diseases which by following TIM's commands they will not occur at all. There are also health instructions "from what to how" eat and drink. The kind of physical activity which is proposed and the amount of it by considering temperament is different from person to person. Psychological factors have important role in heath situation and must be considered during approach to patients. By the way mental states have their own tempers which affect people's temperament directly. There are also recommendations for the quantity and quality of sleep and wakefulness which are necessary for being healthy. Retention of waste products is a dean cause of disease in this view.